Xu Yan weapons review process of the new China: modernization of national defense can not be bought
2009 年 10 1st, the 60th anniversary of New China, a large parade. CFP for map Beijing Chinese People’s Revolution Military Museum of the Type 59 medium tanks. CFP for map F-20 data for
modern, the Chinese people’s pride and inferiority complex most of the army’s performance in foreign wars and weapons strength together. From the Opium War until the fall of most of the land when the Sino-Japanese War, foreign wars and their weapons have repeatedly failed the poor, leading to long-term community filled with fawning psychology. After the founding of New China, the Korean War, with the world’s strongest hand tie, and eventually the Chinese people for centuries to restore the loss of national self-esteem and confidence. However, clear-headed person can see, the Chinese People’s Volunteers more time with the weapons of the Soviet Union.
liberation after 60 years of development, China’s GDP has been the second largest in the world after the United States. As one of the symbols of national strength, military power, weapons and equipment in times of peace reflected the level of development is an important aspect of its strength. After 60 years of development, the great progress our troops and equipment will enable the world’s attention. Review 1949 China’s weapons development process, it became China’s national strength of the growth in microcosm.
introduction of technology, generic production and laid the basis for the defense industry
(1950 年 至 1962 年)
modern China to the world , has been in a state of extreme weakness, the primary reason is that social production levels remain stagnant in the backward farming methods and missed the tide of industrialization, also missed the heat of military weapons, both historical opportunities for development of mechanization. Northern Warlords and Kuomintang engaged in civil war when the state is always divided into chaos, focus on those in power but also military-industrial complex operated by foreign dependency, domestic with a car, a plane can not be manufactured.
1949 National Liberation, the most populous of China’s industrial output actually listed in the world 26. At that time, several arsenal arsenal as Shenyang, Taiyuan arsenal, arsenal and so can only produce a small amount of Chongqing, machine guns, rifles and other light weapons, mortars are made even bad, but can not produce mechanized equipment, ammunition, only the annual production capacity of 1 tons. In contrast, the United States during World War II, the Soviet Union, Germany and other countries in ammunition production capacity of 200 tons. At that time the army has developed into the era of mechanization, such as the U.S. Army in 1950 is 20 per horsepower (an average of 3 individuals of a motor vehicle), 5 horsepower Soviet per capita (an average of 10 of a motor vehicle), China’s per capita military is 0.2 hp, 5.5 million People’s Liberation Army captured during the war only 10,000 to the car (an average of 500 of a motor vehicle).
world military history shows that no country’s industrialization, there can be a real military mechanization and modernization. After the founding of new China, Mao will be pointed out: “China must build a strong defense force, we must build a strong economic power, which is two things.” In view of the domestic industrial base was too weak, China’s defense industry to take a “walking on two legs.” approach, on the one hand the emergency purchase of advanced equipment the Soviet Union, on the one hand to establish an independent national defense system. The 1950s when China started the construction of heavy industry, our military-industrial sector make up time on the mechanization of the lesson, and in the development of nuclear weapons development by leaps and bounds, to seize an important historical opportunity.
during the Korean War, the new China operations needed for the main credits at half way (the Soviet Union only a few are presented free of charge) the introduction of the Soviet Union 106 army divisions, 23 Air Division of the equipment, owed 30 billion yuan in debt (at the time equivalent to $ 1.3 billion). In the 1951-1954 period, China and the Soviet Union reached a “156″ the introduction of key industrial projects, including the military industrial enterprises accounted for 44, cost the Soviet side to provide land, sea and air forces supporting aircraft, ships, artillery, tanks and other weapons and equipment production lines, and provide free technology. China to get the history of the world’s rare major military assistance, was the main factor is not propaganda, “internationalism” but the exchange of interests between countries, because the Chinese side in the Korean War points to the first line of bloodshed, the Soviet Union was give the corresponding returns.
truly understand the history of Sino-Soviet relations people know that the Soviet leaders, Khrushchev, first secretary of Soviet assistance to China up, the highest level. In 1953, he served as first secretary of the Soviet position when the external instability, need victory just to win the Korean War has a high prestige in the international community to support the new China, especially military aid assistance to China has been a qualitative improvement. Stalin to provide aid to China are mostly old items used during World War II, Khrushchev came to power after the offer is active in a variety of conventional weapons and production technologies. New China has just established a military-industrial complex under the guidance of expert assistance in the Soviet Union, Soviet-supplied equipment used to produce 56-style imitation firearms, F -5 fighter, with “5″ prefix of artillery, 59 tanks and other major equipment, These are at or near the time of the world advanced level.
However, the 1950 world nuclear power has entered the stage, in his first visit to China in 1954, Khrushchev made time and can help in this regard, but were turned down. In 1955 the CPC Central Committee still decided to start a nuclear bomb, missile pre-research. 1956 Eastern Europe against the Soviet-controlled Poland, Hungary, events, Molotov and other Soviet summer the following year veteran wants to overthrow Khrushchev. In this situation, regardless of the military was strongly opposed to Khrushchev, in July 1957 agreed to provide China with atomic bombs, missiles samples to help build a nuclear plant in exchange for Mao’s visit is to support him. In October 1957, the Soviet Union signed the “Defense Technology Agreement”, and then aided the Soviet Union provided 102 key projects. Then’s visit Mao Zedong, the Communist Party in 61 countries, meeting support the Soviet Workers’ Party in the socialist camp, “head” position.
Soviet Union, China’s “two bombs” (missiles, bombs) project aid, mainly to help China build the first atomic reactors, enrichment plants, nuclear fuel rod plant, uranium mining and nuclear test site, provide the sample P-2 missile. Later, because of political bickering between the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union in July 1960 interrupted the “two bombs” and the withdrawal of expert assistance. But China had been a number of nuclear weapons in the manufacturing equipment and many of technical assistance, or significant savings in development time. After the Soviet withdrawal left the nuclear plant experts “uncompleted project”, after all, much better than their own from scratch. China able to complete the world’s fastest “bombs and one satellite”, is mainly the result of self-reliance, with the help of the early Soviet Union also has an important role.
1961 年 easing Sino-Soviet relations, Khrushchev offered to China can be delayed when the debt, but also provides a MiG-21 fighter jets and other new equipment and production of technical information. However, this degree of improvement in Sino-Soviet relations is too soon, because of the same year it was held on November 22nd when the Soviet Communist China against criticism and support for Albania and Stalin fell out again. November 1962, the Soviet Union in the Cuban missile crisis, but China will not support the mapping of its criticism on the grounds, the MiG-21 technical data has not been paid in full when the final stop of the aid project, China’s military assistance to this end . But China’s military-industrial complex through the full 50 years of the Soviet Union to accept and grasp the level of weapons technology, or to lay the basis for the defense industry played a major role. Then Vice President in charge of economic work of the CPC Central Committee met with the Soviet Union in 1984, Chen Yun, an old friend when he said, given the assistance of the Soviet Union, “The Chinese people are not forgotten and never will forget.”
independent research, tough break for the state to provide a strategic deterrent
(1962 年 至 1978 年)
the early 1960s, the Soviet Union cut off aid, China weapons development for nearly two decades into a fully self-development phase. China and the Soviet Union gradually enter here the state of hostility with the United States-led Western countries, although the relationship from confrontation to detente, but the basic technology has not been military assistance, China’s scientific research and military enterprises in the near-closed state, relying on self-reliance and development of weapons and equipment.
60 years most people are proud of military success, is the “two bombs” (missiles, bombs) and developed. This project by the Soviet withdrawal did not affect the experts, because they have a number of Chinese studying abroad return to top-level experts and aid in the Soviet Union before the interruption to master the core technology and a comprehensive package of equipment. China in 1960 for the development of China-made surface-to-1964, the success of the first atomic bomb explosion, in 1966 the atomic bomb and missiles to achieve the “two bombs” with the successful launch in 1967, dropped successfully tested a hydrogen bomb explosion, in 1970 successfully launched a man-made Earth satellite.
China began, “two bombs” project, a car, a plane also can not be independently manufactured, based on this weak start, a dozen years to complete the “bombs and one satellite” project, development time to create the world’s shortest leaps and bounds miracle. For the year, “disappointing” and encouraging the needs of sophisticated weapons have been engaged in promotion of “tighten their belts”, in fact, if carefully calculated, China “bombs and one satellite” project cost a total of only 100 billion yuan, only very in the annual national expenditure of 2% and 12% of annual defense spending, the major countries in the world of nuclear, missile time for the least expensive.
sophisticated weapons to China that year by leaps and bounds, the two main reasons: First, high starting point, from the start will aim at the world advanced level; Second, do something, concentrate on In the area of ??focus. China’s acceptance of Soviet aid equipment, technology, beginning to grasp the intellectual property rights. “Cultural Revolution” of unrest, in the “two bombs” developed intellectual and technical personnel also largely protected, so that the project can continue in the development of harsh environment. China has made in sophisticated weapons to these achievements, the country provides an important strategic deterrent capability and become established in the world’s great power status of the important pillars. 1970 “bombs and one satellite” project finalized in 1971 by the United Nations will restore a new China’s lawful seat and expelling Taiwan’s “Republic” means the resolution, the causal relationship is not self-evident.
in the 1960s and 1970s, China’s conventional weapons development has entered a long period of Soviet technology to digest, although some innovation, but because the existing technology base is weak and unable to achieve inter-generational breakthrough, “Cultural Revolution” turmoil has caused many research and production units in paralyzed or semi-paralyzed state. In view of conventional equipment and world-class gap, the late 1960s the Central Military Commission also stressed that “Division action mule,” which appeared in the guiding ideology of the back, a number of military training and daily work has also been a lot of interference. Many of the weapons research project at that time appeared impetuosity guiding ideology, in violation of the laws of science while the “great battle” way out assault. For example, the Air Force also launched to engage the F-8, F -9, -11, F -12, F -13, 10 years, but no one can be finalized. Although the manufacture of a new Navy destroyer, built after the hull has as yet a lack of appropriate equipment such as radar, more than ten years to form an effective fighting. Numerous facts prove that defense modernization is a daunting systems engineering, the military should rely on science to improve the quality of all the people to solve, not in accordance with small-scale peasant way of thinking short-term efforts to be accomplished overnight.
since 1964, about half of China’s investment in capital construction costs of three-line construction, the original remote areas in the west to form a large, independent defense system, to improve the layout of China’s defense industry played a role. But at the time for a “two-tier military and civilian skin” construction mode, the military system of the building simply put, there is no economic benefit, which also makes defense research funding is often difficult to sustain. As the production of military defense companies not only produce civilian goods, military foreign aid but also to “improper arms,” ??the spirit of the free gift, defense companies are increasingly becoming a heavy burden. This model not only affect the military build a national economic development and improve people’s lives, also affected the defense industry’s own development. In 1978, before the convening of the Third Plenum of the decade, the PLA’s conventional equipment based on the imitation of Soviet-style almost not a qualitative breakthrough in the original and the advanced world level has greatly narrowed the gap opened again.
China’s weapons development at this stage of independence to explore, through the various twists and turns, though very difficult and quite a few detours, but after all, accumulated experience, and summarizes the lessons. Through their own efforts, but also training of a national independent research team, which has great development for the subsequent creation of the foundation conditions.
technical reserves, the strategic adjustment of the strength of the formation of inter-generational upgrade
(1979 年 first in the late 1990s)
1978 year-end Third Plenum of the CPC Central Committee convened to begin the process of reform and opening up, China’s weapons development ushered in a new situation. By order out of chaos, the military forces and national defense scientific research sector to establish a modern center with the correct direction, clearing the “Left” errors, our military and national defense scientific research, military-industrial sector through the world, to go abroad, broaden the horizons, also ushered in the technological development of a comprehensive innovation.
reform and opening up, some of our military-industrial sector leaders to go abroad, with Western military research institutions to carry out the exchange, thus the gap between their own pain and increased the urgency to catch up. At that time the authorities had the vision of China’s bulk purchase of advanced equipment for the troops in Western Europe to implement and changing, such as the Army was ready to buy West German “Leopard 2″ tanks and anti-tank guns, the Navy has been under negotiation for 42 destroyer and the United Kingdom 051 would like to introduce technological innovation own destroyer, the Air Force then negotiate to buy British “Harrier” type and the French “Mirage” fighter, but realistic about benefits of Western entrepreneurs only interested to sell weapons and military products, refused to transfer core technology, the asking price tall and staggering. At that time it was calculated that if the equipment bought in Western Europe overall facelift for the People’s Liberation Army needs tens of billions of dollars, subject the country’s military system and then replaced by the imitation of Soviet-style European and American series to spend more to double.
1981, China’s foreign exchange reserves, but $ 2.7 billion, but also give priority to economic development, nature can not longer follow the 1950 introduction of the kind of comprehensive way. Moreover, the United States and Western Europe, China, in essence, still the “communist country” as a heterogeneous, very strict control of key technologies, China bought weapons on the spare parts and technical support but also by others, in the end will be in politics. ” Kabo Zi. ” Was the founder of China’s defense industry Nie view of this situation to point out that a big country like China can not buy a defense modernization. China’s leaders through an analysis of their situation, to improve their military equipment that way lies self-development, foreign exchange mainly learning and technology.
due mainly based on self-development, and actively introduce advanced foreign technology, when the domestic military research funding drastically reduced in the case is still significant progress. Domestic defense industry enterprises to purchase advanced weapons are only a small amount of sample, and then strive to thoroughly understand the technology and the transformation to introduce the old equipment. For example, the introduction of foreign military-industrial transformation of the F-7 avionics fighters, fire control transformation with the introduction of the 59 tanks, fighting with all its inter-generational upgrade. 80 years after the military long-term implementation of the “patient” policy, defense spending has repeatedly compressed, China’s defense enterprises have adopted many of the weapons development and less production methods, although quite a long time military equipment not improved much, there is the level of military technology no small improvement. Such as the 1981 China used a rocket successfully launched three satellites, this technology can be applied to military export points to a missile with multiple warheads. In 1982 the success of conventional submarine-launched ballistic missiles, nuclear submarines in 1988, successful underwater launch ballistic missiles, marked the level of strategic weapons development, there has been leaps and bounds. 1984 National Day military parade on the 35th anniversary of Tiananmen Square, China’s self-developed “East Wind” series of intercontinental missiles, medium-range missiles and 69 – Ⅲ main battle tanks, self-propelled howitzers, armored carriers and have participated in F-8 fighter Review. Although the technical standards of these weapons and the world advanced level with at least 20 years of gap, but it shows the development of China’s conventional weapons exceeded the long-term situation and the relative stagnation of a qualitative leap.
vigorously introducing advanced foreign military technology, the Chinese military companies have opened their arms sales to foreign markets. Before and after the Third Plenum of the CPC Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping has made improper arms to die. In 1979, China sold to J-6 fighters to Egypt for the start, as the weapons to the international arms trade and export commodity market, in the 1980s also made big sales. For example, when through the introduction of Western avionics equipment to transform the F-7, a dozen countries to export thousands of aircraft. Export gains at this time not only to solve the military-industrial sources of funding difficulties, but also for the next weapons development provides an important funding, thus forming a virtuous circle.
1989 after the summer, the Western countries combined arms embargo against China, and has achieved a normalization of Sino-Soviet relations. The decline of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation was first built, the military enterprises need funds to address the plight of survival, the Chinese so once again isolated from a 30-year old partner, where the introduction of international standards of 80 aircraft, anti-aircraft missiles, submarines. Chinese in the early 1990s on the Russian quota is not too much, it solved the introduction of some key technical issues and equipment to explore the West prior to the combination together with the ability greatly enhance self-development in China for With a lot of focus on the development of weapons of mass breakthrough. Equipped to absorb some of the research advantages of the new Russian equipment, which greatly accelerated the development pace, and some ‘excel rather than blue. ”
since the late 1990s, the Chinese army as a military construction of the direction of information technology, information technology equipment, weapons development has also been listed as a top priority. Gulf War, Kosovo war has proved that modern information and electronic technology has changed the style of war, “silicon contest” than “hard steel” is more important. As the 863 high-tech development plan to implement, enhance the level of the national science and technology has developed to transform the military to create an important prerequisite for domestic electronic information industry development, but also to national defense scientific research and military production to a higher level.
1999 50th anniversary of New China in Tiananmen Square military parade, to the world showing the initial appearance of the Chinese armed forces a new generation of weapons, such as new tanks, armored vehicles and various types of missiles are a large number of appearances, these advanced combat platforms and The gap has been significantly reduced level. At the same time, the Chinese military companies have also formed the group by industry to meet the laws of market economy operation mode to promote the development of weapons has greatly contributed to the main equipment with the world standard in the next to be big development.
technological innovation, promote the development of weapons across the progress into the second golden period
(since the late 1990s)
the development of modern weapons is the crystallization of national scientific and technological level, but also by the economic strength of the support. China’s reform and opening up greatly enhancing the economic strength of the new century is finally over after the “patient” period, annual growth of investment in national defense. In particular, the U.S. aircraft in 1999 bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, the occurrence of not only angered people across the country, but also a deeper understanding of the defense sector to enhance the importance of national defense science and technology strength. According to the 60th anniversary of National Day military parade in 2009, announced the number in the previous 10 years, China’s development of weapons and equipment investment has more than 50 years before 1999.
China’s defense spending, the current pro-rata basis but also below the world average, and less than the United States and other Western countries. And 2010 China’s GDP was 39 trillion yuan, while the defense budget to 532.1 billion yuan, accounting for only 1.4 percent of gross domestic product is about. Last year, U.S. gross domestic product of 14.6 trillion dollars, military spending accounted for 4.5%, according to the exchange rate seven times in China. Of course, if compared with the world’s major countries, because China’s GDP has grown rapidly in recent years, defense spending in 10 years has been the world’s fifth ranked second in the world.
into the new century, due to technological level of domestic investment to be jumped and increase defense, military, scientific research has finally been liberated since there has never been a good material security, weapons development has been rapid development. If the 1950s to the early 1960s regarded as China’s first gold weapons development phase, into the new century can be described as a second golden age. In contrast, the first golden period of rapid development of Chinese military weapons or fully imitate the Soviet Union, the second golden period of development is characterized by independent research and development, foreign purchase of a small amount of weapons only as a supplement, this has to catch up with the world advanced level hope.
since the late 1990s, China has the military every year, some major breakthroughs in scientific research, especially basic research to make up for the past many weaknesses in the aviation, aerospace, ships, weapons, military electronics, engineering physics and other high-tech fields, a group of world-class results. PLA Army’s third-generation tank batch of troops, the field of advanced air defense equipment, long-range fire attack equipment is also a large number of production; domestic third-generation aircraft, “J-10″ and fitted out with air to form the backbone of the third generation of fighters for the air weapon system ; the world advanced level air and missile defense equipment developed, coupled with advanced air to air missiles, ground missiles, and Air Force have both offensive and defensive combat capability gradually; made a new guided missile destroyers, guided missile frigates fitted out a lot, so with a certain number of ships the Navy advanced scale, and equipped with advanced carrier-based weapons systems has greatly enhanced standoff strike capability, and fleet air defense capabilities; beginning the Second Artillery equipped mobile strategic nuclear missiles, already has both nuclear deterrence capability of simultaneously fighting; PLA information support capabilities increasing, the level of electronic warfare has also been greatly enhanced. Chinese army to bring the equipment replacement building has been gradually formed their own distinctive composite development of mechanization and information technology weapons systems, in some areas among the world advanced level. In particular, the Chinese people are proud that national defense scientific research sector to play their strengths, while making information technology into the outer space, “Shenzhou” 1 to 7 have been successfully launched in January 2007 also conducted anti-satellite test.
leap in China’s national defense scientific research, so that made weapons in the international arms trade have become more high-end market has changed in the past with low-grade low-cost export-oriented way. China into the international market FC-1 “Fierce Dragon” fighter, made “Kay Hill” air defense missile, “Jiang Wei” class frigate and other heavy main battle equipment, are considered inferior to the level of similar products in Western European countries, prices have , and therefore, welcomed by many developing countries. Increase in the export of weapons, weapons purchased in China has continued to decline. Zhuhai Airshow in 2008, a Chinese missile designer has publicly said in a speech to reporters: “A few years ago we introduced a number of air power from some of the equipment, technology, which we have no small help, but another three years, up to five years, they think it will sell to us quite difficult, because the skill level when we may have to catch up even more than they. “
2009 new year 60th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square military parade in China, is the development of new Chinese weaponry an overall review. See troops on the ground equipped with side 30 teams, showing the number of weapons than in past years the National Day parade, and the performance of a new leap, and can confidently announced the model and part performance. Appear in the parade made the third-generation main battle tank Type 99 and 96 although the parade in Tiananmen Square 10 years ago have appeared, but its internal equipment has been a qualitative leap, the protective outer armor facilities has also been seen improvement. Car towed artillery has been pulled out of the parade and take part in the parade are self-propelled guns and artillery guns assault vehicle, which the 155-mm self-propelled howitzers agricultural exports increase after the Middle East than the West that the same user equipment. DF-31 strategic missiles in a parade on the square once again as an important debut, shows a “head smaller, more powerful” feature shows already have a second strike capability. Coupled with the DF-21 medium-range missiles and on the “sword -10″ cruise missile appeared to form a far, the short-range matching system, that the Chinese armed forces both nuclear strategic strike capability has been greatly improved. Parade in the Navy for not “land boats sailing”, the main way to showcase a variety of missile vehicle, showing anti-ship and air defense capability leap. Air Force’s fighter fleet by reading up to 150, after the liberation of the previous parade is the largest number of models most of the time, and all the fighters they are all made, of which, such as J-10, J-11 and the third generation, many people AWACS was the first time the mysterious domestic joined by the reading camp.
January 11 this year, China’s newly developed fourth-generation fighter F -20 a test flight in Chengdu, so that our country after the United States and Russia to develop a third generation fighters of the national new (but still only a prototype without the stereotypes). With the development of global high-tech, aviation as a high input, high-tech intensive industries in the world has become a “noble” industry, only the U.S., Russia to maintain the original integrity of the aircraft manufacturing industry, European countries must work hand to jointly maintain the integrity of the aviation industry, much as other countries in the United States, Russia, the European aviation industry system in the supporting role. In this situation, the Chinese aviation industry can be a meteoric rise, marking the basic industries, equipment manufacturing, materials science, electronics and other related fields of science have a major breakthrough, and the future of air power to change the pattern. In recent years, international wars have proved that the Air Force has become “the first battle of the army,” the Chinese fighter in the world beyond the development area and jumped into the top three in Western Europe, which for the People’s Liberation Army Air Force in ensuring the “first battle with me, full use of my “to provide a material guarantee.
substantial progress in China’s weapons and equipment, but also the strategic task of the armed services, with the new changes. Army emphasizes global mobility, the implementation of a coastal defense navy to defend sea, the implementation of offensive and defensive air force, Second Artillery Corps was able to nuclear (elastic) normal (rules) and use. Since 2004 of China’s defense white paper has also been announced to domestic and foreign, will focus on China’s military build information technology, information can win local wars under conditions of military struggle is the main task. After China’s comprehensive national strength, it will not take the road of overseas expansion, but to maintain the proper development of national defense strength, to the international anti-China forces and separatist forces play an effective deterrent.
new China was founded over 60 years, the vast land has taken place “turned upside down generous and generous,” the changes. The face of the people’s army from the “millet plus rifles,” come to today’s mechanized additional information. “Shenzhou” spacecraft into space, missile punctured sky blue sky, the new nuclear submarines under the ocean can be, high-speed armored cavalry gallop … the new Chinese generation military personnel and the general officers and men in weapons development and production aspects of arduous efforts to create a brilliant performance. But people should also be clear that, due to a weak state of the technology, the current industry, although large in scale but in general the lower the grade in most high-end industry compared with most developed countries is still not a small gap, which makes the overall level of China’s weapons and equipment still lags behind the world’s strongest hand, to achieve the goal of catching up needs to go a long journey.
(The author is Professor of National Defense, Major General)