Behind the Sino-US military relations cycle
10 11, Chinese State Councilor and Defense Minister Liang Guanglie (right) in Hanoi, Vietnam, met with U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates
10 11, is Vietnam’s participation in the ASEAN plus eight long defense of the Chinese Defense Minister Liang enlarged meeting, met with U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates, which is due in January this year U.S. arms sales to China-US military relations since the break senior military leadership of the two first met. In this regard, the international media have given positive comments.
important not only in the military
United States tend to think that this meeting is a” tentative “signal,” the first step is to eliminate friction, but it does not mean that US-Chinese military relations have been fully restored. “aspects of the meeting of China interpretation also holds a similar position, and stressed that both sides should “work together to take effective measures to promote the problem be solved gradually, so that the healthy development of military ties out of the cycle.”
although can not say that Sino-US military relations have been fully restored, but this time, after all, the two armies met for nearly a year in the interrupt exchanges began to restore ties after the sign. For China, the Sino-US military relations from a standstill to the exchange, and promoting the healthy and stable Sino-US relations in the development of the track, thus effectively improve China’s national security environment and strategic posture. For the U.S. to strengthen military ties with China and the U.S. policy of engagement toward China the United States an important part of military exchanges with China is its understanding of the actual situation of the Chinese army major way, the U.S. national security is also of great significance. In addition, the United States as a world power, military relations, international and regional development also has an important influence on the current, the two defense ministers meeting, the ASEAN regional multilateral cooperation on the exchange and discussion to create a harmonious atmosphere, making the expansion of ASEAN defense ministers will be the new regional security cooperation mechanisms eventually smooth. So, the next China-US relations will develop? Let us first look at the history of Sino-US military relations in the past and what kind of experience give us inspiration.
“cycle” is how the formation of the
before the establishment of diplomatic relations as early as within the United States have had to establish military ties with China to enhance U.S. national security considerations. China-US relations, the bilateral military relationship developed rapidly along, but through the initial period of the “honeymoon period”, the last 20 years to have been interrupted six times, gone through ups and downs of six, forming a “development – stagnation – further development – and then stagnation, “the” vicious circle. ”
1980 In January, U.S. Defense Secretary Brown’s visit marks the start of high-level military exchanges. Then experienced a period of Sino-US military relations nearly a decade of “honeymoon period”, but in 1989 China has undergone political turmoil, U.S. President George W. Bush immediately signed the order sanctions against China to stop arms sales to China freeze China-US military cooperation project, which is high-level military exchanges between China and the U.S. established diplomatic relations after the first declaration of suspension.
1993 year, the U.S. Clinton administration decided to reopen on China’s policy of engagement and dialogue with the U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense in October, Freeman China visit, the two sides resumed high-level military contacts. But in May 1995 Lee Teng-hui visit to the U.S. seriously shaken the political foundation of Sino-US military ties, declared the second Sino-US military relations interrupted.
1996 In June, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Slocombe visited China, marking the Sino-US military relations have entered a new a recovery. But did not last long, May 1999, the U.S. bombed the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, China along with China and the U.S. military announced the postponement of high-level exchanges, to postpone the United States in nuclear non-proliferation, arms control and international discussions on security issues, in Third-US military relations stalled.
2000 January, PLA Deputy Chief of General Staff Xiong led a delegation to visit the United States, marking the resumption of Sino-US military exchanges. However, the same year on April 1, the U.S. military into an electronic surveillance over the implementation of China’s Hainan Island in the vicinity at or near the reconnaissance plane collided with the Chinese one, leading to the fourth stalled military relations.
2001 September 11 incident, U.S. military strategy to adjust to the restoration of Sino-US military exchanges has brought an opportunity. In October, Chinese Defense Minister Cao’s visit marked the military relations between the two countries once again toward the normalization. However, in October 2008, the U.S. decided to sell to Taiwan worth more than $ 6 billion in advanced weapons to China-US military relationship has undergone seven years of development, the fifth is interrupted.
2009 In April, after Sino-US summit, followed by warming of bilateral military exchanges. In October, the Chinese Central Military Commission Vice Chairman Xu official visit to the United States, marking the fifth round of stagnation has been restored. January 2010, Obama announced the sale of $ 6.4 billion in Taiwan arms reach of China’s core interests, China then announced a freeze on visits by U.S. military projects, the sixth China-US military relations interrupted.
with political fluctuations of
China-US military relations through the examination of six interrupt, we can draw the following revelation:
first Sino-US military relations from the shock of the dual nature of Sino-US political relations determined. As both China and the U.S. share extensive common interests, but also there is a wide range of conflict, so China-US cooperation and political relations with both the dual nature of the struggle, which shows sometimes relaxed, sometimes tense features, and Sino-US military relations as the U.S. political relations reflected in the military field, this phenomenon is inevitable shock. Also, because the military relations as the most direct confrontation between the two countries strategic interests, the most sensitive frontier, so the shock will be shown even more intense once the problems of bilateral relations and military relations will be the first, the party will be suspended military relations. But as long as the overall situation of Sino-US relations remain unchanged, the U.S. suspended military relations has always been restored, and ultimately the formation of a development sometimes, sometimes the cycle of stagnation phenomenon.
Second, the U.S. strategy toward China, “the enemy” thinking is the deepening of Sino-US military relations can not be the underlying causes. After the 1970s, the rising threat of the Soviet Union, the United States on China’s strategic position by the “hostile” to adjust for the friendly “quasi-allies,” Sino-US military relations, once launched, directly into the “honeymoon period” at the at a high level of development. After the Cold War, U.S. strategy there is a “enemy” of the judge, and thus the formation of China’s engagement and containment “hedge” strategy, leading to lack of Sino-US strategic mutual trust, the depth of Sino-US military ties no longer can not exceed the level of the 1980s.
Third, U.S. arms sales to Taiwan is a major obstacle to the development of military relations. Taiwan issue involves China’s core interests. For a long time, stable development of Sino-US relations depends largely on whether the United States to comply with the three between the two countries signed the “Joint Communique”, the most important and most sensitive issue is how to deal with arms sales to Taiwan. Because the United States policy toward China has been insisting on “Taiwan to contain China” strategy, so the issue of arms sales to Taiwan, successive U.S. administrations on arms sales opportunities, projects and issues such as delivery time will be carefully planned in order to play maximum “leverage benefits.” Arms sales to Taiwan-US military relations have been a negative factor, the two most recent Sino-US military relations were interrupted directly by the U.S. arms sales to Taiwan triggered.
eliminate the cycle of the key
China-US military relations, history shows that this is a pair of sensitive and fragile bilateral relations, can be expected, some major issues in the future, Sino-US strategic differences will exist for a long, two military relations will encounter many obstacles, the future ability to maintain stable development of bilateral military relations, depending on the following factors:
First, the United States on China’s strategic positioning. Sino-US military relations can be seen six interruption, obstacle to the development of Sino-US military relations primarily from the United States. The 1980s, the United States the Soviet Union as a major strategic rival, China as a “quasi-allies”, the bilateral military relations has received a decade of development the “honeymoon period.” However, with the Cold War, U.S. strategic positioning has changed, the long-term military relations can only be fluctuating. After the September 11 attacks, the United States in strategic turn-US relations as “stakeholders”, the bilateral military relations have entered a period of seven years of relative stability. Therefore, the future development of Sino-US military relationship, depends largely on the positioning of U.S. strategy toward China, the development trend and promote the stable development of Sino-US military relations, a positive factor in the increase.
The second is how the U.S. view China’s military development. Part of the American misgivings about China’s future development, China’s legitimate defense needs have deep prejudices in an attempt to China around the containment strategy against China, so China military relations, frequent use of “military transparency”, “reciprocity” and other issues to put pressure on the Chinese side, and often around China came close surveillance of the implementation of China, has seriously affected the stability of Sino-US military relations.
third is whether the United States to respect China’s core interests and major security concerns. Sino-US military relations interrupted six times, for different reasons, but there is a common characteristic, that is the United States undermined China’s core interests and major security concerns. United States not only does not recognize this, but has repeatedly accused the Chinese military and strategic intentions opaque, strongly against the PLA to improve military exchanges and cooperation through operational capability. This is actually a problem of lack of strategic mutual trust, the future of Sino-US military relations can go far, depends largely on whether the U.S. can truly respect China’s core interests, to cooperate with China to build deep strategic relationship of mutual trust.
as long as the overall positive development of bilateral relations, the major trend change in the next period and stable development of Sino-US military relations is to be expected of. However, long-term and stable Sino-US relations to the development of the United States really needs to address the deep-level Sino-US military exchanges barriers, break the China strategy, “the enemy” thinking, respect China’s core interests and major safety concerns in the arms sales to Taiwan, China and restrictions on military surveillance technology exports to China has made real changes, and strengthen measures to promote the establishment of Sino-US military mutual trust mechanism, to build multi-field, multi-level channels of dialogue, to expand the scope of military exchanges and cooperation to strengthen the emergency crisis management, the only way out of the Sino-US military relations had just expected the development cycle and ultimately the formation of an institutional, long-term, stable relationship of constructive military.
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