Expert: large aircraft in the military has become increasingly prominent on the value of
2009 年 9 8, C919-large model aircraft air show debut in Asia. CFP for map
large aircraft, in general, refers to the total take-off weight of more than 100 tons of transport aircraft, large transport aircraft, including military and civilian transport aircraft, including 150 passenger aircraft over the trunk. Currently in the world able to independently develop large aircraft, only the United States, Russia, Ukraine and the European Union and a few other countries and international organizations.
create our own large aircraft, is the dream of millions of Chinese people. Once, this dream is so far away; Today, the realization of this dream is getting closer. In the near future, this dream will become a reality.
Win 10 died to bring a painful lesson
founding of New China, the state aviation industry as a key support pillar industries, and the fighter demand routed first. In November 1949, the establishment of People’s Air Force, October 1950, the outbreak of the Korean War, two things the development of China’s aviation industry and combat aircraft development, can play a significant role.
start-up phase in the aviation industry, China and the Soviet Union through a large-scale technical cooperation, laying the foundation for the development of the aviation industry, has shipped five imitation, H-6 aircraft, 1966, Xi’an Aircraft Manufacturing Yun-7 aircraft, the company started to develop. Win five prototype flew from the Yun-7 transport aircraft to start the development of our country into the world at that time the few mass-produced jet fighter ranks of countries.
At this point, the world’s major aircraft development ushered in the spring. December 1963, the U.S. military C-141 prototype first flight, carrying capacity 43 tons. In 1968, the U.S. military C-5A prototype first flight, two years after the delivery of military use, carrying capacity 120 tons. During the same period there was also the safety of Soviet production-22, IL-76 and other models.
However, while the domestic aviation industry have seen vigorous growth, the “Cultural Revolution” began, the aviation industry suffered an unprecedented catastrophe. The impact of social unrest to transport seven developed repeated several times, until the end of 1974, Yun-7 aircraft was a successful test flight. Known as the “handsome boy” of the Yun-7 aircraft, is the first official New China-made transport aircraft in operation, it is to fill in our short-range transport aircraft in the gaps.
1969 year, eight transport aircraft started to develop, but until the early 1980s, transport eight before entering the low-volume pre-production stage. As a symbol of China’s aviation industry initially mastered the medium turboprop transport aircraft design and manufacturing technology. Transport eight as a medium-sized transport aircraft, improved, and now in China’s strategic transportation forces play an important role.
and Yun-7, transport eight compared to the most tragic is shipped 10 aircraft. August 1970, the central authorities decided in Shanghai developed jumbo jet Win 10. With glory for the country’s simple emotion, from all over the country to mobilize more than 500 technicians, at the time under extremely difficult conditions, to 1978 to complete the aircraft design. September 1980, after 10 years of arduous struggle, finally in Shanghai Win 10 first flight, maximum takeoff weight of 110 tons, the cabin layout of up to 124-178, maximum cruise speed of 974 km, a range greater than 8,000 km from Beijing direct flights to Europe, Africa.
Win 10′s successful test flight, making China the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, the fifth country to master the manufacture of 100-ton jet countries. The news caused a sensation in the world at that time, the U.S. aviation authority that Win 10 will be developed once the level of China’s aviation industry to catch up to 15 years. Win 10′s design specifications, airworthiness standards and other aspects of air wing has reached world advanced level at the time, it has in Beijing, Shanghai, Harbin, Urumqi, Kunming and Lhasa, between the flight, no problems. Win 10 successful development of China’s aviation industry has won the honor and international status.
is difficult to understand is that, when Win 10 developed into a successful flight test phase, but somehow stopped halfway R & D, to the mid-1980s, it actually has to dismount.
cause Win 10 horses for many reasons, all aspects of data analysis, I believe that the dismount is relevant because a lack of strategic vision first, the major Western aircraft makers lack a deep understanding, the country major interests easily become a victim of foreign intervention.
Secondly, the intervention of Western powers. In 1985, the major Western aircraft manufacturer has declared: “If you do not toppled Win 10, well into our plane on China.” It is not difficult to see, the Western intervention in a large aircraft manufacturers is leading to an important reason for Win 10 died .
Also, the early 1980s, China is in the national economic adjustment period, a large aircraft R & D funding is very tight. Meanwhile, the state recently implemented reform and opening up soon, civil aviation has just started, the market is limited.
Finally, the Win 10 itself in fuel consumption, noise, fatigue testing, airworthiness, etc., there are still many problems.
Win 10′s died to bring a painful lesson. It is inflicting huge economic losses, 5.4 billion yuan of investment in vain. China has also missed a good opportunity to develop large aircraft, the Chinese aviation industry in the jumbo jet’s 15-year study of catch up time and lost. Win 10 dismount also hurt Chinese people hard work ahead of aviation enthusiasm, and accumulated rich practical experience of system development team continues to lose. Beginning of this century, China’s sky, the route the aircraft is an all imported goods, China’s aviation industry is facing serious challenges.
not have their own large aircraft industry, can only be considered air power, air power can not be considered
Win 10 left a lot of regrets, however, to create a intellectual property rights of large aircraft, is still hundreds of millions of Chinese people’s expectations. After decades of deliberation, to explore and try, in reality, prompting us to wake up – big by buying foreign aircraft can not be bought, by cooperation with foreign countries does not work, and only take the road of independent research and development.
Some people think that domestic civil aircraft market has a strong appeal, you can use the market for technology. Proven market appeal can only exchange for subcontract production contract. Even the most common technology, but also with a large amount of money to buy, but the key technology is how much money can not buy. Therefore, the industrial countries, without exception, regarded as a national strategic large aircraft manufacturing industry, in such industrial development and international cooperation, no one will really develop their own competitors.
not rely on international cooperation manufacture large aircraft. Year, we hope the U.S. McDonnell Douglas, Airbus cooperation, others said did not quit, we paid a high “tuition.” Therefore, the manufacture of large aircraft can only be independent, self-reliance. At the same time, a large aircraft manufacturing also depends on state support. To Airbus, for example, has experienced 25 years of losses. The strategic objectives of European unification and the relevant national government’s full support, Airbus became able to compete with Boeing’s world aviation giants. Without government support, no one company can not support such a long period of huge losses.
With China’s rapid economic development, international status and national security interests of the development of large aircraft requires more urgent. During the two sessions in 2004, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Air force experts Liu Daxiang submitted a “large aircraft development as soon as possible on the proposal,” the proposal. He said: “If you do not own large aircraft industry, can only be regarded as air power and air power can not be said, a large aircraft is an important symbol.”
large aircraft is knowledge-intensive industries, the development of large aircraft can drive a large number of related industries and technological progress, while improving the overall strength of China’s aviation industry and international competitiveness. Large aircraft industry, is also an important source of national income. In China, the largest aircraft in the proportion of air traffic which accounts for about 70% to 80%. Not have their own large aircraft industry, we can only stand and watch the huge Chinese market by foreign companies plane trunk divided.
the awakening of the development of large aircraft, but also from national security challenges. At present, China’s security situation is not optimistic: the direction of the East China Sea, maritime rights and interests in the dispute between Japan and around constantly; the direction of the South China Sea, China’s maritime rights and interests exist with some countries dispute. With economic development, China has the world’s second largest oil importer, lifeline is still difficult to get rid of the passive situation. All this requires that we build a strong national defense system, in particular, to build and adapt to the development of national security, strategic mobility.
and large aircraft for a country’s armed forces, the more important. Sudden strong modern warfare, combat, fast-paced, high intensity operations, material consumption, air delivery capacity strategy is to some extent determine the outcome of war has become an important factor, which demands that the military should have a strong strategic delivery capacity.
from research-based perspective, China’s aviation industry after 60 years of construction and development to master a large number of core technologies with independent intellectual property, key technology, training of a high level of aviation technology team, the accumulation of successful experience, drawing on the lessons of failure; also have a comprehensive research capabilities, test conditions and capabilities, production and test capabilities, and professional support of R & D center of China’s development of large aircraft is ripe.
large aircraft development depends on breakthroughs in core technologies
develop large aircraft for our country is a very urgent task. According to China’s current level of technology, the development of large aircraft, estimated at 15 years. In February 2000, the State Council to “speed up the development of China’s independent intellectual property rights with a new turbofan regional aircraft,” the major decisions. In December 2003, with independent intellectual property rights of 70 to 90 seat aircraft – ARJ-21 parts in Shanghai, Chengdu, Xi’an, Shenyang, started the construction of four places at the same time.
ARJ-21 project with the steady progress, January 2006, the State held a working meeting of national defense technology industry. The meeting decided that the “Eleventh Five-Year” period, China’s aviation industry will focus on regional aircraft, large aircraft development timely start, the big aircraft identified as a national major projects. In March, the State Council approved the large aircraft project, agreed to form joint-stock companies large passenger aircraft, as expeditiously as possible.
by the China Aviation Industry Corporation I developed and produced China’s first regional jet passenger aircraft proprietary ARJ21-700, in December 2007 assembly off the assembly line, in November 2008 a successful maiden flight in Shanghai . As a symbol of China in the research and manufacture of civil aircraft made a breakthrough in large aircraft has taken a welcome step.
even more people happy is, C919 project was officially launched in November 2008, it is China’s second Win 10 after the second paragraph of their own design made of large passenger aircraft, commercial aviation is 150 items. November 2010, C919 prototype debut at the Zhuhai air show and get 100 Chinese and foreign orders. 2011 C919 research into the project development phase, detailed design work has been in full swing. The aircraft design life of 90,000 flight hours, the economy, will end its first flight in 2014, 2016, C919 program delivery. To C919 to start the design and development as a symbol, a large aircraft manufacturing in China has taken a solid step.
however, also depends on the development of large aircraft, the core technology breakthrough. The heart of aero-engine aircraft, is a national industrial base, the level of overall national strength and technology embodies. China’s aviation industry since its inception, the production of aircraft engines mostly imitation or improvement, remodeling based. In November 2002, the Zhuhai Air Show display the first Chinese-owned intellectual property rights of the fighter engine “Kunlun” II-type, has caused a sensation at home and abroad. However, large aircraft of choice for power – “high bypass ratio turbofan engine,” or the constraints we have developed a major bottleneck in large aircraft. Large aircraft project since 2006, has gone through five spring. I believe that as China’s aviation science and technology strength, especially in the aero-engine development in the accumulation of experience, made “high bypass ratio turbofan engine,” the technical difficulties, will soon be overcome.
also depends on the development of large aircraft, the development of adequate funding support. I believe that in today’s China’s rapid economic development, the country’s economic strength has shrunk, large aircraft R & D is not the problem. We firmly believe that after all the air of hard work, in the near future, with independent intellectual property rights of large aircraft will be flying in the sky of the motherland.
great value in military aircraft has become increasingly prominent
military theorist Douhet said: “The improvement of civil aviation tool will increase the military value of air power”; “a great master air transport team, from a military sense, will be equivalent to have a ready to defend their own interests independent of the great Air Force. “
large aircraft with long-range, rapid mobility and the benefits go beyond the geographical barriers that can static defense force will be rapidly changing regional dynamic offensive force, and can be sent to the battlefield quickly put thousands of miles away, the future of information warfare is an important strategic mobility forces. It can quickly implement force delivery, delivery of objects, including military personnel, food, medicine and ammunition, and other bulk cargo, trucks, armored vehicles and other large vehicles, tanks, artillery, engineering and construction equipment, large trucks and other large vehicles and a variety of helicopters and so on. Iraq war, the U.S. has deployed C-17, C-130, C-5, C-141 and other large transport aircraft, perform a task more than 20,000 sorties, transporting troops of about 30 million passengers, 120,000 tons of goods transported.
seizing large aircraft can meet the strategic location. In 1999, Russia dispatched six Il-76 transport aircraft will have 1,000 soldiers and large quantities of supplies shipped to Kosovo, with lightning speed to seize the Pristina airport, to provide for the bargain between Russia and NATO an important bargaining chip.
Similarly, the large aircraft to meet airborne operations. Iraq War, when Turkey refused to use U.S. military air base, the U.S. 15 C-17 strategic transport aircraft took off from Italy, the 173rd Airborne Brigade in northern Iraq quickly to the smooth opening of the North battlefield, forming a north and south of the Iraqi pincer attack for the final to win the war laid the foundation.
large aircraft can also carry out other wartime tasks, such as the implementation of other branches of the military air refueling aircraft, is responsible for evacuation of sick and wounded, the implementation of special operations, responsible for the armed forces of the weather reports and aerial reconnaissance.
remove a large number of wartime use of large aircraft has also been widely used in military operations other than war. From around the world to deal with non-traditional security threats practice, large aircraft are generally used in anti-terrorism, stability maintenance, disaster relief, preservation of the marine rights and interests, international peacekeeping, humanitarian relief and other non-war military operations, the main force responsible for the delivery and launch of relief supplies, rescue the wounded and so on.
worth noting that large aircraft have also been used as perform special operations missions of air carrier aircraft platforms. Currently, many countries in the world of early warning command and control aircraft, air refueling, electronic countermeasures aircraft are modified by large aircraft. U.S. large civil aircraft to the Boeing 707 as a platform for the development of air refueling KC-135, AWACS E-3, the air communication equipment and remote E-6 E-8 radar and other surveillance aircraft. Russia places large military transport aircraft IL-76 as a platform for the development of the AWACS A-50, Il-78 aerial tankers and so on.
Therefore, a large value of military aircraft has become increasingly prominent, it is a great nation-building and carry out military action of modern warfare and military operations other than war are an important strategic weapon, and the development of China-made large aircraft and will also dream of the Chinese people to contribute to a strong army.
(Author: Air Force Command College)