Marco Polo Bridge Incident opened the prelude to World War II: China to force Germany and Japan fighting each other
“Marco Polo Bridge Incident 75th anniversary
” World War II, “the prelude
Wen Li Hong Gu
1937 July 7, the Japanese military exercises at night near the Marco Polo Bridge. Exercise, a Japanese soldier “missing”, the Japanese virtue of an excuse for requesting access Wanping city search, denied. 20 minutes later, the soldiers had their own rejoin, but the Japanese captain orders to attack Wanping city. At this time the next day 4:50 ……
This is the beginning of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident “, then this event evolved into the Chinese people and arduous eight-year war.75 years
, we re-look back at this period of history, What is the value?
in quite a long time, General History of the focus is the study of this “incident” Why evolved into a comprehensive Sino-Japanese long state of war. Due to the “event”, to explore the fruit of the war, the logical structure of such a short – like a microscope inspection event “facts” is more clear, its significance in the historical process, but may become more blurred. “Marco Polo Bridge Incident”, is it not the results of a series of antecedent factors, as a turning point, it led to a series of consequences. So, is the proper view of history. Thus, today, when we conditionally based on the relative abundance of historical facts, you can pull a long enough time and enough space to re-examine the events in China’s own process of modernization and the global pattern of interaction between the value of our conclusions, of course, different.National Revolutionary
the leadership of the Northern Expedition marked the Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist government, need to address two major structural contradictions: Internal seek the reunification of the country, foreign demand national equality – this is real after the Revolution of 1911 facing the national challenges. After the success of the Northern Expedition, Chiang Kai-shek’s choices are: internal and continue to eliminate the anti-side, foreign temporary patience to wait for. That is “first security after stabbing outside”. This road, a historian on Kuo Ting – yee Mr. comment is: “in step grouped to make sense the Qi Chennai potential are not permitted.”
so-called “potential is not permitted” observed in Sino-Japanese relations, “September 18 Incident” non-resistance, loss of Manchuria, according to the researchers of the history of “hindsight” Replay: Japan’s ruling authorities also civilian groups and the military junta that do not , Although there is no ability of the National Government was fully against the Japanese, but completely non-resistance, reaction to the Japanese authorities, the tension, the military junta arrogance Chang. As a result, the military junta that winds all the way, the evolution to the “Marco Polo Bridge Incident,” when the full control of the Japanese political situation. The heart of its expansion aggression trip, no domestic checks and balances of power. Between the inside and outside, a slight mishap, a slight imbalance, the consequences would be difficult to pack.
“Mukden Incident”, as well as the Northeast lost, once again made clear China’s modern transformation difficult. If the Late Qing China suffered no change in the situation of the third millennium, which is the traditional Chinese towards the modern state, its unique position, according to the historian, Mr. Jin Chongji On: Modern Chinese of all social contradictions, the most important imperialist and the contradictions of the Chinese nation.
modern transformation of the occasion, Chinese and modern starting countries – “the contradictions of China/powers (imperialist)”, is our understanding of the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic, and even contemporary China’s core and the structural contradictions one. Since the Opium War, the second Opium War, and Jiawu, no not the traditional Chinese “intolerable” under passive and hasty fight. Almost no exceptions, each against the foreign aggression, along with the turmoil of the domestic political landscape. Second Opium War, and even (against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom), two wars, the resulting pattern of domestic politics, in 1994 Jiawu, the results show: Li Hefei on a country. “(Liang Qichao language) in China’s internal erosion, with no ability to force a country to respond to foreign aggression. This is of course sad, but it is a fact that is also the necessity of the traditional Chinese structural contradictions.
against foreign aggression, is no longer mobilize and organize a country’s ability to clear death no accident. 1911, after the Revolution of 1911, under the powers of oppression, the establishment of a unified and independent state, that is, those in power in the historic challenge.
Northern Expedition of the success of the Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist Government in the form of complete reunification of the country. Ten years the Republic, in big cities such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Peking, a little modern meteorology. This is the recent widespread attention of the so-called “Republic of China Fan”. However, we are a little to seriously look at that time China’s overall pattern, the mood will be the opposite – in 1928, Ma’s Army of Gansu Muslim resistance Feng Yuxiang, the two sides unleashing a massacre, Han, Hui killed or injured 200,000 people; 1930, Feng Yuxiang, Chiang Kai-shek failed. Exit northwest, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai has become dominated by Muslim soldiers; 1934 squad 30000, capricious Sun Dianying since Chahar by Suiyuan offensive Ningxia, back to the army before exclusion from … northwest China, there is no Ning Day. The southeast coast in 1932, Guangdong Chen Jitang Guangdong Fleet Battle of the Shandong Provincial Government President Han Fu Ju and, according to Liu Zhen, Jiaodong division commander of the war. Southwest, warlord of Sichuan, Liu Wenhui, Liu Xiang, Deng tin Hou Tian Songyao, since the Republic, the size of the war up to 480 times.
China’s reunification, it would only have its table. Republic of China Fan children, in fact, poor. 1931, was busy on the Red Army in Jiangxi third siege, and deal with the Guangdong and Guangxi military Chiang Kai-shek, suffered a “September 18 Incident”. Rather than to foreign aggression is not due to civil strife. “To conquer the world, we must first conquer Shina, conquest Shina we must first conquer Manchuria and Mongolia” – discusses the historian Xu about the Japanese three times, 1912,1916,1928 planning instigating ‘Mongolian Autonomy Movement’ to failure This concept has become more significant. ”
1931, the Yangtze River, the quasi-River and the Grand Canal floods wreak havoc, causing the middle of 10 provinces, 14 people drowned and 25 million have been displaced. Meanwhile, China has deep internal turbulence and local conflicts. Japanese Kwantung Army carefully selected this time, completed the occupation of Shenyang, which was then in one hundred days to complete the occupation of Manchuria. Different from the previous foreign aggression, this incident reveals the Japanese militarists sources constitute the most serious threat to the survival of the Chinese nation.
The September 18 Incident “as a turning point in China’s structural internal and external contradictions thereby converted to foreign aggression – the challenges of the Chinese nation to survive, up to the principal contradiction. “Stabbing outside Home Safe, of course, is no longer justified. However, the Northeast, although the Japanese, according to this policy is still in operation, no more sheets meaning. “September 18 Incident” A lot of Replay and deductions, and therefore completely abandoned the resistance and the overall leading cause of Japan’s military junta forces is one of the results.
terms on the Japanese invasion logic, 6 years after the outbreak of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, North China will be likely to repeat the old way of the Northeast. According to there in North China, south Japan can advance to the East China and Central China, and thus accounted for in Southeast Asia and the Pacific; north to capture most of the land in Mongolia and Siberia up to Lake Baikal – the Soviet Union. A strategic logic is to China, Chiang Kai-shek, of course realized that during the deep national crisis. Lushan second talk at the meeting on July 17 that year, he said: our four northeastern provinces (administrative divisions for the four provinces) fall, has been for six years, followed by Tanggu Agreement, the conflict now Place to the entrance of the Marco Polo Bridge in Peking. If you the Lugouqiao can be the subject of oppression dispossession, then we centuries the ancient capital, the cultural center of northern political and military center of Peking, will become the Shenyang second today in Peking, if turned into the old in Shenyang, Nanjing, then why can not become Peking! “the Chinese nation to the most critical moment!
only internal so erosion can mobilize the power of the country to anti-Japanese Kou? In 1937, the country must respond to the critical moment of this challenge. In response to the crisis of the Lushan meeting sent a clear and loud voice: “If a war is an open, that is, north or south, young and old in the year, whoever, all the responsibility to defend the war, all should grasp the logic of sacrifice all of the determination. “A month later, Chiang Kai-shek agreed to Red Army National Revolutionary Army, the Eighth Route Army.
the distance of time we opened, dating back to 1840, since the beginning of the Opium War, nearly 100 years after China’s history has opened a new outlook – “Marco Polo Bridge Incident”, the country’s integrity passive situation, the resulting changes. “We want peace, not of paying for; ready to fight, and never engaging in warfare …… in case the inevitable last-minute course, we only sacrifice, the only war!” This is certainly not the strength is relatively calculation can be drawn results, this is a nation to a last minute choice necessary. History of its own logic, uniform independent of the establishment, namely Chinese nationalist revolution is successful, you need to defeat Japanese imperialism, but also need to go through a complex pattern of a new world war and eventually defeat Japan, China to open a powerful nation-states to create the road.
“Marco Polo Bridge Incident, which began eight years of war, must pass through in traditional Chinese turning point for the modern nation-state. Observed in a broader space, its value does not stop here.
change once the patience and the flinch, tenacious fight against Japanese imperialism, so the play by not own. In early 1938, Stalin visiting Sun Cotan words: “I know that China is not only fighting for themselves, but also fought for the Soviet Union; ultimate aim is of the Japanese occupation of the whole of Siberia until Lake Baikal.” Later, the Japanese Kwantung Army without authorization mobilized tens of thousands of troops fighting the Soviets in the Sino-Mongolian border Nomonhan two successive offensive ended in failure. This means that, when Japan Lujun Bing force deep battlefield, unable to cooperate with Germany things attack the Soviet Union, leading to what method Francis countries go their own way, there is no strategic fit. In May 1938, the British Ambassador Karl telegram: “We can not evade the fact that, to some extent, China is not only for themselves but also for us to fight, because only the Japanese failure to us from the jeopardize our status in the Far East disaster rescue. “At the same time, the British Foreign Secretary Halifax in the memorandum said:” China is fighting for all law-abiding nations. “
choice. a weak country to protest the courage to face their own historical destiny, change is a global pattern. Japanese imperialism in the last-minute fight, its role, of course, have a clear understanding of: “(war) not only to demand the liberation of the nation, not just seeking the integrity of the territorial integrity and sovereignty, in fact, is also common around the world security fight. “China’s War of Resistance will of the U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau argued:” the Soviet Union, United, the composition of the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain, the United Front. “At this juncture by the U.S. Asiatic Fleet commander Yarnell will be domestic send back the report that: “only because of … war to block the Japanese corps.”
comprehensive Chinese War of Resistance open for three years, the United Kingdom British Battle; four years after the Soviet Union The Great Patriotic War; four and a half, the United States joined the war against fascism. The aggressive ambitions of the Axis powers of Japan, Germany and Italy, by the Japanese occupied Manchuria and North China began, and ultimately the formation of the World War II. The world wars, profoundly changed the pattern of the world, the world situation so far is still the World War II, “Heritage”. At the same time, China was also the war a profound shift. Hsu, commented: “China jumped from the pre-war semi-colonial state through long-term struggle against aggression, and one of five founding members of the United Nations in its modern history, China’s international prestige has never been like at the moment lofty.
China’s modernization and its pattern of global interaction between the new face in 1937 – “clung to sacrifice all of the determination.” Novus, President of the United States, said: “We have not forgotten Chinese people in this war, is the first to stand up with the aggressors fighting. “
(front cover image: August 21, 1937, the United Kingdom” Illustrated London News “(The Illustrated, London on News ) reported on the anti-Japanese national government soldiers. editor with a wait for the attack of ordinary soldiers portrait on the front page. rough face of the soldier, even in the determination of the eyes 75 years later still can make people feel blood surging. Photo by Qin Feng old Photo gallery)
ignite the war: 75 years ago, Marco Polo Bridge site
“But Chiang Kai-shek’s tolerance, but also underlined He believes that the National Government in 1935 with a Japanese line is the bottom line. Japan can no longer played the Great Wall in North China can not be passed on. we can not compromise, and this is the so-called ‘last minute’. If Pingjin can throw future China where you can throw away the Great Wall is the last line of defense. “
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