Russian arms dealers had received during the year 861 from the foreign customer claims
source of collective decline of Russian military enterprises are not on the outside, all aspects of deep-seated institutional problems is the key. The AK-47 rifle manufacturer’s bankruptcy, the only domino domino in a.
this year in late April, Russia “newspaper” first disclosed in a news in the global military enthusiasts set off waves – the famous production of AK-47 assault rifle Izhevsk Machinery Manufacturing factory declared bankruptcy! In recent years, Russian leaders to the people portrayed a beautiful vision to revitalize the military power at the same time, has a glorious past Russian industrial enterprises to collapse one after another by merger, many of them MiG aircraft such as the “old”. Therefore, Izhevsk plant Pathetique curtain call can only be regarded as a natural development of this trend. Although the plant general manager of Maxim library for a long time g has repeatedly said that the lack of government orders and counterfeit goods flooding the main reason is overwhelmed by the company, Russia “argument with the fact that the magazine revealed the cruel truth: to lead Russia The military industrial enterprises, collective source of the decline is not external, is the key to continuation of the present deep-seated institutional problems from the Soviet era.
military-industrial complex has become fed unsaturated “swallowing gold monster”
Red Empire, the Soviet Union the most prosperous time, the military system of the The index is almost astronomical. 1988, “Pravda,” carried an article pointing: the Soviet defense industry employing up to 13 million, annual production of combat aircraft is equivalent to the sum of U.S. Air Force all aircraft, an average of seven hours to create a missiles, tanks, annual output of more than 2000 … The … these horrific numbers behind the huge defense industry chain, and military spending accounted for 20 to 25 percent of the gross national product (half for the procurement of equipment). Under the planned economy, the division of the military factories in great detail, the T-72 tanks, for example, co-production units have more than 700.
such a bloated system, relying on the huge investment continued to maintain. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian defense budget is seriously diminished, and the main equipment purchases for many years hovering in the single digits and ten-digit, the worst in 1996, only 5 tanks put into service. Even so poor yield, also need hundreds of thousands of plants at the same time started. Only funds like sprinkle black pepper, not enough to ensure that the production line operation, while the latter shut down, restart the cost is more expensive. In 2006, Russia intends to sell to a country in East Asia Il-76 transport planes and Il-78 tanker was surprised to discover a number of production plants has been paralyzed after the end of the negotiations on basic contract price is not enough to restore production capacity, the deal can only make the hydroplaning.
so, the Russian military-industrial enterprises into a lack of orders led to production capacity, but also because of insufficient capacity to lead to infinite loop orders. The military-industrial complex has become fed unsaturated “swallowing gold monster”, first caused the collapse of the Soviet Union, now in turn caused the collapse of its own.
reform frequently, to a greater chaos
, Kremlin military-industrial transformation of the difficult is not without cognition. As early as 1992, the Russian government on the introduction of the Russian Federation defense industry conversion method, trying to get the military industrial enterprises to support themselves. Subsequent events proved that the “conversion” is wishful thinking. Accustomed to neither eat big pot of Russian industrial enterprises understand the market economy, but also the technical reserves of the production of products for civilian use, but the lack of implementation of the transformation of start-up capital.
have not seen for two years, there are analysts pointed out that 80 percent of the military enterprises converting to fail, they produce refrigerators, washing machines, gas furnace process rough, clumsy appearance, could not find sales, and have actually lost point of the last financial reserves to fall even utilities can not afford to pay.
seeing the “conversion” does not work, the Russian government thought privatization, individual investors want to make “blocking hole. In 1994, when President Boris Yeltsin issued a “military industrial enterprises privatization plan”, 1400 Yu Jiajun industrial enterprises to the market, is only responsible for the strategic enterprises of the aerospace and nuclear weapons remain state-owned.is
Unfortunately, under the market economic system is not yet standardized, stormy type of privatization, and have actually Russian industrial enterprises to the other extreme. Business leaders have set up a subsidiary, together with speculators massive transfer of state property, the acquisition of shares of the Company to a very low price, some originally not in the privatization list of companies was illegal resale; What is more, some malice in their hearts the enterprise management staff colluded with corrupt elements within the armed forces playing a “sleight of hand tricks, paper-based transactions to extort the defense budget, in fact, nothing production. According to incomplete statistics, the privatization of the implementation of less than 10 years, the Russian Ministry of Justice has heard from more than 50,000 economic crimes involving military enterprises, more than 1,500 people were investigated for criminal liability. A result, a large number of state-owned assets falling into the pockets of individuals, not only failed to keep the military potential, but destroyed the original organizational structure of industrial chain further necrosis.
the ups and downs, the Russian government to grasp the military industrial enterprises depleted. Putin came to power, save only the essence of the Russian defense industry merger and reorganization. Promulgated in 2001, the military industrial enterprises and the development of special programs provides the total number of Russian industrial enterprises in five years, cut 2/3, and the remaining 1/3 integration for a number of research – production of the Commonwealth. Which in turn detonated the new problems – the leadership of the competition for joint ventures, military factory blows, and even kills. Diamond – Aetna joint air defense enterprises newly established in 2003, soon after scandal, the new CEO candidate Klimov, shot and killed in front of their own, the case has so far failed to identify. Obviously, these are hard “pinch” the joint enterprise, internal contradictions and contribute much to the Russian military high hopes for the S-500 air defense system, after 10 years of research and development, since the microscopic trace is a good example.
arms exports, weak follow-up
domestic orders only a handful of the Soviet era, the accumulation of the gift, cheap, practical Russian-made weapons are still the international market landscape for some time. Long been concerned about arms control issues in Sweden Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, “has pointed out in its report released in 2001 to 2005, Russian arms exports was more than the United States, the highest in the world.
However, due to the chaotic management, aging equipment, the quality of personnel, the Russian-made military products quality is not very tricky, the Soviet Union during the ballast cargo posing as new things are often heard. In 2003 alone, foreign customers brought to the Russian arms dealers, 861 claim, also first in the world. In addition, the impact of bureaucracy, the Russian military-industrial enterprises has always been the after-sales service seriously, often in arrears to foreign customers, the supply of spare parts and after-sales maintenance services, can be described as “just to sell, regardless of the repair.
publicly reported, Mexico and Malaysia to buy Russian-made helicopter is often grounded due to lack of spare parts, the Indian Air Force has crashed hundreds of aircraft MiG fighters, scare away the bad quality and poor after-sales support potential users, many countries have turned to Western products. Thus, since 2006, Russia in the international arms market share continued to drop, combined with new product development is slow, weak follow-up it is reasonable. This will inevitably lead to the difficulty of rising in tandem with capital returns.
talent “interrupted” the most deadly
Russian military industry continue to shrink, the most direct and deadly impact is reflected in the material benefits of the researchers aspects. Accordance with the statistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian military researchers funded an average of only 1/35, 1/50, many people can only rely on as a security guard, a taxi driver “second career” to feed their families. At the same time, Europe and the United States refused to let a great opportunity to “looting”, a variety of favorable conditions to attract the Russian military and scientific research personnel. Only in the first three years of the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Russian military-industrial sector lost 60% of the researchers, 70 percent of skilled workers.
20 years down the talent of the “interrupted” the Russian military research and innovation capacity is almost zero, the wide publicity to the T-90 tanks, Topol strategic missile, Su-35 fighters, in fact, are the Soviet Union period on the project, Russia has only completed the finishing works, and very difficult. Even known as “completely Russian R & D” T-50 fighters, but also the remnants of the shadow of the previous generation fighter, the strength of highly suspected. Some analysts said the collapse of the Soviet Union at a time when scientific research personnel in the prime of life is now at retirement age, the younger generation but few people are willing to enter the long lost past glorious military field; the problem is not the “hunger gap”, 10 years later , the Russian military industry may be completely lost his talent foundation for sustainable development.
in many ways under the function of today’s Russian military industry is already riddled with problems, critical technical process generally 10 to 20 years behind the West. No wonder “the newspaper reported,” comments: the bankruptcy of the Izhevsk mechanical factory, the crux of a domino can not find the problem as soon as possible to try to save themselves, the complete collapse of the Russian military-industrial, or not far off.
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