Witness recalls: Air transport aviation units the first trials Lhasa branch
1956 年 3 29 in trials base – Xining Airport. Xining Wang Zhengchen by the command post, Han Lin led the trials who swear table determination. “difficult problem” pilot comrades, the combination of theory and practice, accurate calculations. From left to right: Jin Mao Xin, Wan first hut, charge Qingyuan, the history of economic and From left: Zhang Guohua, Zhang Jingwu, Chen Yi, Han Lin, Tan crown three first time in history the people of the Air Force to fly to the landing in Lhasa, Tibet, Tibetan, Chinese compatriots to slide a figure waved.
congratulate the 2011 great, glorious and correct Chinese Communist Party’s 90th anniversary! Celebrate the 60th anniversary of the peaceful liberation of Tibet! Memorial People’s Air Force over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the first open Beijing – Lhasa air line 55 anniversary.
President Hu Jintao said: “remember history, not forgetting the past, scientific development, and create the future.” This article focuses on two aspects of discipline out of Chairman Mao, Premier Zhou Enlai and other people in person to create the first Air Force air transport forces, in support of the Army eighteen Army entered Tibet, Free Tibet combat flight years; in the Military Air Force, the Lanzhou Military Region, under the command of the direct leadership of the Air Force, I was ordered to lead the trials unit, breaking the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau “air zone”, open up Beijing – Lhasa Aviation line, the memorable history of successful trials in Lhasa.
from our combat troops to the western plateau 13 years of flight history, I led the trials from the trials unit witnessed years of fighting in Lhasa, came to realize that the party of friendly forces and their trust in us, challenge and nurture . Command of the Party, dare to fly daring, dedicated to the mission of our firm belief troops; for me personally it is consciously enhance the party, strengthen the party spirit, temper ideological rare opportunity, I decided to sacrifice the Air Force career, bent to the party, the Party’s severe test, has strengthened my determination to follow the party life!
(a) Chairman Mao, Premier Zhou People’s Air Force to create the first transport aviation units
1949 mid-December, on behalf of Chairman Mao led the Chinese The mission visited the Soviet Union, through Manchuria Railway train to resolve the Tibet issue on the great strategic plan, command transmitters Liu (Bocheng), Deng (Xiaoping), He (Long) head, “march into Tibet sooner rather than later, the sooner the more favorable, then the Big Sleep late. ” In January 1950 the Central Military Commission approved a report by the Southwest Military Kang, Yunnan, Qinghai, new provinces (autonomous regions), in Tibet, “the heart into multiple” strategic plan, formally announced the order to march into Tibet. Army troops entering Tibet by the unified command of the Eighteenth Army in March 1950, into the side, side roads, to Kozo plateau “second long march.”
the beginning of construction of new China, People’s Air Force is facing West, East, a severe test on two fronts: the West line of march into Tibet, Free Tibet; Eastern Korean War, defending the homeland. Chairman Mao issued instructions to march into Tibet, the clear instructions “land required for food 18 Jun Tibet, yak should Organization, cars and other transportation sectors, and bought in the local part, by less than the number of Air Force Command, Southwest Military drop and other organizations to resolve. ” March 24, 1950 the vanguard of the Second Field Army captured Kangding, Southwest Military Region on March 29 by calling the Central Military Commission, the request to send aircraft drop support, March 30, Chairman Mao instructed: “The Air Force immediately sent a plane, dropping food, support ground forces. “North China Military Aviation Military Air Force at the air that sent two teams and one West West -46 -47 American transport aircraft, together with the military to take over the four southwest, followed by transfer to 3 West -46 aircraft, composed of the southwest Air Force. Air Force, under the strong leadership of the party, the captain thank Fin, political commissar Li Guangqi, Wang Hongzhi’s role under the leadership model, although a 80 per cent of technical staff is uprising, staff report, was able to achieve excellent edge established, while dropping support for combat flight began, “the air long march”, 13 years flying a Long March of the road, creating more than China and the world aviation history, “first flight” miracle. Support for the Army to enter Tibet, Free Tibet, to prevent the Tibet “independence, especially in support Qamdo battle to fight to promote and, on the peaceful liberation of Tibet, has played an important role. Zhezhi transport aviation unit known as the” plateau Eagle “
1950 April, Chairman Mao issued “to create a strong air force wiped out Candi people, to consolidate national defense,” the great call! ” Chairman Mao issued instructions to enter Tibet, indicating that “in addition to 18 military airport should be completed the construction of Ganzi tasks, and the area should be selected in Dengqen built a temporary landing site, the construction of a common airport in Lhasa.”
Chairman Mao, Premier Zhou concerned about the construction of military air transport, ground handling staff from the intensive training, purchase of high-altitude transport aircraft, the construction of high altitude airport three aspects.
Party Central Military Commission, the Air Force, commander, etc. Liuyalou head and in a timely manner in person or in writing to Chairman Mao, Premier Zhou, Nie (Rongzhen) on behalf of the Chief Executive put forward the views of the report; August 24, 1950 hair President instructed “week preparation, service, or in January next year in February or March to have 30 high-altitude machine”, Vice-President on September 16 by calling the Soviet Government ordered Il -12 transport problems; to enrich high-altitude transport groups force, the second by the Air Force Aviation School organized a special high-altitude transport aircraft training brigade, either by the captain Hsieh Fin, acceptance, training, flying 42 IL -12 aircraft, Soviet advisers to help training, accelerated training a large number of open space ground crew. January 1951, the Southwest Military Region Air Force transport aircraft training team, this high-altitude, high-altitude transport group compiled the second and third brigade, there is IL -12 aircraft 35; April 24, 1951, Air Force set up a transport aviation division , support the implementation of land into the 18th Army, the task of liberation of Tibet, until November 1952, after highway construction to stop the drop Qamdo support missions.
Chairman Mao back in April 1950 indicates: “In addition to 18 military airport should be completed the construction of Ganzi tasks, and the area should be selected in Dengqen built a temporary landing site, the construction of a general airport in Lhasa . ” Because of the Korean War, to postpone the construction of the airport in Lhasa task.
according to Chairman Mao’s great strategic thinking, support our troops seize the opportunity to implement into Tibet, Free Tibet mission. Flight crew had the honor and driving C-46 aircraft Il -12 old, Fenfei large tracts of snow in the summit, is dangerous, but also temper, it is glorious! Drink from the source, must look at the country, the world! How can we forget the beginning of the founding, everything is to be undertaken on the occasion, the hard times, Chairman Mao, Premier Zhou vision, the people must seize this opportunity to personally create a strategic air transport aviation great pains it? We are Mao Zedong’s eagle, love the motherland and the blue sky, flying in the third pole of the roof of the world known as Earth dare to fly over the daring!
the first step, the construction division start-up of the hero who became a revolutionary martyr and some sacrifice, many comrades became the hero of heroes. Big Brother win for the Army after the Battle of Qamdo, said the peace march to Tibet Qamdo portal; we put this young Air Force people off the mountainous north (6000 meters) and the south Gongga Mountain (7000 meters) between the Kangding Yamaguchi, known as the breakthrough “air zone” of the Heavenly Gate. Xie Fin, Wang Hongzhi, etc. of these pioneers, we will always be worth learning plateau flight leader, leading pack!
(b) Liuyalou Lhasa commander personally discuss the use of aircraft airworthiness issues
55 years ago, I support the people of the Air Force’s first air transport Force vice commander; follow the State Council, Central Military Commission’s decision, the Air Force in the Central Military Commission, Lanzhou Military Region, under the command of the direct leadership of the Air Force, I was ordered to lead the trials unit, through the world-famous Bayan Har, Tanggula, Nyainqentanglha and other large mountains, breaking the “air zone” in blue, new, Tibetan snow-covered plateau of the hinterland, the first open Beijing – Lhasa air line, the elevation of 4230 meters when the male prairie land and take off the airstrip.
1956 年 3 13, Premier Zhou Enlai of the Air Force leadership said: Beijing – Lhasa to trials, but should be careful, not risk. “Air Force heavy bomber mission head to the sole 4 units ordered: for transport Air Force trials unit to select the best route, in the air when the male airport aerial; in the head Yaochang Chuan, captain Liangping unit of great assistance for the trials unit to create favorable conditions.
fly twin-piston Propeller IL -12 (-46 or West) aircraft, more than 4000 meters in elevation truck landed it? especially those that load off it? must repair it, what kind of condition the airport?
1956 年February in Beijing, the Central Military Commission Vice Chief of Staff Air Force Command Ting sent us a Liuyalou commander described the rush, he said: “In order to expand Yushu airport (elevation 3920 meters), and the Air Force Commander Liu leading authorities, who ask Soviet aid to China over time consultants, advisers said no such information on the Soviet Air Force; later to ask a visit to Beijing, the Soviet military science delegation who, they say: this is only the Soviet aircraft design expert to answer. Liuyalou commander of the Air Festival in Moscow when the Soviet Union, and Soviet aircraft designers dedicated to the experts this question, their answer is: Soviet Union, no such plateau airport, the aircraft design does not take into account this aspect of the problem; but can look at. After receiving the answer is: the runway length is not less than one million meters of runway ends 25 miles within 10 meters of the obstacles can not have. “
Liuyalou commander of the old Red Army veteran, he was a high degree of responsibility and the spirit of seeking trace hit new lows, and his leadership are good at heuristic greatly shocked, touched me Liu commander to run around, the specific results: First, people (Soviet Union) no elevation of 4230 meters, the airport, and we have; Second, IL -12 did not design this performance, and we use it to play the performance to listen to , I have been asked their own, how do? we must be brave to bear, only to liberate themselves, waiting for the construction sector but also the length of the specific figures to the runway it!
test aircraft. April 24, 1956 will participate in trials of Hanzhan Jun unit. driving IL -12 in Beijing on the performance of high-altitude flight test. focus on two: the first is the gear down in the 4000 meters, 4000 meters elevation simulation, open the engine speed by the second pressure, the propeller speed to 2,500 rev/min pressurized state off; second is the highest ceiling of the aircraft to fly 9040 meters, to meet the requirements.
survey airports, according to Chen Guangfu comrades account. in Beijing during the flight, the Air Force Guangming Hotel Guest House I, in the hope to co-head and he confessed the Air Force instructions, our trials troop build two comrades from the Department of the Air Force, Soviet Union, translators, mapping, meteorology, doctors, pilots and other airport 15-member Air Force reconnaissance team, they take the car along Kozo road into Tibet Lhasa, Shigatse; and Lanzhou Military Region and advance to join the Air Force survey, every second counts, and crosses wading overcome in snow-covered plateau is extremely difficult journey, access to a wealth of information, from several options, select the desired airport. just because of the Qinghai-Tibet highway through when male prairie, a large valley in the terrain the more open, more smooth, tight, simple construction can be more And to catch up. reported the Central Military Commission headquarters building when the male prairie approved the Provisional Airport (Lhasa airport) the airport to repair, not only landed the aircraft, but also took off my first landing, uneven temporary runway, the aircraft roll extreme shock and vibration, the landing roll at the first time within 70 seconds, my mind think, just to thank people who built the airport, thanks to Qinghai, Tibet Military Region Air Force’s support of young people; just feel great for party cohesion power, was able to make extremely difficult to do in a short time become a reality, thanks to kindness of the Party! addition to feeling refreshed, and the joy of victory, no other ideas.
(c) “self-reliance” – a combination of scientists and people Qian, way right, good effect
party for the implementation of our division, “trials in Lhasa,” the task to make a written decision as trials unit I am commander, Air Force Engineering Department field to take advantage of open book cover to my Minister of the Ministry of guiding aircraft engineering maintenance work personally, I request to him personally, please send an air force college students, with aviation reference books to help guide the theoretical work force. sent a higher level engineering maintenance assistant Ryazan hoon comrades Air Force pilot heads of departments, the Air Force will perform “trial in Lhasa,” the mission, ask a great scientist Qian. Qian comrades gladly, and carefully calculated, wrote to Air Force pilot pen airports in the highlands, the flight took off curve formula.
Ryazan Hsun comrades careful study, Professor Chin thoroughly understand the formula, based on the open space to the trials unit at ground crews Detailed plateau airport landing characteristics from the analysis of aircraft landing, taking off on the pull, drag, friction and inertia force of the relationship between the four original formula to start the aircraft at sea level airport, airport takeoff and landing altitude conditions, respectively, made a technical theoretical contrast, identified one of the differences, our comrades to understand the aircraft taking off and landing airport in the highlands, roll time increases, the distance roll up, take off and landing from the ground speed increased to three main features of the changes. In order to solve the coefficient of friction at the ground from the impact of the roll, we also reviewed Rostov USSR Ao Situo Pavlovsky iron “aircraft aerodynamic calculation”; 鲍洛希尼柯 husband’s “basic aerodynamic “Sri Lanka and the German von secret past of the” principles of flight “and other materials. Yushu airport flight is significant, these days we struggled, was particularly tense, altitude sickness is particularly strong, I face all suffering from a yellow water sores. comrades to highly successful results. highlands large temperature difference between the airport, the temperature rises, will greatly increase the length of the takeoff roll and we care according to the views of the Soviet Air Force, according to Yushu airport weather station recorded meteorological data, developed from a minus 5 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees Celsius was recorded changes in the takeoff roll the table, before each flight as a pilot reference material. Yushu airport flight after April 13, 1956 – 15 wrap-up meeting in Xi’an stage, We pay four to superior written report, including a “According to the April 10, 1956 test results, IL -12 aircraft Yushu airport, landing roll distance, up, down slope of the calculation.” is also at this stage the meeting, recommended the Air Force when the male prairie airport runway length of 5,000 meters is sufficient.
trials unit ground crews we have many times Fei Nan Kunming Airport (elevation 1995 public feet), Xining Airport (elevation 2995 meters), especially the flying Ganzi Airport (elevation about 3320 meters), Yushu airport (elevation 3920 m) of practical experience, can fully believe, Qian theory and our actual flight the right combination of practices, ways are right, the reality of force to solve the problem, it is very successful.
1956 年 5 26, unit leader of the lead plane Han Lin trials unit, driving IL -12 aircraft No. 5116, male prairie when the first temporary safety Feidalasa airport, successfully completed the landing and take off again on May 28, Han Xinghua, Han Zhanjun two units, number of aircraft were driving 5118,5105, safe landing successfully completed. trials successful, million Tibetan people looking blue Alice, delighted to meet the trials unit to celebrate the arrival of the Air Force Directorate sent a telegram to congratulate the success of trials in Lhasa. 27, the major national newspapers to see the Xinhua News Agency broadcast of the “Beijing – Lhasa route successful trial run, “an important message, and the Tibetan local leaders congratulate article.
5 29, the Department of Defense military trials, ground handling staff issued a commendation to make.
trials The IL -12 aircraft, flying through my teacher, pilot, engineering maintenance, communications, logistics departments to carry out a wide range of military democracy, study and solve the many practical issues, the higher was the strong support of screening of aircraft engines, plus 10 conversion number of devices, all aware of in the open Beijing – Lhasa air line task, done without one casualty for the construction of Tibet, the Tibetan national security to do the best to prepare the battlefield, no dead ends to achieve the national airspace, to our most important strategic plateau purpose of the flight, called the miracle of the world’s aviation history.
(d) of Premier Zhou Enlai instructed the aircraft airworthiness Lhasa Vice Premier Chen Yi’s plane responsible for the task
1956 年 5 26, the first Air Force people to open Beijing – Lhasa air line trials unit leader lead aircraft crew Han Lin, Il-12 twin-propeller transport aircraft No. 5116 landed safely in Lhasa when the male simple Airport and landed safely again after the success of; day, Vice Premier Chen Yi in Lhasa on the plane ride back to Beijing shakedown problems to the Air Force Commander Liu Yalou sent a telegram, and approved by Premier Zhou asked the consent.
1956 5 30, Liuyalou ride trials on the plane back to Beijing, commander of the issue to the Vice-Premier Chen Yi’s telegram:
“Vice-Premier Chen: May 26th show King noted. Han Lin comrades have called in the flight to Lhasa to accept transfer orders to report to Beijing. I have immediately in accordance with your plan, indicating when the male, Yushu, Xining, and the navigation points along the route of flight immediately carefully prepared to ensure the safety of the flight test, and sent the Air Force Command, Deputy Chief of Staff to Xining Zhang Tingfa comrades pro layout. While your program reports the Prime Minister. “
the electricity went on to say:” The prime minister instructed: In addition to air the issues related to the flight should be well prepared, should be in Xining (or Yushu) round-trip flights between Lhasa route one, two times, after which, as the case decided to implement flight plan. “
Liu commander of the message went on to say:” follow the Prime Minister instructed, for safety reasons, we advice that you should not take the first plane to be the first batch of four vehicles, according to plan ( June 1) before sending the rest of the delegation of staff and return to Xining, you take the second flight of the aircraft back to Xining, you are to Da Xining, we plane alternates from Beijing to Xining take you back to Beijing. We have reported this proposal the Prime Minister. … We recommend that you take the driving Comrade Lin Han Il -12 as well. “
follow the instructions of Premier Zhou Enlai, Liu Yalou commander personally led the organization trials, three aircraft navigation Lhasa, Vice Premier Chen Yi and other responsible leaders of the special plane tasks, and specifically to the blue air, Xining command post When the male, Yushu, Xining Airport and points along the route of navigation, weather station, made a plane flight safety instructions to ensure message.
(e) Marshal Chen Yi is the first such plane VIP
1956 年 5 26, unit leader of the lead plane Han Lin trials unit, driving IL -12 aircraft No. 5116, the first temporary safety Feidalasa When male prairie airport, successfully completed the landing and take off again on May 28, Han Xinghua, Han Zhanjun two units, number of aircraft were driving 5118,5105, safe landing successfully completed. trials successful, million Tibetan people looking blue Alice, delighted to meet to celebrate the Trial unit’s arrival. telegram the day Vice-Premier Chen Yi to Liuyalou Commander Commander by Vice Premier Chen Yi Liu’s plans, reports the Prime Minister.
5 29, the Department of Defense for military trials, ground handling staff issued awards to make.
5 月 29 日 Vice Premier Chen Yi in Tibet Special meeting rooms, listened to our report, he firmly shook my hand, again and again, said: “Well, This is the first time in our history! “
5 30, on the plane ride back to Beijing airworthiness issue a telegram to Chen Yi, vice president of hair, carefully made to ensure the safety of deployment.
order to secure the absolute safety of access back to the first sub-group of the central delegation, we have three aircraft returned to Xining, according to the national standard plane, the replacement for the plane aviation fuel, and then carefully checked the aircraft and make the requirements of the national plane flight preparation, and returned when the male (Lhasa) airport, we on the snowy plateau with a very simple aircraft to perform a particularly important mission.
6 3 afternoon and the morning flight on June 4, I went into two Marshal Chen Yi’s stay in yurts, each time to see him sucking oxygen in my head to greet the report of the Party attaches great importance to the Air Force plane heads back to Xining, the Air Force mission, deputy chief of staff headquarters Ting made a special trip to Xining to meet the head of his party, reported plane well-prepared.
6 月 4 date shall pre-arranged plan, were boarding. Ms. Chen Yihe Zhang Qian, Zhang Jingwu Special Representative of the Central and their entourage on the ride in our 5116 number of aircraft crew driving on the delegation’s Wang Feng, Huang Qixiang and participate in the third meeting of the National People’s Congress deputies Zhang Guohua, Rao 西泽仁卓玛 other men traveling in 5105,5118 numbers are on the plane.
after take-off, I command three aircraft, the use of strong updraft morning, quickly climb to 8,000 meters. First, the high altitude can make better use of westerly downstream forward, I want to strive to 5 hours returned Xining; second , high altitude, the air easier to observe changes in the weather this day, climate suddenly changes, the way to Yushu airport, the source of the Yellow River over a few pockets of the lake, thunder clouds rolling in. At this time, the Air Force deputy chief of staff sits Xining Zhang Tingfa . Xining airport command station, on several occasions ordered me to lead the three Yushu landing due to icing on my machine to interrupt the communication antenna, correspondent Li Pengju only with machine on the command post communication and navigation antennas and Xining, the formation of the plane Xining on the chain of command to receive, but can not hear my answer does not fall Yushu, to Fei Xining communication reports when on the ground, air, two nervous and my thoughts tense, immediately think of today, this situation is to listen do not listen to the higher command of the big problems, just like: December 1947, I brought 110 groups to participate in the core to eliminate the enemy fortifications of the enemy Laiyang City, the attack blocked, head of the command corps: “do not call back tonight, down, shoot! “Choice is also a serious test of party loyalty. Although I am alert, a lot of pressure, but still calm and co-pilot Shaoshun Guang, economic history and a series of pilots to discuss that: half-way landing Yushu, complex conditions through the clouds, lack of command of the aircraft landing the airport facilities through the clouds, too unsafe, in addition, against the thunder clouds flying, if encountered thundercloud, the consequences would be disastrous. therefore a bold move to fly through the clouds of thick clouds. dare not execute the command landed Yushu , because the big political responsibility requires me to use their brains to make the right choice, make the head of plane safest, most secure destination and my command is determined to move forward without hesitation Fei Xining, to succeed, not fail! and timely command Han Xinghua, Han Zhanjun, 7000 meters high to maintain a high degree of rule of thumb, you can wear through the clouds and cloud, the cloud will not wear around the cloud, Duolu Fenfei.
I also has its own Fuan are: race and the thundercloud, in time it is ahead, rather gliding fly Lanzhou, Xi’an and even not able to head on Yushu, this is the true feelings of my heart I see from time to time turned to the rear , due to the high altitude, less air turbulence, Chen, director Zhang Yuan Mingqi maintenance Heads sit carefully arranged, fixed on the plane of the Xining hotel two large single sofa, very calm, serene adsorption of oxygen, Comrade Zhang Qian is lying on cushions laid on the cabin, stable sleep. Heaven must be a way, three aircraft down to 4500 meters altitude, ripped through the use of a cloud under the cloud, slowly down through the navigation station in Xining, are accurate landing airport in Xining, the Air Force deputy chief of staff headquarters Ting hair, provincial party secretary Wang Zhao Qinghai provinces, cities come head went up, Vice Premier Chen Yi was leaning against the door, excited frequently beckoned to the crowd
2006, the Air Force Aviation Museum hall 20th anniversary of the leading authorities in support of the Air Force, the transport aviation division and the Air Force Aviation Museum to organize a commemoration of “trial Lhasa successful” 50th Anniversary – “Plateau Eagle “exhibition. former Politburo member, Air Force Commander, Political Commissar Zhang Tingfa inscription” Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Eagle “.
over my preparation for the exhibition, the first guest houses to live Beijing Military Region. June 18, 2005 Day, Politburo member, Central Military Commission Vice defense minister met with me at noon Beijing Fu Ting Guizheng Military Commission, Qiu Jinkai chief of staff, presided over a 30-person office within the party participating in the big round table, late Vice grip my hand, I will introduce to you, he said: “Comrade Han Lin, smart crack, a brave soldier, the first Fei Lasa, back to Chen Yi! “Encouraged a plus, remember, remember!
2009 年 Chi Vice President as” China Aviation Museum “held” to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Chinese People’s Air Force weapons achievements exhibition “inscription:” Plateau Eagle “.
party to create a people’s army, military personnel bring the party! we must be loyal to the party, love the Air Force to build the Air Force, Air Force, dedicated, hard learning, innovation and development, completion of the new mission!