U.S. to build “future soldier” one-man operation 20 times capacity
U.S. military intelligence developed armor, CFP for map
Wangzhang Qin Wang Xiongchun
competing in other countries develop their own digital soldier system, the number of U.S. soldier system – “Land Warrior” has won in Iraq, Afghanistan battlefield.
2007 Mar. Aug., 200 sets of “Land Warrior” system, the first U.S. installation in Iraq mechanized infantry brigade, air commando and special operations forces, then put a series of major actions, the United States is widely Army officers and soldiers home. According to the U.S. Department of Defense Office of the soldiers perform a comprehensive assessment plan, the system can improve the combat capability of man 20 times.
by the “Land Warrior” system such as digital man armed with a “future soldier” fighting a quantum leap. Careful analysis of this digital soldier system, the technology leap is mainly reflected in one integrated, integrated and comprehensive fire protection these three areas.
a period of time, people often discuss: Army “Big Brother” really function in modern warfare weakened? Throughout the Gulf War from 1991 to 2003 war in Iraq, the U.S. Army seems to be little as, or even sit in the Kosovo war, a 78-day “back seat.”
fact, not a weakening of the army in its marine capabilities, but the Navy, Air Force gang of “little brother maybe” in has a sea, air superiority in the case, and ground combat capabilities in strengthening. However, the domestic political situation in the controllability of the war the increasing demand, did lead to the use of the Army are increasingly constrained by political concerns.
therefore, no longer seeking a “big brother” status, highlighting the joint naval and air forces, integration, it has become clear direction of Army transformation. And the land, sea, air, space, electricity, network integration of the different dimensions of power, and extends to the Marine’s man, is it a breakthrough. Countries are scrambling to develop digital-man system is based on this trend.
the U.S. “Land Warrior” system, for example, the man with the information system, which is to support the team leaders and team radio and portable computers together to form a communication, navigation, positioning, information processing and computing functions such as integrated fire control system.
monitor the radio frequency of 30 ~ 88 MHz, the communication distance of about 5 km. Soldier radio frequency in the 1775 ~ 1850 MHz, the communication distance of about 1.3 km. Monitor access to tactical information systems both the Internet, send and receive uniform on the battlefield situation map, action plan table, fire support plans and other information, but also under the team of broadcast or point to point within the confidential calls. In this way, all personnel within the team, in fact, has been integrated into the organization by the Joint Operations Tactical Internet system, combined with its capability to enhance and multiply.
2007 In September, a mission in Baghdad to suppress the external execution squad, suffered a large number of militants ambushed. These soldiers did not like the previous request for support to their immediate superior, but immediately sent reinforcements to the field commander of the joint request. Received a request from field commanders to joint airspace near the F-16 fighters ordered the implementation of aerial bombing, the entire process takes less than 5 minutes. With a short time, obviously not traditional combat methods can be compared.
reason is simple, one-man system of digital equipment, “man” is no longer the traditional sense of the battlefield solitary point, but the integration of the entire combat system in a node. This node, there are a variety of “eyes” to help him, there are various “ears” to help him hear, there are a variety of “computer” to help him count, there are a variety of ” experts “to help him dry, of course, to the” magic “to the enemy has been defeated several times.
Army “Big Brother” status into question the reason, there is one important reason that the guidance of the Army weapons and ammunition far behind the navy and air force.
to the U.S. 4th Infantry Division, for example, infantry squad level action, self-sustaining weapons are M-16 or M-4 rifles and 7.62 mm, 12.7 mm light machine guns, plus a 40 mm grenade launcher device. Able to infantry fire support squad-level operations, in addition to the “Apache” helicopter mounted anti-tank missiles and even platoon-focused use of the “Javelin” anti-tank missiles, others such as 107 mm mortars, 155 mm self- howitzers and multiple rocket launchers, etc., not with the guidance function. This fire, described as “playing hard” than “hit potential” inadequate.
a result, the Army’s transformation, in addition to relying on information system implementation and integration of naval and air forces, but also special emphasis on the use of firepower and sea-to-ground firepower to complement each other, interrelated. To accomplish this, it requires marine forces, especially infantry fighting force in the effective strength of the point targets and short-range attacks, while across the state to target, time-critical targets and goals for short-range bunker positioning instructions to integrated land, sea and air of different dimensions of fire, ensure combat effectiveness.
countries are scrambling to develop a digital soldier system, also based on this idea, emphasizing precision firepower in improving their strength at the same time, to at or near the detection, measurement of the way came close to fire into the various the established goals.
U.S. “Land Warrior” system of weapons subsystems, is relying on the M-4 and M-16 gun family, through the group with thermal imaging devices, digital cameras, laser ranging sight, can be set by ammunition made. Among them, thermal imaging and digital cameras can be targets for short-range infrared imaging camera or video, images can be displayed on the helmet-mounted display or upload information systems through the man to Tactical Internet. Laser ranging sight, can be within 2,500 meters from the target range positioning. Information system can also man the determination based on the target, automatic solver trajectory, automatically set by sensitive ammunition, automatic target tracking, and then select the kinetic kill or volley blast destruction. This set of sensitive munitions that fashion, almost all the ordinary shooter into a battlefield. “Sniper.” Meanwhile, the digital soldier system network features, but also for the calibration target orientation, integration with other combat fire support provided accurate information.
2008 March day, use the “Land Warrior” system of a U.S. military patrol in southern Afghanistan, a Taliban patrol spotted mountain camp. Patrol then upload this information to the joint command post, joint command post immediately under the command of intelligence in the vicinity of the flight of the “Predator” unmanned aerial vehicles, only two laser-guided bombs destroyed this camp.
a survey in 2010 in Pakistan, the United States Central Intelligence Agency launched 118 unmanned ground attack, most of the ground by a similar battle group command post to assist the target information. Obviously, the man equipped with digital systems, “man” is no longer the traditional sense of the army, but an integral power of joint operations.
Therefore, the U.S. military’s assessment that: “Land Warrior” system has shown that application of the initial combat, infantry fighting personnel in the information war in the tremendous firepower advantage, has made the property of their military services increasingly dilute, they respond to a variety of battlefield threats and complete a variety of combat missions, more determined to rely on the joint force, rather than the military services or the power of arms, more than their own limited power.
the U.S. that, while modern war is still the continuation of politics, but politics, democracy and popular concern about the cost of the war, making war decision-makers will become increasingly “care about” human cost of war. U.S. must lead by technology, first to explore the low casualty or casualties equipment and technology and warfare.
To this end, man in the development of the digital system, made both through information superiority, mobility advantages, advantages of active fire protection war soldiers, but also with a performance by the passive protective equipment to protect soldiers in the war.
“Land Warrior” system, subsystem, protective clothing, helmets in addition to its detection, targeting, and other information display function, also has excellent bullet-proof, anti-laser and anti-nuclear, biological function. Protective clothing in addition to heat, flame retardant, thermal insulation, but also bullet-proof, anti-nuclear, biological, anti-infrared detection.
loaded with packages of their soft, aptamer, multi-purpose, computer and radio holder and radio antenna, built-in built-in. The ceramic plate plug-in bullet-proof vest, to the direction of 360 degrees in a variety of light weapons to resist projectile attacks. Information and monitoring system with IFF around the enemy’s capabilities, in order to reduce one’s own mistakenly hit by enemy attack or dorsal. The entire system is modular in design so that timely replacement or improvement of the various components. According to the U.S. military assessment, “Land Warrior” system performance, comprehensive protection of individual man, not less than one-piece protective equipment 2 to 5 times.
is worth noting that, despite Israel, France, Germany, Britain, Spain, Italy, Australia, India and South Africa’s in use or in-man study of digital systems, basically to the U.S. “Land Warrior” system modeled, but they also have different features.
Britain’s “future integration of infantry,” the system, increased focus on information integration. They believe that by improving the integration of sensors and information-man operations to improve efficiency, better than lethal ammunition to improve the operational efficiency to improve the man, but through the “system of systems” to class as a man to a higher level system building, enabling the infantry squad as a tank or infantry fighting vehicles, as with integrated firepower advantage.
Germany’s “future soldier” systems, such as the United States, though not technically as a large-span, but is very practical. It not only has the protection of a helmet, but also integrated micro-receiver, can the skull as a resonance box. Through the frequency filter can effectively reduce fire and explosion noise.
Israel’s “A Nuoge” system, highlighting the ability of soldiers fighting in the streets. The hand-held weapon scanners that can see through the enemy’s camouflage. Bending-type firing device, the barrel can be bent about 63 degrees. High-resolution camera on the barrel, can hide behind a wall in front of the image passed to the shooter, the shooter to grasp the essentials corner shooting, you can accurately hit targets 150 meters.
South Africa’s “African Warrior” system, with special emphasis on human biological characteristics. Special glasses frame, the same can be issued with the dawn of the white light spectrum, so that the awakening of the sleepy soldiers without affecting vision. New design boots, through a special process to disperse foot pressure, so that the soldiers marching in the marshes will not feel difficult.
However, the number of countries to man-portable systems, practical direction in the process, but also face many technical challenges. Such as weight loss problems. The current system of digital man, generally bulky. U.S. “Land Warrior” system, only the clothes on the weight of more than ten kilograms, if coupled with firearms, ammunition, radio, computer, water, helmet, body armor and other items, fighting weight of nearly 50 kg, which is extremely soldiers continued to fight on foot detrimental.
have reliability problems. Digital radio by the strong electromagnetic interference, distance and reliability of its role in greatly reduced or even completely ineffective. Although the U.S. “Land Warrior” system known as the strongest anti-interference ability, but also actual outage occurs so many times, even off the network and is supported by fire mistakenly hit.
another power supply problem. Current power supply for the digital system is man portable battery. The battery is bulky, time is short. American Standard battery, its size and weight of the equivalent of two full 30 rounds of 5.56 mm magazine. Each soldier carried at least two such batteries, one in use, another backup. Large and heavy batteries so that the soldiers is very annoying. Although under normal circumstances, each battery can be 6 to 8 hours of work, and the “Stryker” infantry fighting vehicles to their charge, but the longer the duration of the march and fight on foot, battery power is still a great soldier heart disease. Especially in the case of isolated sustained operations, once the battery is dead, the whole system into a pile of waste.
In addition, how to deal with the relationship between soldiers and the system is also very realistic. In the U.S. Army Operational Test conducted several high-level, some soldiers would rather wait for instructions from their superiors do not believe the display of information. Some soldiers were over-reliance on one-man system, the basic technical and tactical anti-neglected. Therefore, the Program Executive Office for United States Department of Defense soldiers in its follow-up survey report stressed that: “any system of skills and tactics can not be replaced if the system upgrade and tactics can not be followed up, the system is not a ‘multiplier’, anti- into the ‘fold reduction device’. “This statement made after China and other countries do need to learn a lesson.
(Author: Academy of Military Sciences)