“Carrier of the Century”
During World War II aircraft carrier in the naval field of “who was home on” the situation in one fell swoop destroyed the battleship’s dominance, dominate the sea, “rookie”, and rapid development. But after the war, with nuclear weapons, strategic missile and a variety of new conventional weapons, many countries on the issue of whether the development of aircraft carriers, began wandering, aircraft development was at a low ebb. Although the United States in the “war” after the establishment of its absolute superiority at sea, but because the United States used atomic bombs in Japan twice, “nuclear supremacy” argument was popular. In 1946, the United States conducted nuclear tests in Bikini Atoll, the use of two aircraft carrier “Saratoga” and “Independence” to test the ability of anti-nuclear explosion, the results of a sinking, a serious injury; 1949, fanatical support U.S. Secretary of Defense Johnson flatly bomber stopped only 5 days to start, “United States of America No.” large aircraft carrier, and then purchase B-36 heavy bombers, causing a strong reaction from the U.S. Navy, eventually led to the U.S. Navy in the history of the famous “fight captains “U.S. aircraft carrier development of the road was blocked.
the Soviet Union and later Russia, is also developing the aircraft carrier on a winding section of road walking. Li Jie told the reporter, the Soviet Navy in the early Stalin period, it considered the development of aircraft carriers, and later as “war” broke out halt. Khrushchev came to power, the nose of the aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines and long-range missiles opposite of doubly respected. “Although the Soviet Union, then the economy can be, but still slightly inferior compared to the United States, level of technology does not work, so it’s guiding ideology is a threat to U.S. missiles or long-range strike by the U.S. nuclear submarine aircraft carrier battle groups to deal with because It is known in the field of aircraft carriers, and the United States at sea one of the contest may not be the opponent, so we focus on the development of strategic nuclear submarines and nuclear-powered attack submarine. “August 1957, the Soviet Union announced the successful launch of an intercontinental missile, while the second years, the U.S. Navy decided to start building nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. In 1961, the first one nuclear aircraft carrier “Enterprise” was published.
1962 outbreak of the “Cuban missile crisis” completely changed this view. American U2 reconnaissance plane photographed Soviet Union deployed in Cuba, 16 to 32 Soviet medium-range ballistic missile photos, angered Kennedy. “At that time the United States aircraft carrier battle groups out of eight, probably seven or eight hundred aircraft, 90 ships, all ships entering Cuban waters of the Soviet Union stopped all at first Khrushchev also fooling, and the Americans to fight in the end said, In fact the last moment, but the soft down, the island of Cuba more than 20 pieces of lead out of all of withdrawal of Soviet submarine surveillance aircraft carrier in the United States under the surface for inspection, is a very lose face thing. ” Li Jie said.
“Cuban missile crisis” to recognize the Soviet Union and the United States aircraft carrier combat and deterrence. After Khrushchev’s attitude towards the aircraft carrier began to change. “But because of the sensibilities he started too embarrassed to say so when naval commander will try to figure out his intentions, Khrushchev proposed to create a ‘helicopter anti-submarine cruiser’ – he was embarrassed to call ‘aircraft carrier’ – that is, Tianjin is now parked in the ‘Kiev’, is actually nothing on earth. “Li Jie said, after the Soviet Union and have built the” Moscow “and the” Minsk “,” can take off and land a small amount of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft, but performance worse. ” Then to the “Kuznetsov”, went on to develop one called “Ulyanovsk.” “This aircraft carrier was made of seventy to eighty percent, and the large U.S. aircraft carrier has technical performance is very close to war, 89 million tons, is also a nuclear power, but also the steam catapult, but the disintegration of the Soviet one, to throw in there the United States playing a wrist said, ‘I want a higher price for your scrap steel, you give me removed the’ Soviet Union was also a mess, say ‘OK’. carrier split in the future, U.S. companies that our company goes bankrupt, not the The results of the Russian people playing, because the demolition of the useless. “
In fact, Russia now has only one carrier is the” Kuznetsov “, each with its Russian leader to visit, are much ridiculed. “Although it’s head getting bigger, but not a fixed-wing to take the early-warning aircraft, have been compelled to go out every time. First, its limited funding, the level of training is not very high; Second, turnout is low, the same time, the out rate than the United States is only half, so the capability is not very strong. with their own ship’s poor performance, power system would not work, thus affecting the overall combat capability. “
since 1976, Americans carrier frequency of the controversy has been less than 10 times, trying to find another means to replace the high maintenance costs of aircraft carrier, trying to use less money to ensure that sufficient military force. But after several discussions, the parties can eventually acknowledged that the U.S. aircraft carrier to ensure that only the development of “force projection” of the mobility and deterrence. So, regardless of the war in Kosovo, or in the air strikes against Libya, the U.S. aircraft carrier is still active in the international arena.
Today, most have to compete with carriers, nuclear submarines and submarine-launched ballistic missiles, I’m afraid. “There are many military fans in middle school and carrier to send the submarine controversy. Have a super hidden nuclear submarines, intercontinental long-range combat power and the second-strike nuclear capability. However, it also has inherent drawbacks: the underwater action is often a single boat activity, the comprehensive combat capability of aircraft carrier battle groups will not be worth much in non-combat operations in the role and influence is far inferior to the carrier battle group. “Li Jie said,” especially in sea rescue and disaster relief, maritime terrorism anti-piracy, maritime maintenance lines and so much more obvious. “
Li Jie, so do not agree with the” aircraft carrier out of date “argument. For example, he said the United States is now developing the latest generation of “Ford-class” aircraft carrier, is now building the second ship. “It is a new nuclear power can be either 50 years, unlike in the past, used fuel rods to be replaced after ten years. The main thing is for a carrier aircraft, using the latest fourth generation aircraft F35-C, One advantage is that they cruise at supersonic speed – generally faster than the speed of sound of the flight. Another advantage is the stealth effect is very good, the other ship movements are very convenient, better mobility, weapons and also replaced all the latest style, no longer use guns, missiles and the like, but all laser weapons, electromagnetic rail guns these latest weapons, and leaping. “Li Jie said that existing U.S. aircraft carrier level ahead of other countries at least two or three years, the latest carrier to the gap has widened.
“according to the U.S. plan, this level wants to build a total of 10 aircraft to replace the current 10. The first one will be 2014 or 2015 service, the service life of 50 years after, 2064 years to end the mission. Finally, one will be in service by 2048, but also over 50 years, so in the foreseeable period of time, the carrier battle group is still difficult to replace any weapons of the 21st century is the century of the aircraft carrier. “
Since China started late, why not direct the development of nuclear-powered aircraft carrier it? Li Jie explained: “There is a technical problem, such a big guy like aircraft carriers, many of our areas are empty, most have absorbed from scratch, start, there is a prioritization, trade-off problem. Nuclear, electromagnetic ejection, a new-concept weapons, and some we do not, and some made it out. submarine power systems and aircraft are not the same, the Chinese carrier, is more important is to address from ’0 ‘to ’1′ problems. “
Jiawu sea, China plunged into “big and small navy” situation. New China’s navy is April 23, 1949 created. The main idea was to build the Navy is to prevent the imperialist invasion from the sea, the state in the economy under very difficult circumstances the allocation of funds to buy a large number of Soviet naval equipment, and later because of the Korean War, the international situation changes and termination. So, for a long period of time, basically a Chinese navy in the “house” “housekeeping nursing homes”, only with the near-shore combat capability of the “yellow water” navy.
In fact, around the issue of whether the development of aircraft carriers, China has had a heated debate. A senior Navy official said: “We have three generations of Navy Commander to build aircraft carrier to the central question raised, but they did not get through, it causes a lot of strength is not enough, lack of strategic needs, views the problem, and so on.” West, a theory : 30 years of the Army, Air Force 50 years, 100 years, the Navy, which also reflects the Navy into a large, slow effect of the problem.
building an aircraft carrier, no doubt need to be the country’s massive economic power behind it. Li Jie, the United States last one, “Nimitz-class” aircraft carrier “Bush number” for example, said: “The single-ship cost is $ 6.5 billion – approximately equal to 400 billion yuan, which is just ship itself, the ship’s aircraft may spend less money than the aircraft carrier, if the count by $ 6.5 billion, also about 40 billion yuan. After serving aircraft carrier, the past 30 years life span, during which crop to be updated several aircraft, and back to one or two decades later crop, but also spend a lot of money. there is a formation out, there are many escort ships, fleet and ship itself is basically spent almost 67 billion dollars; in addition to daily expenses, I have calculated that the United States’ Nimitz ‘aircraft carrier at sea, when, an hour to spend nearly $ 100,000 five or six thousand people on an aircraft carrier, the aircraft should go one day to spend millions of dollars. “
but Li Jie also reminded correspondents, if produced from input costs and benefit ratio point of view, may increase the understanding of the carrier layer. “Build the aircraft carrier itself, but to the related industries, industries such as aircraft carriers billions of dollars of investment in other industrial property is that it costs several times, port, base facilities, including the development of future technology will greatly enhance the level, it is not completely consumed from the carrier itself to look at the problem. “In addition, although the carrier to spend a lot, but far from the money to buy the. “The emergence of aircraft carriers, so that sea power into three-dimensional integrated joint campaign corps, the sea power to enhance. Aircraft carrier is a concept of space, the field of battle into a three-dimensional from two-dimensional. Carrier aircraft speed, altitude, and detection range than the surface greatly increased, and three-dimensional joint operational capabilities are greatly enhanced operational capability. the carrier’s overall combat capability compared with conventional ships is not an order of magnitude on – 30 destroyers to search the sea area, it is equivalent to a carrier; search of the area and it is flat, the aircraft carrier is a concept of space, 30 destroyers and far beyond the cost of an aircraft carrier. “
” carrier is not only a symbol of great power, it is actually on a country’s naval forces to gather together into a sea battle and be able to perform combat missions or combat operations at sea, large-scale maritime group, so it will bring a whole series of changes in sea power, including command structure, weapons, military theory, organizational system, and to promote the development of related industries and the military, so the impact and significance of an aircraft carrier, is certainly not a single ship, but the whole sea power and naval forces have seen dramatic changes. “
recent years, carriers are increasingly being used in military operations other than war. 2004 tsunami in Indonesia, “when the United States sent aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ship, the aircraft into the helicopter above, the local and neighboring countries to send relief supplies, relief materials in China is distributed by U.S. helicopters.” “Abraham Lincoln” aircraft carrier in the Southeast Asian tsunami disaster relief operations in the implementation of the peace when the demonstrated ability is impressive.
2010 earthquake in Haiti, the United States again sent out, “Carl Vinson” nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and amphibious assault ships. At that time the capital of Port-au-power systems were all destroyed, the United States with the carrier to generate electricity, provide night lighting, “Carl Vinson” aircraft carrier on the power to provide electricity than the entire au-Prince to be strong. In addition, because aircraft manufacturing facilities, fresh water is very powerful, “Carl Vinson” also provides a lot of fresh au-Prince. They also removed most of the fixed-wing aircraft, replaced by helicopters in disaster relief, distributing supplies. A recent example is Japan’s Fukushima nuclear leakage, the U.S. immediately sent “Ronald Reagan” aircraft carrier to the “rescue”, but after it learned that there is radiation, then quickly retreated several miles.
recent years, with an extension of national interests to the ocean, “China needs aircraft carriers,” the voices are becoming stronger. “Our national interests in the end where? Chinese people are mostly facing LOESS back into the air, a stronger sense of the mainland, past the old saying 9.6 million square kilometers of land, vast land, but did not realize we still have about 300 million square kilometers of ‘marine Land ‘maritime interests for the interests of the land is not so valued. “Jie said.
order to more vividly understand the “territorial waters” concept, for example, called the image of Li Jie: “Land is shaped like a rooster, but with the waters, then, looks like a torch, the flame above The following is a torch, especially in the South China Sea, there are nine out line, is holding the handle. “This is about 300 million square kilometers of maritime exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, is very rich in mineral resources, critical to the development of China’s future .
However, the 300 million square kilometers of “territorial waters”, the approximately 150 million square kilometers there is a bounded domain with the controversy surrounding countries, and some have been illegally occupied. “South China Sea this more severe form, and the interlocking interests, we now solve the South China Sea, to the economic, cultural, technological and diplomatic means comprehensive, but to do without military support.”
“Today , the state is actually the lifeblood of industrial and maritime linked to the current oil imports 2/3 is transported by sea, after the raw materials, ore and even food may be transported through the sea lanes to come, if we do not strengthen this article route security, economic development will threaten the United States and other countries if the channel waters in the Malacca one card, not to mention the war, usually it is difficult to do. “Chinese naval escort operations have to go to the Gulf of Aden last three years, and the ability of the Navy equipment is very good exercise. Currently, China annually on that route on a $ 2 trillion in logistics. “Although there is no ocean area land area, the role of the future as much as or even more than the land.” Jie said. Sea lanes safe or not, is of great significance. In this sense, the emergence of aircraft carriers, but also to ensure safety at sea adds a heavy weight. ■
first aircraft carrier:
HMS “Argus No.”
HMS “Argus No.”
1909, the French 克雷曼阿德 first described to the world with this fascinating aircraft and warships to the dream. In that year he published “military flights” in his book, first proposed the basic concept and construction of aircraft carriers of the initial ideas. Two years later, November 14, 1910, Americans began to try to fulfill this vision. Military pilot group in the new light cruiser “Birmingham number” on the front deck, paved a long 25.3 m wide and 7.3 meters, wooden runways. Pilot Eugene Ely driving a single biplane on the runway in this special wind sky. Second year on January 18, or pilot Eugene Ely, an airplane in the heavy cruiser “Pennsylvania Road” on the successful completion of the land. The two take-off and landing tests, laid a new ship class aircraft carrier as the technology base.
1917 year is very important to the history of an aircraft carrier a year, this year, the British Navy decided to build an aircraft carrier. They absorb the advanced technology and the lessons the United States on the basis of the Italian merchant ship “Royal Rosso number library” to transform the hull, in May 1918 has built the world’s first a straight-through flat flight deck of the “Argus No. “aircraft carrier, its displacement of 1.4459 million tons, can carry machine 20, in September formally incorporated into the British Royal Navy.
first one nuclear aircraft carrier:
U.S. Navy “Enterprise”
U.S. Navy” Enterprise “
1958 fiscal year, the U.S. ordered a nuclear aircraft carrier, the ship was named “Enterprise.”
“Enterprise” is the reputation of the U.S. Navy in the history of one of the most powerful ship name, the CVN-65 has been active is the eighth time to use the name, nickname “Big E”. It started construction in February 1958, November 1961, joined the U.S. Navy Pacific Fleet. Its displacement of 85,600 tons, length 342 m wide and 40 meters (waterline), the largest deck width of 76 meters. Powered by eight of a2w Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, drive four General Electric steam turbine, speed 33.
1964, the “Enterprise” for an unprecedented global voyage, en route without refueling and resupply, which lasted 64 days, total distance of more than 30,000 sea miles, it shows a huge nuclear power endurance. In 1970, he sailed 300,000 sea miles, the second replacement of nuclear fuel. 1979 to 1982, “Enterprise” during the modern period of 38 months during the conversion, the third replacement of nuclear fuel. Into the 1990s, “Enterprise” has been modernizing project, the fourth replacement fuel. As the cost is too high, the U.S. Congress did not agree to continue the construction of “Enterprise,” the same type of ship, replaced by much cheaper than traditional power and the “Kitty Hawk-class” aircraft carrier. The latter cost only than “Enterprise” little more than half.
active smallest aircraft:
Thailand “Chuck Li Dynasty No.”
Thailand” Chuck Li Dynasty No. “
Royal Thai Navy in March 1992 signed with the Spanish state-owned shipbuilding Bazin, ordered one can carry helicopters and Harrier vertical short takeoff and landing of light aircraft carrier machine, by the company’s shipyard Faro . After less than four years of design and construction, to January 20, 1996 launched. Queen Sirikit of Thailand went to Spain, Queen Sofia of Spain presided over the launching ceremony, accompanied by the two countries also join the Navy commander of this grand ceremony. Royal Navy aboard the light aircraft carrier, named for the King of Thailand as the “Chuck Li Dynasty number”, and “Chuck reason” is the name of the Bangkok dynasty’s founding king.
ship a total length of 182.6 meters, width 22.5 m, draft 6.25 m, the standard displacement of 7,000 tons full load displacement of 1.1485 million tons. Maximum speed of 26, endurance of 10,000 nautical miles/12. It set the standard machine for the 12 AV-8S “Harrier Ⅱ” vertical takeoff and landing aircraft or the 14 “Sea King” helicopter (it can be 6 “Chinook” helicopters).
“Chuck Li Dynasty number” as the aircraft carrier, aircraft carrier in the world, the family is “junior.” But it is undeniable that the Thai Navy’s position in Southeast Asia can be improved to become one of the region’s most powerful maritime force. Thai Navy during the war with a forward base can be mobilized at any time, in the usual sea rescue operation has also been an ideal command and control, communications center.
far the largest carrier:
Navy “Nimitz-class” nuclear-powered aircraft carrier
U.S. Navy “Nimitz-class” nuclear-powered aircraft carrier
“Nimitz-class” aircraft carrier is the world’s largest offshore naval power giant, a total of 10 ships of the same type. The first ship of this class, “Nimitz” in 1966, began construction in 1975, opened last one, “Bush’s numbers” are completed in 2008, delivered in 2009 the U.S. Navy.
all “Nimitz-class” nuclear-powered aircraft carrier is to promote mining, equipment, 4 lifts, four steam catapults and four block search can be ejected out of every 20 seconds a combat aircraft. From the displacement, the “Nimitz Class” is the world’s largest aircraft carrier, starting from the fifth since the installation of a ship thousands of tons of heavy armor plate, it increased to 102,000 tons full load displacement, as the world ever the largest warships. “Bush number” after the completion of the 10 ships of the total displacement of almost 100 million tons.
“Nimitz” aircraft carrier is a floating city airport and the sea, the ship deck area equivalent to three football pitches, the ship is up to 30 floors. It can carry nuclear fuel for 13 years. Ship there are radio stations, movie hall and post office, department stores, clothing stores, barber shops, cold stores, there is only 2.9184 ten thousand lights. Two nuclear reactors for the carrier to provide almost indefinite 30 more endurance. 8 8000 kilowatts turbine to provide electricity for 10 million people in the city to use. 4 desalination plant as “Nimitz-class” aircraft carriers to provide 1818.44 tons per day of fresh water. Under normal circumstances, the ship for its staff with 90-day consumption of food and necessities.
every ship, “Nimitz-class” aircraft can carry hundreds of fighter-aircraft, aircraft landing aids equipped with the latest type of c-13-2 type of catapult, angled at right angles to the deck and have two on the deck. 4 catapult can be used simultaneously within one minute to eight aircraft into space.
build the largest number of the main carrier:
“war” in the U.S. Navy’s “Essex-class”
“war” in the U.S. Navy’s “Essex-class”
before the outbreak of World War II, the United States has five aircraft carriers, battleships, but was still is considered the backbone of sea power, but a floating airport, aircraft carrier, reconnaissance aircraft taking off and landing from above and not yet proven its power of attack aircraft.
in strong support of President Roosevelt, the U.S. Congress in June 1940 through the “bill to expand the fleet,” plans to build 11 in fiscal year 1940, fiscal year 1941 the construction of two “Essex-class” aircraft carrier. But until the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Pacific War broke out, but only five starts. “Pearl Harbor” has led to radical changes in the U.S. Navy’s strategic thinking, the residual strength of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific on the aircraft carrier at the core of the combat troops. In this case, the U.S. Congress and the government made the decision to accelerate the construction of aircraft carriers: the priority the construction of “Essex-class” aircraft carrier.
the class aircraft carrier approved the construction of a total of 32, but the actual completion of 24, becoming the world built by the Navy has always been the largest number of an aircraft carrier. Fiscal year 1944 was originally intended to provide a 6 cancellation after the approval, which never was built; another two, although construction has started but not completed. “World War II,” A total of 17 into service. “Essex-class” aircraft carrier the size of the building reflects the great American industrial potential. The beginning of the Pacific War, the United States decided to concentrate in accordance with “Essex-class” aircraft carrier for mass production of standard design, so that the shipyard can use pipelining. As a result, the class aircraft carrier construction cycle greatly reduced, while several have only 14 to 16 months will be into service.
first came to China’s aircraft carrier:
Australia, “Melbourne No.”
Australia,” Melbourne No. “
Australian Navy,” Melbourne Road “light aircraft carrier purchased from the UK, was originally built in 1943 the British Royal Navy giant class escort aircraft carrier” solemn No. “(R-77). In 1949, the Australian Navy decided to buy the ship, and renamed the “Melbourne number.” Modifications include increasing the steam ejection devices and radar. One of the most compelling is that it is equipped with a 5.5-degree angle to help lower deck and mirror.
1956 May, “Melbourne number” arrived in Sydney, Australia, Hong Kong. However, in the next few decades, “Melbourne” aircraft carrier frequent occurrence of collisions at sea, the most serious of which there are two: one is February 10, 1964, with their fleet to escort the “Voyager” destroyer collision resulting in 82 officers and men killed destroyer; other was June 3, 1969, joint exercises with U.S. destroyers are “Evans No.” collision, resulting in 73 U.S. soldiers died. For a time, “Melbourne Road” became the “court disaster aircraft carrier,” a synonym.
1982 year, the Navy decided to Australia, “Melbourne number” should be the stage of history. In March 1985, by the Hualian Shipping Co., Ltd. Guangzhou Shipyard, a tender to buy a warship to the Australian and Zhongshan City, Guangdong ship-breaking company with its dismantling of the joint. May 21, 1985, “Melbourne Road” was pulling into the Huangpu Shipyard in Guangzhou, mainland China became the first one to visit the aircraft carrier.
Previous 123 4 Next