Kuznetsov aircraft carrier experience: the initial design plans to accommodate about 60 aircraft
data for: Kuznetsov aircraft carrier to sail through the Bosphorus China
“Despite years of construction, but For a long time, no one can determine China’s ‘Shi Lang’ in the plan has been suggested that the carrier will eventually be used to train the first generation of Chinese aircraft pilots and sailors, or not. really know anything about ‘Shi Lang’ number of people do not plan speak. “- November 24, 2010 the United States,” Daily Mail. ” “Shi Lang” was referring to is currently moored in Dalian Port’s “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier. 2011 “two sessions”, the Chinese navy deputy commander of the Hong Xu fierce response “Kuznetsov” was whether the problems with the deployment in 2011, said: “There will be an appropriate time, right place, right people to announce this thing I am not entitled to that. “
” sailing ship in a round about 70 years dream of the Chinese aircraft carrier, “April 5, People’s Daily in charge of the global network of military integrated part to the title, showing 20 “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier photo. Illustrated said, “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier alteration “is entering the final stages, the carrier’s large bridge (except active phased array radar system outside) is nearing completion. The carrier has been painted into the standard Chinese Navy light gray blue paint. ”
After lengthy speculation, concern and waiting, refurbished “Kuznetsov” was about to become the Chinese Navy’s first aircraft carrier, it seems no one doubts. However, on the other side, Russia will face the recovery of the “Kuznetsov” was was full of sad feelings, because it hands the only active aircraft carrier – “Admiral Kuznetsov” number (code-named ” 1143.5 Project “) which has a sister ship of this, it is the” Kuznetsov “was, however, divided country and a weak economy does not allow it the opportunity to join the army.
1970 years, known as “Red Mahan,” The Soviet Navy commander Gorshkov had presided over an unprecedented “sea – 70 “global exercise, flying the red flag of Soviet warships in the four oceans on all fronts so that the United States and NATO exclaimed,” the polar bear learned how to swim. ” But regardless of the opponent is not “offering to kill”, the Soviet navy I myself have discovered through the exercise of its own great flaw, it is attached to the Army’s long-term fleet, once the Soviet naval operations away from home, it will face direct ineffective, protracted warfare with limited and other fatal weakness, after all, the model is not suitable for shore marine environment, command operations, so the Soviet Union strongly urged the development of the Navy General Command of the fleet of ocean-going fleet core of naval vessels. Through the generations, “the carrier aircraft cruiser” (or “carrier” of the Soviet Union title) of the practice and exploration, May 7, 1982, the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers to make the construction of two third-generation “heavy-duty machine cruiser,” the decision, which is the later “Admiral Kuznetsov” and “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier, they are the Neva Design Bureau (now Russia), design, performance on similar, but because Nicholas is responsible for the construction of Sadulayev Black Sea Shipyard (now Ukraine) in different production batches, “Admiral Kuznetsov” was the production number “105″, “Kuznetsov” number “106.”
1985, the “Kuznetsov” was officially sent to berth No. keel. Unprecedented for the construction of this type of large aircraft carrier, the Soviet government spent more than 800 industry experts and more than 7,000 factories around, Institute of Science and Design Bureau, in particular, funding for large-scale transformation of the Black Sea shipyard. As early as 1981, the Black Sea Shipyard in O ship specially installed stage two Finnish-made new 900 tons gantry crane, lifting equipment to complete the overweight. However, the “Kuznetsov” was launched tonnage of about 2.8 million tons, if with ballast water, ship weight of non-establishment and launching devices will reach 32,000 tons, the light has two high-powered gantry crane is not enough. Thus, the shipyard and the end of March 1982, No. berth reinforcement of O lengthened to increase the two side of the slipway, to allow ships weighing 40,000 tons into the water. As director of the Black Sea Shipyard Yuri Yiwannuowei 奇马卡洛夫 said: “We are in O ship everything on stage, are long.” Factory to protect the aircraft carrier bound for the Black Sea, Black Sea Shipyard Drainage will be large and Bouguer – Denie Bo – Le Mans Jun deep river to 10.5 meters. This transformation, greatly enhancing the productive capacity of the Black Sea shipyard.
in the “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier construction process, the Western Black Sea Shipyard bold invention using the general section of modular construction techniques that the workshop in the shipbuilding construction assembly 1059 mounting unit (light Collaborative Enterprises modular unit would supply 85 units), and then sent through the gantry eleven berth, then the berth as the main engine within the hull and other large-size segment closure. At that time, the shipyard to specially arrange professional installation section in the assembly unit, such as weighing 100 tons and 120 tons of steam turbine and diesel generators are the way to ship the unit cell. After the implementation of modular construction, “Kuznetsov” was never due to lifting machinery and equipment and in the process done on the hull of the great openings. Of course, the construction process has encountered the problem of insufficient lifting capacity, if 900 tons crane machine while working in the dual case, the lifting capacity of less than 1,400 tons, but according to calculations, with machinery and equipment 3, 4 Power bulkhead weighs 1900 tons, the factory had in the boat section of the stage for total closure construction.
construction, plant construction workers found that 15% of the time is spent moving from one station to another station on the road. To reduce unproductive waste, set up on the deck on the mobile machine repair shop, tools, fixtures and processes storage warehouses, and implemented a predetermined location in the ship released material way. In order to facilitate access to internal compartments in the hull at the wall set up a dedicated process channel, to address the personnel up and down and delivery of small goods, and outfitting berth pier has also set up the escalator. As the whole ship design Neva Design Bureau has also changed the design process, drawings by the total segment and painted by professional design, drawings, schedules are distributed on a computer, so you can very quickly and accurately in accordance with classification of the machining parts production . A carrier of 24 total sections of the factory put the total of each segment are regarded as a complete parts. Platform in the berth next to the paragraph on the overall frame for the tail shaft, rudder and shaft hub installed in a large sealed chamber within the context of the previous paragraph to the total lifting machinery and equipment, piping and other process units of the process line, greatly reducing cycle berth , production management to achieve a very high level, very tight and effective. The chief architect of Paya Sokolov, Pafu Belov, director Xie column construction division Jani King, deputy chief designer 迪谢尔盖耶夫 under the command of such coordination, “Kuznetsov “number of construction to overcome the difficulties, was launched in 1988, the carrier bottom 10 total segment completed all the main cables are laid.
1985 年 12 6, following the “Admiral Kuznetsov” was launched, the “Kuznetsov” was settled in berth No. 0. By 1988, “Kuznetsov” was successful hull construction. November 25 that year, the Black Sea shipyard to overcome great difficulties and dangers, to berth the ship in the success of the hull into the water from the tilt. According to the original design, these two aircraft carriers the same level of load displacement of 67,000 tons, length 310 meters, than the United States, “Nimitz” aircraft carrier is only a short 22 meters. Height of the flight deck from the bow the water has seven stories high, ship stern flight deck width of 75 meters. Carrier can accommodate up to about 60 aircraft, the front of the flight deck has 12 P-700 anti-ship missile launchers. Its main mission is to ensure the safety of Soviet ballistic missile submarines and combat effectiveness of the play, destroy enemy naval forces at sea and bases. If you can schedule service, and that the Soviet Navy will enter a new stage combat.
as the national carrier has a distinguished name, as the Soviet Union to join the aircraft carrier named after either the capital of the Republic, or national leaders or admirals. Russian Navy fleet of “Admiral Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier has changed its name four times, the choice of two republics, including the name of the capital and a political leader, the final choice of the Soviet Union was the name of Admiral Kuznetsov. Comparison between the “Kuznetsov” was experienced only twice renamed, first called the “Riga” (No. join the capital of the Republic of Latvia), after fighting for independence for Latvia, July 1990, the USSR Council of Ministers decided to launched a and a half years, “Riga” was changed to its present name “Kuznetsov”, from 1904-1905 was sunk by the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War in the Korean port of Incheon Russia “Kuznetsov” cruiser, which is named after the Soviet aircraft carrier traditional tune, but also to the carrier covered with mystery.
1992, the infinite glory of the Soviet Union during Gorbachev’s “new thinking” movement under the impetus came crashing down. Large family business to divide by 15 republics, and the “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier due to the lack of central government funding and equipment supply halt, the amount of time it has completed 67% engineering, ship engine room has been installed , to receive power plant compartment, the ship began commissioning of mechanical equipment.
At first, Russia, Ukraine hopes to complete the construction funding, because the hands of the Russian Navy only take away one from the Ukraine, with barely an initial operational capability, “Admiral Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier, it is impossible to form effective ocean power, the first President Kravchuk of Ukraine Black Sea shipyard employees had said: “We need ‘Kuznetsov’ number, we can build it!” the presence of everyone who wants to be devoted efforts of thousands of people from abandoned aircraft carrier. In 1993, Ukraine’s First Deputy Prime Minister 卡尼马西克 to Nikolayev visit, he was the “Kuznetsov” was struck by the huge figure, thought a moment and asked shipyard construction division director Xie Jin column: “We can not concentrate on it built? “Xie Jin out of the Deputy Prime Minister’s mood is very understanding,” we do not want to build it true that if the carrier can build up, not only will live up to the Black Sea Shipyard, but also allows tens of thousands of companies a new life. “But thank listed gold with a wry smile:” Both Russia and Ukraine, the money did not even demolished the boat, how could it continued construction funding in recent years? “Soon, Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, the Navy Gromov in chief when he was Prime Minister of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma, who came to the Black Sea shipyard, on-site investigation into the “Kuznetsov” was completed and handed over to the construction of Russia’s possibilities. This aircraft was originally built by the Soviet government funding, Ukraine asked Russia to pay the full cost (about 20 billion U.S. dollars), that a complete sale of ships, rather than the Russian side believes that the outstanding 30% (about $ 670 million ). Face to face government officials thought the E Wu, director of the Black Sea shipyard old Makarov said gloomily: “‘Kuznetsov’ number can not be completed in the …” we asked: “In order to build warships After you plant what you really need what? “Makarov replied:” the Soviet Union, Central Committee, State Planning Commission, the Military Industrial Commission and the Ministry of Industry, nine defense. “Makarov said that only great power in order to build it, But this power has disappeared. Finally realized that all the people present – in the case of dissolution of a State, then to the “Kuznetsov” was built has been impossible. After Ewu around between the “Kuznetsov” was still in consultation, but it was all over, November 1993, the Government of Ukraine issued a formal cessation of the “Kuznetsov” was the command. In 1995, the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma has been decided to “Kuznetsov” was the fate of the shipyard to the disposal of the Black Sea.
when the “Kuznetsov” was idle in the shipyard’s outfitting a new pier, had to go buy some foreign delegations ship “uncompleted aircraft carrier.” Famous French agency fantasy of “Kuznetsov” was converted into a luxury unique “sea airport hotel”, as demonstrated in the air show visitors on the modern aircraft taking off and landing, but only 2.2 meters tall ship cabins and more, can not meet the travel ship standards. There is also a ridiculous British company consulting the Government of Ukraine to explore whether the “Kuznetsov” was turned into “armored-type prisons” on the grounds that the height is appropriate compartment. During this period, “Kuznetsov” was had by many people Touchai damage, although the shipyard increased security, some people mercilessly Touchai or complete loss of use value that aircraft carrier.
1995 In December, President Leonid Kuchma visited Beijing. Soon, the Russian Interfax has quoted the president’s visit with the First Deputy Prime Minister of Ukraine Ana 托利基纳赫 words, the black is for the “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier hull shipyard to China to conduct consultations, he said, “Kuznetsov” was finally possible disintegration in China operations. The end of 1997, Ukraine took the initiative to sell to the Chinese price Hulk “Kuznetsov” was the hull, but to avoid international disputes, civil hope that China’s best by a third party to come forward to buy. China’s rapid positive response, then hit Chinese-funded institutions in Hong Kong Law Group (the same year, driving over the Yellow River blues sponsor) Assistant to the President, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, who graduates Yao Boliang Permanent Mission of Ukraine to negotiate your purchase. At the same time, the United Kingdom, “Jane’s Defense Weekly,” also published a message that the Black Sea shipyard began dismantling the “Kuznetsov” was installed on board a variety of devices.
1998 April, founded by the Xuzeng Ping Chong Macau tourism and entertainment company law (Agencia Turisticae Diversoes Chong Lot Limitada, a subsidiary of the Hong Kong legal record) through competitive bidding, to $ 20 million (actual cost of 100 million dollars) to buy “Kuznetsov” (fund-raising process can be described as difficult, had twice applied to the Uruguayan national deferred payment, penalty interest is of course the price, but also an additional cost. after another because of debt and domestic company for many years to fight the lawsuit), claiming to transform it into a large-scale integrated maritime tourism facilities – including discos, hotels and gaming devices in the future to be parked in the waters near Macao. At that time, some people questioned said shallow water near Macao, stop no less than this ship, unless we still have to dig deep channel, and the “Kuznetsov” low hull compartment, suitable for conversion to leisure facilities. The Macanese authorities have made it clear that refusal “Kuznetsov” was the future of parking in Macau.
1999 年 6 月 14 morning, the highest law of the contract the company hired the Dutch international transport company (ITC) the company’s “Sable Cape” tugboat, pulling unpowered “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier slowly left Nikolayev port. According to the new owner’s requirements, the Black Sea shipyard workers in the stern of the original carrier, “Kuznetsov” was to cook the new logo at the ship name “Kingstown”, which is a sign no one read port (which is marked ship the name of the flag State’s home port, when the “Kuznetsov” was plug in the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines flag.) It is said that the aircraft carrier was towed away the day, seriously ill Shipyard Makarov had tears in nursing home in the seaside shipyard watched the “Kuznetsov” was the “final journey.” Also in the “Kuznetsov” was towed away that day, the Black Sea Shipyard “berth” leader Vyacheslav Fuka Qiulincun Literature Association wrote a ‘and’ Kuznetsov ‘farewell “poem:
“farewell moment coming,
genius to create the ship
you stands on the river there
show strange dream of a black shadow
you to quickly hide in the fog
wind dry the tears
… … “
Unexpectedly, when the ship arrived in northern Turkey Black Sea waters, ready to adopt the Turkish-controlled Bosporus Strait, “in a third country’s reminder,” the Turkish government to block, ordered the “Kuznetsov” was returned to the Black Sea. Then in August, “Kuznetsov” was tried by the Strait, was once again the government’s block of soil. “Kuznetsov” was blocked in the Black Sea, after wandering for a long time, they return to the harbor … of the Turkish side to “the hull is too large, affecting the normal Bosphorus other vessels sailing” for such reasons, refused to “Kuznetsov” was passed. Western media also took the opportunity to have the hype, “China’s aircraft carrier threat.” In the “Kuznetsov” was trapped in the Black Sea during the period, the highest law of the company every day to pay $ 8,500 to the ITC, a month must be paid to the Port Authority of Ukraine $ 17,000 parking fee, ITC’s tug crew not because of the long-term get out of the deep dissatisfaction, the highest law of the boss Xu Zengping more losses, he later recalled, was described as a home and less abroad, house seemingly endless rain. Because just when the financial turmoil, “difficulties in Hong Kong, the Mainland of things have to sustain, we have taken many measures to reduce costs and expenses.”
Turkey after both private and public consultations, the Turkish Prime Ministry and Foreign Ministry tend to be released, but the Minister of State in charge of marine affairs 米尔札欧鲁 (Ramazan Mirzaoglu) firmly opposed. December 19, 1999, pay close attention to the “Kuznetsov” was trends in the United States finally to the stage from behind the scenes, U.S. Ambassador Pearson met 米尔札欧鲁 in soil, expressed the U.S. government “Kuznetsov” was the concerns. March 3, 2000, Mirza Ouro be invited to visit the U.S. government two weeks before leaving, he submitted to the Prime Minister Aixifeite report detailing the “Kuznetsov” was through the Bosporus Strait technical problems that may occur, it is recommended to reject China’s request, prohibits the “Kuznetsov” was through the Strait. At the same time, Taiwan’s office in Istanbul, Turkey, has been jumped, lobbying, trying to stop, “Kuznetsov” was out of the Straits. ITC, the Dutch head of 尤普蒂姆曼 Adams (Joop Timmermans) had Turkey argue, emphasis on non-powered “Kuznetsov” was dragged through the Strait is much better than driving an oil tanker through the Strait of 150,000 tons more easy, more secure, but Turkish officials replied: “Either you let the ship itself has power, or you break it into pieces away, or even think about through the Strait.”
The Chinese government intervention
until July 2001, things have a changed, the original stand on the side of Ouro Mirza started to change the attitude of the Turkish military, Chief of Staff Kaiweilike Lu was invited to visit Beijing, be met with Chinese President Jiang Zemin, the military position of soil change (and China’s export of ballistic missile technology, soil), and note the Prime Minister in early August, “proposed release.” The Turkmen government has expressed the hope that China’s opening up tourism to Turkey, for 200 million passengers each year Chinese tourists to Turkey, for Turkey to create $ 2 billion in foreign exchange. August 25, the Turkish National Security Council a resolution, agreed to let the “Kuznetsov” was through its straits, Turkish State Minister and government spokesman on behalf of then Prime Minister Aixifeite Micrel home visit to Beijing, the Chinese government informed this results. On the other hand, Turkey proposed to the Chinese Department of Ocean, “Kuznetsov” was accepted Channel 20 must have the security conditions:
01,10 billion U.S. dollars of “risk margin”;
02, China’s official provide a written assurance;
03, must be recognized by the international insurance company guarantees;
04, escort, “Kuznetsov” was necessary to increase the number of common Strait tug doubled (ie, first proposed by China increased to 16 8, and must be high horsepower tugs);
05, pass the Straits, the ship’s sides with lights;
06, the ship must be configured to anchor and the rope retractable mechanical group and human group to prepare the necessary;
07, the ship must be placed the generator to start the mechanical and lighting;
08, the ship must set up a radio communication network in order to maintain security ties;
09, before the passage of the Straits, earth monitoring group to send technicians check safety conditions of the ship are complete;
10, Turkey, China arranged by tugs and Coast Guard Marine Department expert command;
11, to prevent accidents, ship and land must be equipped with fire response;
12, passage Strait, such as sea fog must be suspended;
13, pass the Straits, such as the Strait of windy to be suspended;
14, pass the Straits, the case of mutations in turbulent flow, must be suspended;
15, less than 5 km strait line of sight must be suspended;
16, the ship must have a navigator;
17, passage, the Channel prohibit other ship traffic at both ends;
18, the ship shall not contain fuel or explosives;
19, traffic, the safety of navigation, equipment, technology and personnel dispatching are Turkey must obey the command;
20, winding narrow passage Bosporus and Dardanelles must be carried out in the day, access a wide Strait of Marmara to be at night.
2001 In September, the Chinese government sent a transportation officials and shipping experts delegation visit to Turkey on the “Kuznetsov” was the specific issues through the Straits consultations and a comprehensive security commitments. In a very short period, China asked the Turkish authorities prepared a number of safety measures, hiring the world’s largest Greek nationality horsepower tug “Nicholas Rudge Kerr” was (Nikolay Chiker, Athens belong to a marine rescue vessel company, the maximum speed is 19.5, with 24,000 horsepower, earth earlier than 1.6 million horsepower requirements, when not sailing power “Kuznetsov” was a strong prevailing winds and currents encountered Strait or the Strait of large-angle corners need high-powered tug in the back “brake” to avoid collision Coast), agreed to give “national security”, is responsible for the issue of compensation may be involved. China is still “Kuznetsov” was on the small radar equipment, global positioning system, VHF radio communication is clear, generators and other electronic compass and navigational safety, the Turkish Government expressed satisfaction.
“Kuznetsov” was originally scheduled for October 25 sail through the Turkish Straits, only to storm processes, towing the “Kuznetsov” was the tug rope and also because of the big waves breaking. “Kuznetsov” was the first off through the Turkish Straits – the Bosphorus, from 24 onwards are also showers continued, the narrow field of vision Kan Deli corner, bend 80 degrees, undercurrents, not large and no power the “Kuznetsov” was accepted. Turkish Marine Department ordered suspended, waiting for the weather is good to say. In order to ensure that the “Kuznetsov” in the “minimum risk” through the Strait, China has organized a tug towing exercises in the Black sea, “Kuznetsov” was operating.
11 January, the “Kuznetsov” was to leave the Black Sea shipyard after 506 days, the weather in Turkey, Bosphorus calm. Local authorities temporarily closed from midnight of the world’s busiest waterways of the Strait, create laws to allow companies to buy Macau’s “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier hull through. 8 am, the morning mist cleared, there is no power giant ship, towed at 11 and 12 tug rescue, fire boat Qianhuhouyong, escort towing, the twists and turns into the narrow Bosporus Strait . “Kuznetsov” was the four speed slowly forward to 14:30, and finally pass through the Bosporus Strait security risk Bay last corner, well into the broad Sea of ??Marmara. Fleet to continue through at night time, two long and narrow, but turns into the morning less Dardanelles, the afternoon into the Aegean Sea.
11 月 3 night, by six tugs towed the “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier in international waters near 爱琴海斯基罗 Island experienced winds of up to 25-28 m/s intense storms, connection “Kuznetsov” was tug of rope breakage, and Norway had. In the next few hours, the ship “Sea Giant” in a free state of wandering, like a madman-like reef in the Aegean Sea, covered with thousands of drifting, drift was to Euboea island, away from the island shore while only 80 km. There were seven people on the aircraft, including three Black Sea shipyard workers, three Russian sailors, sent a tugboat from the Netherlands, the Philippines pilot. In the case of the storm, Russia, Holland, trying to re-move the three tugs tethered by cable control, “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier, tug, “Nicholas Rudge Kerr” was successfully received from the “Kuznetsov” was Stern thrown to the cable, but in front of the aircraft carrier tugboat Norway and the Netherlands failed to catch from the “Kuznetsov” was thrown on the steel embrace, which the Norwegian tug “Haridwar champion” sign (Haliva Champion) sailors on 阿列斯利马 (Aries Lima) were missed due to the heavy steel cable killed. Up to 12 hours after the storm struggle, this “aircraft carrier battle groups” finally out of danger. November 4, morning, received the “Kuznetsov” was issued a distress signal, the Greek Coast Guard rescue helicopter “Kuznetsov” was sent on 7 personal Piraeus. November 6, when the weather is good, the Greek crew of the helicopter then returned to the “Kuznetsov” was on the deck, this time the aircraft has returned to normal drag.
aircraft carrier hull escape the storm, after the Greek port of Piraeus, through the Strait of Gibraltar (do not allow it through the Suez Canal), the Atlantic Ocean, the Canary Islands Las Palmas de Gran Sri Lanka, December 11, 2001 around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean, Africa, the Maputo, Mozambique, February 5, 2002 through the Malacca Strait. The evening of 11 February 2002, arrived off the coast of Singapore, February 12 to enter the South China Sea, Feb. 20 to enter China’s territorial waters. March 3, passing through numerous of the “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier finally arrived in Dalian. 5:00 pm, it dragged in six tugs and a water vessel, under the leadership left the anchorage outside the Port of Dalian, marching slowly inward port. This 6 3 arranged after the first three tugs, the “Kuznetsov” balance. During this period, subject to control traffic on the sea, any vessel can not access. 9:00 am, “Kuznetsov” arrived in Hong Kong. At 12 noon, “Kuznetsov” was berthed in the security within the Port of Dalian West 4 bulk terminals, 15,200 sea miles victory over range, took 4 months (123 days) difficult voyage. “Kuznetsov” voyage arrived, the highest law of Chairman Xuzeng Ping and other officials of excitement. Xu Zengping frankly, the feeling is like finally seeing the safe return of the long-lost son. Xuzeng Ping said, “Kuznetsov” was safe arrived in Dalian, is not the end of the whole project, but the beginning of another stage, “the whole program has been successful 99%, but the last 1%, most difficult, not lightly, my future will invigorate ‘Kuznetsov’ number of business models and struggle. ” By the way, Macau’s gaming laws create business license was “Kuznetsov” was the day berthing Dalian revoked by the Macao SAR Government. Since then, the rust mottled “Kuznetsov” aircraft carrier moored alone terminal in Dalian Port Area 51 has become the focus of the outside world.(edit: SN049)