China started to protect the cemetery of martyrs outside the main current is still non-
Lao Meng cemetery of Chinese martyrs race (Dong Cun-lin/for map) more 南朗达烈士 cemetery, Wang Shiwei a martyr reunited in this way . (Meng Yi/for map) forty years later, his wife Yu Feng Li Jiang Lieshi material Johnson, first came to her husband’s grave in Vietnam Shengxing Ling Park. (Meng Yi/for map)
previous exit the Chinese army fighting in Korea, Vietnam, Burma, India and other neighboring countries, leaving a lot of cemeteries, cemetery status, about the dignity of the martyrs and the state.
Myanmar’s Chinese Expeditionary Force cemetery were destroyed, and Commonwealth troops in Yangon peach, but well-maintained cemetery. There is also buried there in World War II at the expense of the 12 British service Tibetans in China, but has no one to sweep.
2009 In March, a construction company employees in Yunnan, Laos province of dock that many Meng game winning look at the site of Mo County. Laos at the site not far from Highway 13, the staff accidentally discovered an old building, was actually written by two Chinese on the door stones: “To have the expense of more ambition, the courage to call new ones day sun and the moon!” Door with bent curved pipe, Chinese letter “martyrs cemetery.”
puzzled they went into the cemetery, then surprised to see: tropical rainforest, repose of 81 fellow Chinese tomb, over moss, surrounded by weeds. Some of the names on the tombstones of cement had fallen off, the tomb of the body or cracking, or mud leaving it, very desolate.
a positive is a “revolutionary martyr immortal” words of the monument, so that the identity of the deceased get to the bottom – the body on the back of the monument reads “strong support for the Lao People’s Heroes, in the end to the war against U.S. aggression for national salvation”, inscribed : “China’s road construction team assistance to Laos Detachment 301 March 1, 1972.” They are anti-China U.S. aid during the old soldiers in Laos at the expense of the road.
“heart of a cool, very hard to accept.” Qi Chen described the presence of engineers, their first reaction, he was never aware of this history.
this called “sunshine bridge,” the company, the initiative for the cemetery painted door, Miao Hong tombstone, graveyard with cement hardening, the collapse of righting a grave. Later, they renovated the Lao another equally desolate cemetery of Chinese martyrs – Meng race cemetery. Give them “greater stimulus” is that there is a cemetery next to the military cemetery in Vietnam, Laos sent there specialized care, well-maintained.
This is unfortunate for all, may be changed. Ministry of Civil Affairs launched the 2011 census the National Martyrs Memorial facilities, and prepare to be completed by October 2014 years scattered Martyrs Memorial maintenance and reconstruction of facilities, basic long-term management of the establishment of protection mechanisms. August, the Ministry of Civil Affairs implemented a new “martyrs praise Regulations”, the first time outside the cemetery on the requirements. According to the “Phoenix Magazine” reported that, as an extension of the census, China has quietly started outside the Martyrs Memorial facilities protection, coordinated by the central Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Chinese military involvement.
reported that, at present, the delineation of the scope of work for the new China was founded the previous military operations abroad. The tombs distribution information, as well as outside the tombs of martyrs sacrificed construction distribution information, is collected by the host country embassy in place. Due to special events, Ministry of Civil Affairs officials faced the media is very low key.
exotic Chinese Military Cemetery
Chinese road construction team assistance Liu Detachment 301 veterans remember the history of the letter chapter in 1968 against the United States troops into Laos, Vietnam War , the initial time to build mausoleums, ministries team martyrs buried in the designated area, with cement markers – to go abroad because it is secret, no tombstone with the unit designation, place of origin, just write “× unit × unit.” Withdrawal before the country, force planning, the construction of mausoleums.
“People’s Liberation Army Military History” VI set, the old anti-American aid during the Chinese road construction units, the expense of 269 anti-aircraft forces in Laos, of which 210 were buried Meng race, that Mo Lieshi cemetery . In addition, the expense of the U.S. air strike in five Chinese diplomats and was buried in northern Laos in Xieng Khouang province Kang open town martyrs cemetery.
addition to Laos, the Chinese army fighting the previous departure left the cemetery, located in Korea, Vietnam, Burma, India and other neighboring countries.
the 1960s, China sent anti-aircraft artillery, engineering, railways and other forces 320,000 people, the secret Vietnam War against the United States. Many people dressed in military uniforms newspaper in Vietnam Friendship Gate border southbound oath. According to the Chinese embassy in Vietnam in 2005 prepared a “list of martyrs War Vietnam War” ,1951-1976, the Chinese army in 1446 to sacrifice more people buried in northern Vietnam, 22 provinces in central cemetery of 57. Vietnam after its merger of 40.
1960-1961, the request of the Government of Myanmar, the new Chinese government was leaving Burma border with Mianjun fight against remnants of the Kuomintang army, the expense of the number of burial unknown.
still unknown, the “Cultural Revolution” period, after bilateral relations deteriorated, a number of arms “support world revolution ‘ideal young Chinese educated youth and the border, across the border, to join the Burma Communist Party, against the Government of Myanmar . It was responsible for the death registration of the original people of Burma Army five brigades Wang Xi Chinese educated youth statistics, they sacrifice more than 600 people.
most Chinese soldiers are buried in North Korea. Dandong Korean War Memorial in 2006 according to local civil affairs statistics, during the Korean War, 183,108 volunteers to sacrifice, most buried in North Korea. Volunteers battle to advance as far as “seven lines” near the left also has volunteers in Korea remains. After 2007, Korea had been discovered the remains of 180 volunteers, to be buried in Paju, “Korean and Chinese soldiers in the cemetery.”
According to media reports, the Korean Armistice, the Chinese moving in the construction of eight large-scale volunteer cemetery, North Korea is building two hundred various monuments and cemeteries. In 1973, after China agreed to, North Korea focused on the tomb of buried volunteers dispersed. 2009 years ago, only a few volunteers cemetery open for sweep, such as hoechang, Pyongyang Brothers mountain, the city cemetery and open. The largest hoechang cemetery, buried there, including the 134 martyrs including Anying.
In recent years, died in Burma during World War II battlefields in China receiving increasing attention expeditionary force. Yunnan scholars Ge Shu Ya statistics, and their number is about 100,000: the first Burmese war at the expense 60,000 or more were hastily abandoned treatment; second Burmese war at the expense 40,000 people, mainly in the cemetery along the Stilwell Road. Beginners five sixty km road at the cemetery in India seven or eight segments, Jharkhand in eastern India has a blue-gamma, no less than 15 year in Myanmar, located in Myitkyina, Bhamo, Paul West, South Hom and other places. After the 1950s due to political reasons, the Myanmar military expedition was all destroyed cemetery, town hall built at the site, primary, garden.
“they are emotionally difficult to accept”
existing cemetery, except cemetery Expeditionary Force, Vietnam, Korea, Laos by the cemetery cemetery State management, better maintenance of the first two, Laos is relatively poor.
Chinese embassy in Vietnam before the Vietnam War against the United States military attache Liu Chongyu first compiled list of martyrs. He explained that after the war in Vietnam in 1979, the cemetery and some were damaged. After 1990, the Vietnamese central government requirements rebuilt the cemetery. In 2005, against the United States to meet Vietnam War veterans came to the grave, cemetery renovation Vietnam again.
annual Qingming, the Chinese Embassy in Vietnam will go to grave, the Vietnam Friendship Association, sent the cemetery accompanied by the province. If the wall collapses, grave collapse and other issues, the Chinese side on the spot made by the Vietnam service. “(China and Vietnam on the cemetery) did not enter into any agreement to protect all conscious acts.” Vietnam-China Friendship Association, Nguyen said the United States.
more grave to go to the artillery division soldiers Yang wide 62 to come to Vietnam with hi County, Mountain Province, Taiyuan, cemetery, taken aback, “than China’s own cemetery cultivation okay.” Vietnam to the cemetery for the cement hardened, put more paper in the main stone monument tombstones and monuments, the main monument reads, “the friendship forever” and so forth. Martyrs clean silence, walls on three sides, the woods, the door to face the green rice fields.
and Vietnam is different from moving in the cemetery most of the volunteers in the area is not open. In 1954, volunteers set up the headquarters building martyrs cemetery committee; force “of the building, and then transferred to the local government”, the volunteers 21 Jun 62 veteran teachers new to the Southern Weekend reporter Zhang Wu recalls.
1994 年 Kim Il Sung’s death, between China and the DPRK government and basic civil disruption. Soon, North Korea into the “suffering of the march,” the serious economic difficulties. In 2000, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Research Center of Northeast Asia, Asia-Pacific director Piao senior delegation to participate in the DPRK. Volunteers in a cemetery, the grave keeper, a few people from the original reduced to one person, cemetery weed high. The face of dissatisfaction with the Chinese guests, the grave keeper guilty to tears: “I’m really sorry, we are too difficult.”
2009, North Korea for the first time to the grave of volunteer revolutionary martyrs and veterans are not open some of the open cemetery. Some of the martyrs and veterans found that after the martyrs buried, some tombstones disappeared, leaving only a large joint burial, stand in front of a piece of Zhao Wen “Chinese martyrs tomb,” the main monument. “They are emotionally difficult to accept.” State Department counselor horsepower on the Southern Weekend reporter.
Laos poor maintenance of the cemetery. Veterans History Chapter of the Southern Weekend reporter recalled the letter, in 2000, the first veterans to Laos grave, for that year that forces Mo to play a concrete mausoleum, it became the local people’s dried grain field.
Myanmar’s Chinese Expeditionary Force cemetery were destroyed. In a bold piece of opium in Myanmar, the Ge sub-tert discovered a surviving expedition monument, the marble base inscribed with names of fallen soldiers. In comparison, the peach Commonwealth troops in Yangon, but well-maintained cemetery, where also funeral sacrifice of World War II 12 British troops serving in Chinese Tibetans, but Chinese people have no sweep.
former Chinese Ambassador to Myanmar Ambassador Cheng Ruisheng the Southern Weekend reporter that the embassy will send someone to go with each of the ancient Ching Ming expeditionary force for the grave – is the same ancient Burma Expeditionary Force, fighting at first, stand there Expeditionary Force Memorial , was the only remaining base, 1990s, rebuilt by the Chinese, became the first reconstruction of Burma Expeditionary Force Memorial.
According to the “Veterans home” promoters Sun Chunlong introduced, the Chinese Expeditionary Force in India even in the cemetery during the war in 1962, it was not destroyed, but some in the territorial dispute in the area of ??the cemetery, India banned foreigners.
Yunnan Economic and Trade Office visited India 阿萨姆邦利 a cemetery in the town more, found everywhere weeds, manure, only two tombstones standing, desolate scene, the local government on behalf of your donation immediately clear. The 1980s, overseas Chinese from Taiwan fund-raising to build the Jharkhand blue gamma cemetery. Ge Shu Ya to the scene in 2009, found that blue gamma cemetery well maintained, with local gatekeepers, the Taiwan authorities issued to pay 1600 rupees a month (then about 320 yuan).
overseas cemetery management vacuum
2011 March, nearly eight years late to the martyrs Tian Shulan first Vietnamese province of Bac Giang Shi Tao Meilie Security World County cemetery grave. Respectively, 44 years later, she finally found her husband’s grave. “See you finally find it!” A flutter in her tomb, crying.
Tao Meiling Park is buried in Viet Nam one of the largest Chinese martyrs cemetery, buried with Chinese railway corps artillery units and 217 martyrs, the existing graves 216.
In recent years, an increasing number of martyrs and veterans to apply for exit grave, many people do not know the burial places of their loved ones overseas. Tian Shulan always thought her husband buried in Guangxi, has been asked many times to commune cemetery location, the reply was: “Do not know.”
for overseas cemeteries, the Chinese government before 2011, not mentioned in any public documents. In 1980, the State Council issued the “revolutionary martyrs praise Bill”, no mention of the cemetery management. Ministry of Civil Affairs published in 1995, “Revolutionary Martyrs Memorial Building Management protection measures” which requires the building to commemorate revolutionary martyrs above the county level of maintenance funding for central and local budgets at all levels to solve, but only for the domestic cemetery.
2010, the Ministry of Civil Affairs issued a “sweep relatives of martyrs on the good reception of the notice,” the organization to sweep clear the scope and funding sources – not including outside sweep. August 2011 implementation of the new “martyrs praise Bill”, nor offshore sweep.
veterans Yang wide to the Southern Weekend reporter that the government does not notify the family burial ground of the specific reasons include: no open country, local governments do not understand, to change the unit of martyrs – the year of secret foreign aid troops return revoked after the country more than the original data is difficult to find. “In addition, fear of affecting national stability.”
2004, the military attache at the Chinese Embassy in Vietnam reference Liuchong Yu finishing roll martyrs, with two years of fieldwork, the preparation of “Vietnam War War martyrs roster” for the martyrs to sweep greatly facilitated. However, Laos, North Korea martyred so far no such list, Dandong Korean War Memorial often receive martyrs telephone inquiries. Zhan Qi, director of research for the Southern Weekend reporter that “we do not know where buried.”
majority of martyrs is the network that burial of their loved ones – over the years, some veterans insist on self-search ally burial information and communication through the network. Tian Shulan 2010, learned that her husband buried in Vietnam.
exit has not been easy. Have volunteer veterans to the Public Security Bureau passport, the Public Security Bureau found “to North Korea grave”, it rejected. There are veterans reflect 2006 years ago, for some time outside to sweep and sweep the border of Yunnan, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are the Home Office to discourage.
“do not advocate large-scale, organized way out and many veterans the name of ‘anti-USAID old’, ‘against the United States Vietnam War’ banner to the grave, there will be conflicts between nations.” Yunnan Provincial Civil Affairs Department, a cadre of Southern Weekend reporter.
A cadre of Civil Affairs of Guangxi Autonomous Region said that sometimes, the really poor, not to go abroad for several years to sweep over the martyrs, the local civil affairs departments in funding and procedures to give some help. However, “there is no outside to sweep the special state funds, once the go, which won the civil affairs departments can afford?” Yunnan Civil Affairs Department said the cadres.
to the martyrs with dignity, but also the national dignity
in promoting veterans and martyrs, and the NPC and CPPCC representatives, members and scholars called for, the foreign martyrs protection of the cemetery, the remains of martyrs placement problems, and finally put on the agenda.
the Home Department to the Southern Weekend reporter said, before the Spring Festival of 2010, Ministry of Civil Affairs leadership mentioned, like the martyrs cemetery will be moving to move home. In the same year, the central leadership pointed to the outside Martyrs, Martyrs cemetery for repair, the move to be moved.
2010 the “two sessions”, the cemetery buried the issue for the Korean volunteers, National People’s Congress, State Department Counselor horsepower motion: to protect the cemetery volunteers in Korea, list the establishment of the Korean martyrs monument, statue of the famous heroes and martyrs.
held in China commemorating the 60th anniversary of volunteers Korean War combat overseas events, the situation began to clear. April 2011, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, the PLA General Political Department, the composition of the Chinese People’s martyrs cemetery facilities inspection and sweep the delegation, the DPRK conducted an eight-day visit.
soon, Ministry of Civil Affairs issued a document requiring the martyrs cemetery outside the border provinces of the census. Yunnan Civil Affairs Department, Foreign Office, the Department of Finance, Public Security Border Defense Corps and Civil Affairs Bureau in July Xishuangbanna Martyrs research team composed of outside, went to Laos, field trips, visits to the State Bureau of Civil Affairs reported on the situation.
Yunnan Civil Affairs Department said in a press release, the visit was “for the state and province outside the cemetery of Chinese martyrs management, conservation and restoration work to do a preliminary investigation for the management of the introduction of China’s overseas Martyrs the opinions have first-hand information. ”
2011 年 8 January, a new “martyrs praise regulations” for the first time the provisions of the relevant overseas Martyrs: for facilities outside the protection of Chinese Martyrs Memorial, by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in conjunction with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs departments concerned.
to protect the country not yet involved in the military cemetery overseas expeditionary force. But Southern Weekend reporter learned that there are overseas Chinese Expeditionary Force preparing to rebuild monument to Myitkyina, the Chinese consulate in Mandalay, Myanmar repeated representations to the Government of Myanmar, the other basic agreement. In addition, a senior Chinese official, accompanied by staff at the consulate to visit Mandalay and Myitkyina, see the Japanese after World War II memorial monument built, pagoda comfort, stimulation, stand at the time, after returning in this regard to some action.
2011 the “two sessions”, National People’s Congress, the military writer Qiu Mountain Expeditionary Force, made war on the search for the remains of the martyrs of motion, a strong response. A general also proposed: cross-strait should participate. Southern Weekend reporter asked the Chinese Embassy in Myanmar, the answer is: “Work-related start-ups.”
current expedition cemetery, the remains of protection, civil behavior is still dominated. Ge and Sun Chunlong tert-Asia, who have combined in the overseas Chinese in Myanmar, the site will be excavated 19 graves Expeditionary Force moved the remains of spiritual home, burial site Tengchong War Cemetery. Sun Chunlong said, given the grave situation, all the moving spirit unrealistic, can not move the monument to be built in situ conservation. “Now China-Myanmar relations are very good, the Myanmar government should support.”
Qiu Mountain called on China should refer to the Commonwealth war cemetery committee to send special institutions to manage and maintain the cemetery in the form of Yangon, set up a special overseas martyrs cemetery authorities, cemetery on the former site of the expeditionary force in Myanmar, India, for refurbishment of existing cemetery, management and maintenance – not just to the martyrs with dignity, with dignity is also national.
“Although a bit late, but too late now to do.” She told the Southern Weekend reporter said.
(Chung Chien also contributed to this article)