The history of the 10 most horrible chemical and biological weapons
our world there are many well-known bacteria, fungi and viruses. Chemical and biological warfare is to use them to destroy the enemy.
ancient times, human use of all available means another necessary condition for battles rage. We will Sen Linyi to the ground, plunder of resources, the use of religion, science, philosophy and art to satisfy the human desire for bloodthirsty. To achieve this, we have even the most difficult nature of viruses, bacteria and fungi used as weapons.
the use of chemical and biological weapons can be traced back to ancient times. As early as 1500 BC, the Hittites of Asia Minor discovered the power of infectious diseases, and plague patients sent to the enemy. Chemical and biological weapons, the army also know that powerful, they will be sick of the siege of the fortress toward the dead, poison the well to the enemy. Some historians even argue that the biblical call to Moss down the top ten in the Egyptian head of the disaster was God’s revenge so much as it is a large-scale chemical and biological weapons.
Since ancient times, medical advances for people on the harmful bacteria and understanding the human immune system. But while technology can be improved vaccines and treatments, people on the planet will be a number of further highly lethal biological weapons used in the manufacture.
20 half of the century, Germany and Japan used chemical and biological weapons: anthrax pustules. United States, Britain and Russia have also begun the development of chemical and biological weapons. Today, according to the 1972 biological weapons convention and the Geneva Protocol, chemical and biological weapons have been disabled. However, even if some countries have already destroyed the stocks of chemical and biological weapons, and to stop the study, but the threat remains.
reading this article will give you some of the major threats to biological and chemical weapons, and chemical and biological warfare in the future.
said, “biological weapons”, our minds will always emerge sterile government laboratories, nuclear biological and chemical suit and a test tube in brightly colored liquid. In fact, history, biological and chemical weapons face extraordinary general to show his monotonous: for example, a wandering exile, carrying a paper bag full of sick of the fleas. Even in 1763 India and France in the war, chemical and biological weapons, just a blanket.
a member of the Ottawa tribe spread with blankets infected with smallpox British colonists to confront.
according to Jeffrey Amherst ? Major command, with the infamous British forces will Ottawa gave smallpox blankets to Indian tribes. American residents are particularly vulnerable to the disease. Different European invaders because they have never encountered smallpox, and no resistance. Disease like wildfire in the spread of Indian tribes.
Smallpox is caused by the variola virus, the most common disease of smallpox, 30% mortality. Suffering from smallpox characteristics are high fever, aches and pains and scars from the blisters developed into rash. The main mode of transmission of this disease is and the infected person’s skin or body fluids in direct contact, but in a confined narrow space can also be spread through the air.
1967, the World Health Organization to eradicate smallpox through mass vaccinations. The results, naturally occurring case of smallpox in 1977 and then did not appear. Eliminate the disease from the natural world, but a copy of the smallpox virus still exists laboratory. United States and Russia have approved by the World Health Organization, a copy of smallpox, but smallpox biological weapons in several countries to play an important role, who do not know how many secret copy of the virus.
U.S. Centers for Disease Prevention and Control will be classified as Class A smallpox biological weapons, because of its high lethality and propagation characteristics in the air. Although smallpox vaccine exist, but now usually only people will be vaccinated for medical and military – which means spending the day as weapons, the rest of the population are at risk. So by what means the virus may be released? May be in the form of sprays, may also be the most ancient forms: from infected patients directly to the destination.
release of biological and chemical weapons do not need more fancy way. Next we introduce a weapon can be spread only a few stamps, which can be called frightened.
2001 fall, a letter containing strange white powder sent to U.S. Senate offices and often the major media. When the envelope containing Bacillus anthracis spores after the news spread, panic ensue. Anthrax letter attacks led to 22 infections and five deaths. After a lapse of seven years, the U.S. FBI finally target the government anthrax scientist Bruce ? Ivan who committed suicide before he closed.
? Tom Daschle in the Senate, the office found a letter containing anthrax After the hazardous material control specialists to the U.S. Senate Hart Building.
deadly as anthrax have high stability and environmental characteristics, have been designated as Class A chemical and biological weapons . The bacteria survive in the soil. Herbivores are usually looking for food in the plane when they come into contact with the spores. Often due to human contact, inhalation, injection of anthrax spores and infection.
majority of skin anthrax is invasive, that is spread by skin contact with spores. But the most deadly anthrax is inhalation anthrax, spores enter the lungs by immune cells to the lymph nodes. Here, the spores continue to multiply and release toxins, triggering a series of symptoms such as: fever, dyspnea, fatigue, muscle pain, swollen lymph nodes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and black ulcers. Inhalation anthrax in the anthrax deaths are the three highest (up to 100%, even under the drug treatment, 75%). Unfortunately, the 2001 anthrax letter events in the five patients infection is the bacteria [Source: NPR].
Under normal circumstances, few people can infect the bacteria can not spread between people in . Usually only health workers, veterinarians and the military will be vaccinated. If someone deliberately spread the disease, and that most of us have at risk under the anthrax attacks.
more of these features make the anthrax become the darling of the world’s chemical and biological weapons experiments. The late 1930s, Japanese scientists in their famous 731 Institute carried out the aerosol anthrax human experiments. 1942, British troops began experimental anthrax bombs, pollution of the entire Grew ina Island. 44 years later, cleaning up this area needs 280 tons of formaldehyde. In 1979, the former Soviet Union accidentally released aerosol anthrax, resulting in 66 deaths.
Today, anthrax is still the most famous and one of the most horrible chemical and biological weapons. After many years, many projects are dedicated to the development of biological warfare anthrax bacteria, although vaccines exist, but large-scale vaccination program only when the anthrax outbreak is possible.
Another record of the killer Ebola virus is, that is, a dozen viral haemorrhagic fever in one. In the 1970s the Ebola virus in Zaire and Sudan spread, causing hundreds of deaths, and thus began to repeatedly hit the newspapers. After several decades, the Ebola virus outbreak across Africa, even in the case of protective measures, but also quite dangerous. It was originally discovered from the beginning, the virus in Europe, Africa and the United States broke out in hospitals and laboratories at least seven times.
in Uganda Ebola in a hospital isolation ward, a nurse wearing a virus protection service.
Ebola virus in Congo region was first discovered, and therefore the virus was Mingaibola . Scientists suspect that the Ebola virus in Africa, the local sojourn some animals, but the real source has not yet been identified. We are only successful in the virus infecting humans or primates before and it is official contact.
Once you find the host, the Ebola virus through blood or other body metabolites spread by direct contact. In Africa, the virus in hospitals and clinics in the large-scale dissemination. Infected individuals usually experience the onset of 2-21 days period. Typical symptoms are: headache, muscle aches, sore throat and weakness, accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting. Some patients also suffer from internal bleeding or external bleeding. 60% to 90% of those infected died within 7 to 16 days.
doctors do not know some of the patients recovered more easily than others because they do not know how to cure Ebola virus. We have mentioned before, there is no vaccine to prevent Ebola virus. In fact, there is only one hemorrhagic fever vaccine, it is yellow fever vaccine.
when many medical experts try to treat and prevent the outbreak of Ebola, the former Soviet Union, but this group of scientists virus made weapons. First, they cultivate the Ebola virus in the laboratory encountered difficulties in cultivating the success of Marburg haemorrhagic fever. Nevertheless, in the 1990s, they solved the problem. Although this virus usually only through direct contact with the body metabolites spread, but the researchers found that under laboratory conditions, Ebola virus can spread through the air. Ebola virus as the possibility of the spray arms, and a series of hemorrhagic fever virus to make it a Class A directory of biological and chemical weapons permanent members.
Despite only a few years, Ebola has become synonymous with fear and death. The next step is to introduce, is a kind of crimes against humanity for thousands of years between the plague.
14 century Black Death in Europe, nearly half the population at that time took the life of this catastrophe is still so world of fear. Think of this light is called “big death” of the disease may reproduce the world, is enough to make people shudder. Today, some researchers believe that although the world’s first plague pandemic was caused by the hemorrhagic fever, but the word always plague biological weapons and the Class A, another important member of the tangled, it is the plague bacteria.
To bring people to understand the trauma of the plague, you just take a closer look ? 1562 Peter Bruegel’s work,” the victory of death “is enough.
plague, there are two main forms: strains of plague and pneumonic plague. Strains of plague, mainly through infected fleas to spread, but also the patient’s body fluids can spread from person to person. This plague will result in the groin, armpit and neck surrounding lymph nodes and fever, chills, headache and fatigue and other symptoms. Disease onset in 2 to 3 days and continued 1-6 days. If you are not infected rescue within the first 24 hours, 70% of those infected will die. Pneumonic plague is relatively small there, usually by coughing, sneezing, and face to face contact with air. Its onset symptoms of high fever, cough, body fluids, blood and breathing difficulties.
plague infection – both life and death – that chemical and biological weapons are an effective communication tool. Japan to China in 1940 dropped a sick flea, causing a plague outbreak. Today, scientists predict will be made into aerosol of plague bacteria, to cause pneumonic plague pandemic. However, as the carrier with the traditional pest attack may still occur.
Although some countries have developed into a plague biological weapon, but because the disease will naturally occur, the virus A copy can be easily obtained. In appropriate and effective treatment, the plague mortality can be reduced to 5%. But there is no plague vaccine.
However, the effective chemical and biological weapons does not necessarily have a high mortality rate, see the next entry.
Although tularemia only 5% mortality, but disease-causing micro-organisms is the world’s most vulnerable bacteria. In 1941, the Soviet Union there has been a 000 cases. The following year, the German siege of Stalingrad, the incidence of the number of and inviting to 100,000. Most of the cases occurred in Germany. Former Soviet biological and chemical weapons researcher Ken Aier Buick claims that this incident was not accidental from infectious diseases, but a product of biological and chemical warfare. In 1992 before defecting to the United States, El Buick plans to participate in the former Soviet Union’s anti-tularemia vaccine research and development.
This photo may not have the picture before the outbreak of plague as scary, but these cute, furry little rabbit known to man could carry most susceptible bacteria.
Francis’s rabbit fever bacteria found in less than 50 species of organisms, especially in rodents, such as rabbits and hares, is widely present. Human infection and these diseases are mostly direct contact with sick animals, sick or bitten by insects, and animals or insects that are eating the contaminated food or inhalation of aerosol-like bacteria.
rabbit fever does not spread from person to person, and can be cured by antibiotics or vaccination to control. However, when the spread between animals and humans, spread or use spray form, the rapid spread of the disease easily. Although mortality is low, it is still so easy to spread the characteristics of a Class A rabbit fever bacteria chemical and biological weapons. Solvent in the air, it has a strong vitality. Therefore, the United States, Britain, Canada and the former Soviet Union in WWII are working to develop chemical and biological weapons rabbit fever.
if the cute little bunny is very scary for making chemical weapons, then take a look at our next introduction. It around you, and you can not see it.
Please take a deep breath. If you have just inhaled air contains botulinum toxin, you simply can not be determined. In the arms of airborne bacteria, the deadly bacteria are completely colorless and odorless. However, 12-36 hours after the first signs of botulism begin to appear: blurred vision, vomiting and difficulty swallowing. At this point, your only hope is that botulinum antitoxin – and to catch your symptoms worsen before use. If not treated, you may be muscle weakness, it will make your muscle weakness, eventually leading to damage to the respiratory system to stop working.
botulinum bacteria are very common, perhaps in your cupboard.
botulinum toxin can be within 24 to 72 hours to cause death. Therefore, this terrible toxin type A in the six major chemical and biological weapons in place. If the time to help your lungs with a respirator to breathe, botulism fatality rate by 70% to 6%, but the patient’s recovery still takes a long time. This is because the toxins gathered in the intersection where the nerve endings and muscle, can be effectively cut off the brain signals. Botox patients want from fully recovered, the patient must grow new nerve endings – this process will take several months. Effectiveness of existing vaccines and side effects are often due to be questioned, so there is no widely used.
Moreover, the presence of Clostridium botulinum very wide, especially in soil and marine sediments. Bacteria often found in fruits, vegetables and seafood. In this case, they are harmless. Only when they started to grow, toxins will be generated. The main human exposure to this toxin way, is eating contaminated food. For example, improper food storage temperatures and the environment for the Clostridium botulinum spores often provide good breeding conditions. Severe trauma and infant digestive tract is similar to the environment.
its power, usability, and difficult to cure of, botulinum toxin has become some of the country’s chemical and biological weapons development experiments darling. Fortunately, like the effective use of the botulinum toxin is still facing great challenges. In 1990, the Japanese group Aum Shinrikyo pagan political goals for the release of several botulinum poison gas, but does not appear that they expect a large area of ??death. When they switched in 1995 when sarin gas attack, killing 12 people, and to thousands of people were injured.
chemical and biological weapons but does not have to directly kill the enemy. We are following two types of toxins to be announced, will be able to greatly affect the food supply.
Although botulism mortality up to 70%, but it is not without merit. Use of small doses of purified botulinum, doctors can use to treat their paralytic neurological disease, for beauty repair, and even wrinkles. You may be more familiar with its trade name: Botox (botulinum toxin).
many viruses, bacteria and toxins significant threat to humans, but there are a lot of germs like another game: food crops . Whether you are against a foreign enemy, or the besieged city, cut off the enemy’s food supply is an effective strategy. Without food, people will weakness, panic, violence and even death.
air broadcast bulk of the blast, rice production will have a devastating blow.
some countries, especially the United States and Russia, have been vigorously studied in order to target the diseases of food crops, even insects. Emphasis on mass production of modern agricultural status of a single crop, pest and famine make it easier.
as a biological weapon, a blast caused by the rice blast fungus crop diseases. Leaves on infected plants will soon be covered by thousands of fungal spores, gray lesions. These spores multiply rapidly and spread among the plants, damage crops and reduce yields. While training with resistance of plants is a good way, but it is difficult to resist the blast, because you can cultivate disease-resistant crops against a fungus, but not against 219 kinds.
blast and not like smallpox or botulism as murder. But it can cause serious famine in poor countries as well as economic difficulties, and other major issues.
many countries including the United States has developed chemical and biological weapons blast.
what? Compared to rice, hamburger you prefer? But meat eaters can not be taken lightly, following the disease will pose a threat to the meat product.
13 century when Genghis Khan invaded Europe, he inadvertently unleashed a terrifying biological warfare. He used to transport supplies the gray prairie cattle infected with the deadly rinderpest.
see it up may be like a big yak, but in fact the medieval chemical and biological weapons delivery systems.
ancient times, humans infected with rinderpest in animals are brought to all corners of the world, often caused millions of cattle, other livestock and wild animals died. Sometimes, a large outbreak of rinderpest in Africa is extremely serious, man-eating lion had to turn to. Thanks to the existing quarantine and the immune system, rinderpest has been controlled in most parts of the world.
Genghis Khan with rinderpest cock just as biological and chemical weapons, but not so many innocent modern . Canada and the United States has developed the use of anti-rinderpest poultry chemical and biological weapons.
many of the most horrible chemical and biological weapons can be traced back to ancient times, but some are afraid of new people.
2. Nipah virus
Over time, viruses are constantly evolving. New virus emerging, human and animal contact can sometimes make life-threatening diseases onto the top of the food chain. As the population continues to expand, the emergence of new diseases inevitably. Each disease outbreak aboard the headlines, you almost can be sure, some people consider it being turned into weapons.
those the corner yet, but what chemical and biological weapons hidden?
Nipah virus is one of them, until 1999, it was caused by the world health agency’s attention. Pandemic that occurred in Malaysia, Nipah region, 265 people infected, 105 died. 90% of those infected with pig living, health workers, who think that the virus naturally present in fruit bats. Specific route of transmission is unclear, but experts believe the virus may be through skin contact or body fluids spread. There has been no report of human infection.
symptoms usually last 6-10 days, including the wildly like a mild flu symptoms, like fever, muscle pain, also includes encephalitis. In some severe cases, patients will lethargy, confusion, convulsions, and eventually coma. Nipah virus, the mortality rate was 50%, there is no standard therapy and vaccines.
Nipah virus, and the same number of emerging pathogens, is classified as a Class C biological weapons. Although no known country in the development of such chemical and biological weapons, but the potential widespread mortality and 50% is still possible to make it a chemical and biological weapons.
nature can always continue to introduce new methods, we used to fight each other. But for some people, naturally enough effort. Finally, we introduce, for scientists to prepare for the improvements made lethal weapons in nature.
1. Chimeric virus
plague, smallpox and anthrax – the most deadly virus in fact, not with your enemies. Pathogenic features of their own evolution is just a byproduct. But if scientists use gene technology to compensate for their defects it?