US-Japan shock: Chinese naval ship with a large fighting force comparable to the actual carrier
As the name suggests, the dock landing ship is essentially an ocean voyage with the ability to carry amphibious landing craft air cushion landing craft and ships. It has a large dock space to accommodate the landing craft in combat, the aft cabin door open water, for the amphibious landing craft, amphibious tanks and hovercraft out. Meanwhile, the modern dock landing ship also has a helicopter landing platform libraries and can be equipped with helicopters, a vertical crack down on the enemy coastline.
compared with conventional landing craft, dock landing ship in combat and combat capability is definitely a revolutionary step forward. Our previous equipment, large landing ship, although as high as several thousand tons displacement, and also added some landing ship helicopter landing platform, but there is no dock landing ship tank, so the way is still landing on a beach landing, that landing craft needs close to a few hundred meters from the coastline and even a few dozen meters, in order to open the bow of the “mouth” the implementation of land.
This amphibious landing, the landing craft are often subjected to enemy fire hit the coast defense, as the beach “target.” Dock landing ship with a “picture style” landing mode, carrier can not close the beach, far away from the coastline can be released from the landing craft and helicopters to launch and landing operations, the safety of landing platform with a degree of protection.
dock landing ship with a huge tonnage, the traditional landing craft with unmatched ship within the space and life, which brings two advantages: a large life and occupant comfort. Major life can make the dock landing ship offshore deployment, and deployment of its time at sea longer, so a dock landing ship of the hot spots can be sustained for several months deterrent.
occupant comfort is equally important, dock landing ship combat mode is carrying hundreds of Marines and equipment for deployment at sea, in the long voyage, the soldier’s physical and mental state is crucial must provide sufficient space to ship to soldiers in physical training and small-scale tactical exercises, in order to maintain their physical fitness and quality of basic tactics. Dock landing ship within the ship because of its large space, and helicopters taking off and landing platform for deployment of Marines to provide for a long time at sea.
we compare the dock landing ship tank landing ship with a large performance, we can easily find the dock landing ship has a huge advantage.
the United States, retired, “Newport” class tank landing ship, for example, the load displacement of 8450 tons, length 159 m, carrying capacity is not small, and can carry 400 fully armed soldiers, 10 tanks or armored vehicles. New tank landing ship also has a helicopter platform, capable of accommodating two medium transport helicopters. Dock landing ship of the load displacement is usually in tons, such as the United States, “San Antonio” class dock landing ship load displacement of 25,000 tons, but equipped with personnel and equipment is not too much, is usually the case, “San Antonio” class only equipped with a battalion of Marines (including personnel and equipment). In the full load displacement of almost 3 times the case, the dock landing ship carrying amount of personnel and equipment, but only slightly more Bi Tanke landing ships, dock landing ship then the advantage lie?
the difference lies in the sea holding force and the diversity of vehicles carried. Large tank landing ship’s maximum speed of 20 knots, cruising range is usually only 3,000 to 4,000 nautical miles, such as “Newport” class tank landing ship’s life to only 2,500 nautical miles offshore holding force of 10-15 days. As the tank landing ship carrying a large number of personnel and equipment needed supplies, maintenance equipment, supplies and other materials can not be obtained through the sea, so even if there is to follow the formation of ocean-going supply ship fuel, tank landing ships at sea can not be long “rock.” Dock landing ship is much larger than the endurance tank landing ship. “San Antonio” self-sustaining power of the sea level has been no “sea” to measure up.
it is deployed at sea for six months, that is, after service in the class ship, at sea for six months before they need to return to a port (of course half-way its oil supply ship replenishment at sea). In the U.S. Navy’s combat manual, “San Antonio” class to carry Marines set sail, will be one month or so rushed to the hot spots, and then in the region for a 4-month deterrent patrol, the ship’s landing team in the state of combat readiness at any time, depending on the regional situation ready to launch small-scale amphibious assault.
such a task, with the tank landing ship is in any case can not be completed. Tank landing ship in the narrow cabin and deck so stuffy inside the first half of the Marines, not to mention the always maintain combat readiness, the soldiers could stand after landing is a problem.
for the Marines, the dock landing ship is not a temporary dwelling of transport, but a semi-permanent barracks. If necessary, a dock landing ship recruits can be trained as a qualified soldiers. Dock landing ship has a camp owned by all: to live a more spacious cabin, the necessary space, physical training ground, weapons and vehicles operating sites, or even range.
in the 1982 Falklands War, the British Navy sent a large amphibious ships, but Britain was not yet equipped with landing craft or amphibious assault ship dock, across the Atlantic Ocean in the process of sea-crossing , Marine Corps soldiers on board in order to maintain the physical and operational status, the British Navy to use the accompanying two aircraft carriers and container carriers, Marine Corps soldiers in batches by helicopter to the carrier, the flight deck as their training ground, drill a variety of tactical action and meet the team.
precisely because the sea “training camp”, the temporary mobilization of Marines after a long sea voyage, not only the problem of declining state does not appear, but use this time to study the tactical navigation action, and made for the Falklands terrain targeted exercises, so then began the landing operations more smoothly. Because of this, the United Kingdom can be used for ocean-going deployment of amphibious ships is concerned, in the case of funding cuts year after year, still the 1990s built a displacement of 20,000 tons of “Ocean” was the helicopter carrier.
If the traditional landing ship, “from land to land” combat landing, dock landing ships and amphibious assault ship the Navy was to provide a “from sea to land,” the combat capability. Of course, to realize “from sea to land” attack, a dock landing ship just is not enough, also need to have ocean-going fleet, precision-guided weapons and supported by carrier-based air combat force, but the dock landing ship is one of the key .
Why not through the deck?
dock landing ship in domestic service before the Japanese “Osumi” level, South Korea “Dokdo” class dock landing ship have been put into active service. Although the same for the dock landing ship, the ship in Japan and South Korea are more “modern”, with direct flight deck and lift, in appearance resembles a light aircraft carrier, so the two ship-often referred to as “quasi carriers.” Made in the stern dock landing ships have a larger helicopter landing platform, the central bridge is still tall. The traditional appearance of the ship caused the concern of many military fans in this the author tries to talk about their own views.
a landing dock landing ship carrying platform, the main feature is the use of helicopters, landing craft and air cushion landing craft and other mechanical sub-carriers, to transport troops to enemy beaches, launch and landing operations. Because of their means of delivery, determines the basic elements of dock landing ship is aft of the cabin and the helicopter landing platform dock. Amphibious assault ship can be considered a dock landing ship of the “enhanced version”, it not only has dock space, bring their own weapons (including weapons and shipboard VTOL fighter/attack plane) is quite powerful, it can be said is the amphibious assault ship In the dock landing ship based on the increase of the air strike capability, with a “Land Attack” of the dock landing ship.
off from the amphibious assault ship air combat force, currently there are mainly two: armed helicopters and V/STOL fighter/attack plane. As the marine environment salt spray and water vapor on the combat aircraft have a strong corrosive effect, under the Army Air Force helicopters specially modified without prior can not be used directly onto the ship, in addition, anti-landing side in the firepower case, the helicopter’s vitality has always been a major problem. Amphibious assault ship can use tools mainly rely on air strikes V/STOL fighter/attack plane.
United States is the world’s only amphibious assault ship equipped with the state, the U.S. Navy’s amphibious assault ship is mainly responsible for two roles, first use of helicopters, LCAC or conventional landing craft delivery units, the second is the use of AV -8B V/STOL aircraft carrier task perform sea control and limited use of ocean anti-submarine anti-submarine helicopters. As the F-35B is about service, so the United States is now preparing for the existing fleet of amphibious assault ship facelift F-35B.
F-35B in the facelift, the amphibious assault ship at sea control will be greatly enhanced. Although the amphibious assault ship is not equipped with ship-borne early warning aircraft, but the future development of UAV technology unmanned carrier-based early warning aircraft may become a reality, then the United States, these displacement of 40,000 tons of amphibious assault ship will have a strong ability to control sea, sufficient to light of other countries with even medium-sized aircraft carrier operations.
Japan and South Korea were the introduction of AV-8B, so they built “Osumi” level and “Dokdo” level, were not prepared to carry V/STOL aircraft carrier. Japan has joined the “Joint Strike Fighter” program, but so far, Japan’s only going to use F-35A, the conventional takeoff and landing, the Japanese Self-Defense Force Air Force equipment.
“Dokdo” class can not hold the lift F-35B, of its hangar size also does not take into account the need to carry these aircraft, “Osumi” class structure is more simple, and the deck is not set next hangar. Although theoretically the two ships can carry through large-scale transformation to achieve 4 to 6 F-35B (“Osumi” class on the deck can be tethered directly to F-35B) of the target, but such a big change takes a long time and money, not as good as from the new office, said the cost of a light aircraft carrier, after all, South Korea and Japan is the world’s largest ship design and construction of light aircraft not insurmountable difficulties.
construction of Japan “quasi carriers” to prove that Japan’s East Asian security threat is redundant, we all know the strength of current technology in Japan could easily build a good deal on a medium-sized aircraft carrier hull, not need to use “Osumi” class aircraft carrier technology to do what verification.
therefore, are not equipped with V/STOL aircraft carrier in the case, “big corner,” and “Dokdo” class dock landing ship and domestic performance in combat and there is no qualitative difference . In the dock landing ship deck using the straight-through, also need to pay a certain price, large size makes the ship’s flight deck of the weight of larger structures, as well as cabin space is limited and so on. Of course, straight for the ship-borne helicopter landing deck has some advantages, in through the deck of the dock landing ship, the helicopter can be used to roll the short way off, as opposed to completely “straight up and down” way off the point, short can increase the number of take-off roll off the load, but the difference between the two is not significant.
dock landing ship made amphibious ships offshore, as our first attempt, technically conservative design is forgiven, the same time as the dock landing ship, its main function modules (dock space and helicopter system) are in place, with the most basic of combat capability, so the design is more successful. As China’s shipbuilding technology and construction experience, the future of amphibious ships in the design will become more sophisticated.
maritime territorial disputes in the limited war
Due to historical reasons, China after the founding period of time without effective control over the Nansha Islands sea area, resulting in The vast majority of the Nansha islands and reefs in the 1960s and 1970s were occupied around the country. There is a saying please God easy to allay it, take in the fact that neighboring countries have caused the situation, even though today’s Chinese Navy already has the ability to cruise the Spratly Islands, but the strength of surface ships and submarines from the need to defend the interests of Nansha is still considerable distance.
in peace and development have become the mainstream of the world today, forced by large-scale war to regain the Nansha Islands and is unlikely to be accounted for, but also, through international negotiations and diplomatic pressure is difficult to recover the rights of the Nansha . The status quo of China’s Nansha Islands to the Navy made a pointed question. To solve this dilemma, we need not just to cruise the Nansha remote air power and aircraft carriers, in fact, in the low intensity of the “limited war”, in a number of surface warships with more under the dock landing ship from to “skillfully deflected the question” role. Dock landing ship of balance and versatility, to the Navy’s operations in the Nansha a variety of options.
war for limited objectives of the British maritime strategist Julian Corbett in the last century made a “limited war at sea” theory. Corbett that maritime rights and interests in the form of struggle can be divided into all-out war and limited war, total war, the goal is a comprehensive defeat hostile country, to destroy the ability of countries to enter the ocean, and limited war aims in particular to beat each other on the battlefield, which to achieve certain strategic objectives.
Spratly Islands dispute, the parties appear to have a limited objective. Nansha Islands and neighboring countries to take our to obtain the Nansha area of ??marine resources; However, there are also recovered for the reefs, not to destroy the military forces around the country. In this context, any party hastily war expansion, small-scale low-intensity conflict from escalation to large-scale war is not a wise move, in addition to wreak havoc on the country’s strategic resources, the geographic sensitivity may also result in the Nansha Islands other major countries involved in conflict in Nansha, making the situation more complicated struggle. CHN power switched network www.chnqiang.com
Nansha Islands and many, but these islands were not large. One area is the largest Pacific island, the current troop levels are only two companies, the Nansha Islands in the Pacific Island is the only island with fresh water capacity of confession, not only the Nansha Islands and other smaller area, including all materials, including freshwater have to rely on foreign supplies. Fewer of these troops (usually only a few people), rely on supplies of enemy occupied continental islands use the dock landing ship launched a surprise attack from the sea, seize and stick to a certain time, is entirely feasible technically.
dock landing ship with a long maritime self-sustaining force and endurance, it is a deployment at sea of ??ships, and large tank landing ship at sea is a sea-crossing ships. Dock landing ship carrying Marines in the Nansha Islands is a normal combat patrol, and contains a large tank landing ship of the fleet in the Nansha Islands, is often considered a prelude to large-scale military operations. Conventional landing craft at sea while holding force is limited, only a few days stay in the Nansha area, during that time, neighboring countries may be on alert and response measures taken in diplomacy. Therefore, the use of dock landing ship launched against enemy occupied islands of the “limited attack”, can be reached on the surprise in the campaign.
contrast from the force point of view, dock landing ship carrying marines battalion size, fully capable of winning a single enemy occupied islands and reefs of the task. Dock landing ship medium-caliber gun installed itself and a number of short-range carrier-based suppression of firearms, for the Marine Corps can provide some fire support. As the carrying capacity of amazing, the recovery of enemy occupied islands and reefs, the ship can carry our equipment and supplies, rapid construction of fortifications on the islands and reefs and signs of sovereignty to the garrison stationed on the island, must adhere to the accumulation of long-term supplies and ammunition.
sea blockade and the limited deterrent
limited war aim is to find each other at the strategic layout of the “Achilles heel”, the local blow through just right, cause each other completely passive. Layout Spratly Islands reefs, making it is easy to find the conflict “key point”, through one or two specific reefs to fight and recover, to achieve our strategic objectives. In the 1990s struggle against the sea of ??the Philippines, to seize and build through our Mischief Reef locations, starting from the Philippines, local tender must only control the Mischief Reef area, making it occupied in the Nansha Islands and the Philippines into a unprecedented passive. Similarly, in the struggle against the sea of ??other countries, our side can also be used such a “critical point” tactics, which occupy a key reefs to form on the other islands and reefs encircling the enemy occupied, its transport fleet supply formation of blocking.
dock landing ship in the form of a naval blockade, in conjunction with surface ships in the sea for a long period of conflict, combat cruise. Dock landing ship a large helicopter platform, and a larger hull, with good navigability and anti-wave capability, suitable for such a high sea conditions Nansha area patrols. Naval blockade against the principal goal is to start from the local transport of the enemy fleet. Depending on the situation and set the two sides, blocking can be divided into maritime surveillance, the expulsion of enemy ships, and sinking other ships and other detained several levels, which supply much-needed support for the enemy occupied islands and reefs are very deadly.
naval blockade is a form of limited war, a naval blockade aims through military deterrence, to occupy the neighboring countries of the Spratlys, in fact, difficult to sustain, so that our access to the negotiating table greater initiative. Meanwhile, in a naval blockade of the fleet also requires the implementation of more intense the strength of military operations, which the other party is also a real enemy threat.
mainland China in the direction away from the naval blockade, not only with the activity of large-scale ocean surface warships, but also requires the participation of dock landing ship. Because the dock landing ship not only for a naval blockade, but also a sudden deterioration in the situation in the negotiations as soon as the “naval blockade” into a “limited war”, can provide decision makers with more options.
defend the Nansha islands and reefs of our control of our reefs very difficult conditions. These reefs are a very small area, and the Nansha Islands and the other, as supplies and ammunition also need transportation from the rear. In addition, not more troops, our control of the reefs there are also the risk of attack by neighboring countries. Our surface ships currently cruising the density of the Spratly Islands has significantly increased than in the past, but still can not do enough to ship at any time in the deployment of the Nansha sea area, dock landing ship made after the service, to fill the gaps in China’s amphibious capabilities in the use of amphibious assault operations in the ocean at the same time, can also be used to defend our islands and reefs occupied.
dock landing ship at sea in the use of defensive operations, the first is for reef reinforcements and supplies. The use of dock landing ship carrying landing craft and helicopters, able to ship one hundred kilometers away from our reefs emergency transport materials and personnel to enhance the island’s defense force to fight the enemy’s invasion. Second, the deployment of the Nansha Islands in the dock landing ship also provides a vital counter-force, when our reefs are being captured, the dock landing ship can launch a counterattack against the enemy, to recapture the islands and reefs. If there is no deployment of dock landing ship at sea, the enemy is likely to occupy the reefs for a long period of time, whether on the battlefield or in foreign affairs, will be very negative.
large-scale war in the dock landing ship
China is a country with 18,000 kilometers of coastline and numerous islands of the sea state, and reunification has not been completed In some islands on the issue of sovereignty dispute with neighboring countries. And destroyers, frigates, submarines and other warships than the main, the Navy landing ship and equipment in our sequence is not compelling, but it undertakes the task of sea transport combat troops, in addition to the Sea, the construction of Nansha port of the island that can not be the task of conveying materials supplies, the importance least as much as any other kind of ships.
landing craft from the world development, large-scale, general-purpose technology has become a trend, such as the United States, Britain, France, Italy and other countries are equipped with strong ability of large-scale amphibious landing ships, and also development of more advanced, tonnage greater, faster speed landing craft, and these countries, China’s transport capacity of the fleet landing there are still large enough. China’s neighboring countries are also rapidly expanding its navy amphibious ships, in addition to Japan and Korea, ASEAN and South Asian countries are by way of the arms purchase from abroad or even second-hand large landing ship dock landing ship.
to improve transport capacity and increase the use of landing craft, landing craft must be to future large-scale, balanced development. Large loading dock landing ship more life force, self-sustaining and strong, anti-wave is good, versatile, can better achieve “load balancing” and the sea long-term deployments, greatly improve the combat capability of landing ships and the use of flexible sex.
instance of landing operations from the world view, modern landing more attention to speed, because the landing is crucial back-water, is the most difficult kind of combat. If the sea-crossing time and the assault landing time is shortened, the enemy will no doubt be fully prepared and greatly enhance the opportunity for victory in landing operations. At this point, our landing craft still not satisfactory manner. From the situation of China’s active landing ship, hovercraft and helicopters capable of carrying not more, and the landing ship speed was generally small. Add especially in the formation of civilian vessels, due to varying the speed of ships, sea-crossing to ensure the formation rate of formation and the unity will lead to very difficult.
In addition, in the future local wars at sea, the beach landing operations against the enemy when landing because the setting is not only combined with the fire plan, and natural and artificial obstacles and obstructions combined with the temporary set of early combined to form an extremely dense barrier system. In this case, the kind used to direct the plane landing on a beach has been gradually giving way to combat the use of amphibious assault ships, large air cushion landing craft, helicopters, vertical landing three-dimensional combat.
a large number of these new land tools and equipment, the modern landing operations faster, better maneuverability, and can focus on the enemy across the beach obstacles and fortified the coast, deep in the enemy’s landing, landing out of the past fighting back tackling the disadvantage of water, thus greatly accelerating the process of landing.
the demand for operations against Taiwan, China continue to expand the size of the fleet, while the traditional land, should be equipped with a number of dock landing ship and hovercraft to develop large-scale ground-effect aircraft, helicopters and other new landing tools to break the traditional style of landing operations, the development of integrated joint landing capability.
integration theory is the essence of joint landing: the formation of a high degree of synthesis of full-time troops crossing and landing operations to independently carry out combat missions. The size of the force is not necessarily great, but the financial land, sea and air combat capability in one, landing forces with the private activities of ships, helicopters are configured with the ship, and a certain air and sea assault on the fire. Joint Integrated Units usually ship tactical units, the formation of a certain attack, transport, self-protection of the sea-crossing and landing assault force, with a strong mobility and synthetic. Once the war needs, just sent out several vessels, or dozens of ships, we can form a certain scale amphibious assault force.
synthesis of this elite fighting force, not only to avoid the use of different types of ships and military branches to bring some of the drawbacks and temporary, and can reduce the threat of high-tech weapons. In rough seas, assault landing phases, the landing force is scattered independently, avoiding the high-tech weapons combat on a larger cause casualties.
coalition forces in the second Middle East War Battle of Port Said, by carrier-based helicopter transport directly to a vertical landing, a helicopter landing in the history of using the first vertical landing. U.S. invasion of Grenada, its more than 6,000 troops landed in people, only 250 people by landing craft landing on the other by the transport umbrella, landing and helicopter landing.
assault landing over the horizon is the United States since the 1980s, first proposed landing tactics. The tactics required in future high-tech local wars crossing and landing operations, 2/3 of the troops must be taken “from shore to shore,” or “from ship to shore” in the form of air transport to the enemy launched a surprise attack, and quickly maneuver to shore up the enemy combat forces, and timely expansion of victories, winning landing beaches and landing field, landing operations rapidly achieve the purpose.
ultra-horizon assault landing theory, its essence is to rely on high-tech landing tools, rapid transport landing forces ashore. In this way the one hand the basic landing troops from underwater obstacles, and high speed, landing spot formation can transfer area or pan of water set up in a place far from the coast, reducing the enemy fire on landing transport ship coast boat threat.
landing operations conducted over the horizon, must be equipped with landing craft or amphibious assault ship dock. Dock landing ship used amphibious landing craft air cushion has a good nature, not only driving but also directly on the water landing, the landing forces with weapons, vehicles, materials sent to the enemy line of defense along the lateral investment, thereby eliminating the interference from the beach Water landing the difficult stage, greatly accelerating the assault landing speed.
way to take this land, by sea beach topography and hydrological conditions and other restrictions greatly reduced, making the range more conducive to landing, choice lots more mobility faster, further landing direction and increases the variability and the landing sites reached a landing of a sudden, to achieve the assault landing distance and speed.
in Taiwan’s integrated joint landing operations, the dock landing ship landing fleet combined with the traditional, not only to visit the battlefield to achieve positive integration and diversity, and dock landing ship loading capacity and as a balance greater endurance, you can minor in the direction of Taiwan’s small and medium-scale launch diversionary landing operations. Landing ship dock ships with less required, to master the basic command of the sea waters or even single-ship actions, to use its air-cushion landing craft and helicopters, weak defense against the enemy’s flank and rear of the coastline to launch battalion-sized landing operations, to complement the positive landing field action. In addition, the dock landing ship of the amphibious command is still a good platform, due to a huge ship, so there is plenty of cabin space for the theater command structure set up in the mobile command post set up near the enemy coast, the complex command and landing operations.
powerful amphibious landing ship carrying capacity is in doubt, but if we regard it as a “porter” it wrong. New dock landing ship landing marks the completion of the People’s Navy combat will be significant changes. Meanwhile, the dock landing ship made a starting point, in the hope that China’s future naval amphibious force will be more powerful and comprehensive.
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