Fei Bao F-bombers made the whole process of development: poor engine R & D
domestic flight Leopard JH machine
JH machine-made Flying Leopard
grind wing the sky – Flying Leopard experience the whole process of development
Macheng Lin: Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics former military deputy director in charge of “Flying Leopard” aircraft development work, he served as deputy commander of the aircraft development site until the 1995 review of the aircraft completed the basic design shape. “Flying Leopard” aircraft development cycle is longer, when launched, according to Chinese aviation industry was the actual use of the terms of the design; focus on the combat point of view, to meet the actual needs of the target. And “times” to continue to use may be to spend the new technologies and equipment, have gone through a stormy history. “Flying Leopard” is my generation, an important naval air weapons, the author focuses on personal experience to write a rough thing.
“Flying Leopard” that FBC-1, China Aviation Industry Corporation, Xi’an Aircraft Design design, manufacture, Xi’an Aircraft Company, China Academy of complete setting test flight of fighter-bomber, is to fill our air force, navy Air Force aircraft equipped empty. August 1998 by the State Council, Central Military Commission approved the design shape and shaping the armed forces. Zhuhai air show in 98, “Flying Leopard” announced to the world, “decrypt”, for the air show, when broadcast television, newspapers have done a lot of coverage. October 1, 1999 the 50th anniversary, the door flew across the sky flying over the leopard, by the Central Executive review.
“Flying Leopard” is equipped with two engines, front and rear seat double system, is the air-sea multi-supersonic fighter-bomber. The finished product installed accessories, weapons are all my own design, manufacturing, and its development through very rough. From the State Department, the Central Military Commission of the original conventional equipment development leadership team approved the project in February 1977 to December 1995 developed aircraft design will be finalized by the first review, a total of 18 years. The first 5 years, 1981 years ago, the country’s economic difficulties, aircraft development work can not be in full swing, is “what one continuous line”, mainly for the overall design, layout and hair trials; and the aviation industry within the system was change much, but have some impact.
Institute of Science and Technology when I was in the aviation department of the aircraft, participated in some of the models discussed and research. In May 1982, I was appointed as the new machine Aviation Industry Ministry deputy director (director is Zhang Jinbo comrades), involved in the development and served as the authority responsible person, on-site deputy commander; is to retire in 1991, still Employment in the development of organs head, deputy commander of the scene; until December 1995 the first aircraft design review will be finalized only by the actual work for 14 years. Basically, took part in the development of the entire process of aircraft (only air-ship missile targeting has not yet been finalized, it is formally approved until 1998 the whole weapon system designed to shape). In the “Flying Leopard” technology developed in the research are many, just remember some of the following things.
string type and seat and seat-type
1977 In February, the Central Military Commission of the original equipment, the development of conventional models of the Leading Group issued a research task, as the then military H-5 equipped with active follow-up machine, empty the Navy shared “universal type” aircraft. Xi’an Aircraft Design Institute designed according to the requirements of the overall program, using double system, string-seat cabin layout, the two cabin crew members working the front, the front cabin for the driver, rear and is responsible for weapons delivery for the pilot, launch. 1977, 1978, the program opened the hearing, coordination will be finished. Then as the work progressed, however, technical depth step by step, air, naval requirements more specific, the contradictions came out, mainly:
Air Force’s goal is to deal with large-scale armored and defense in depth, but this time the air defense weapons have been very well, almost no possibility of a breakthrough from a height; the Air Force’s “Flying Leopard” need for a long period of low altitude high speed flight, but also to quickly and accurately drop bombs, to meet this requirement two co-ordination between the pilot is extremely important, so the Air Force want to use two pilots side by side two-seater layout. The Navy’s “Flying Leopard” main task is to attack the ship, almost entirely done by the instrument, which makes the back seat of electronic equipment complex, the Navy hopes to be able to stay out of the back seat of weapons operator space as large as possible, that wish to adopt tandem two-seat layout; bomb should have a better fighter after the performance.
adjustment programs designed to further enhance staff performance fighter, the flight Mach number M increased from the original 1.5 to 1.7, as is now the “Flying Leopard.” August 1980, the General Staff, National Defense Industry Office issued a document required under the general division units empty, the different requirements of the Navy, the aircraft implementation of “one machine two types of” design principles. In April 1982 the period of the original approval of the Central Military Commission Chairman Deng Xiaoping, “Flying Leopard” as conventional weapons focus on developing projects, string-seat, ahead of the 1979 prototype for a review of wood into the sampling design}, and the Air Force has repeatedly called for accelerated Block-type work. Between December 1983 by the Ministry of Aviation Industry Vice Minister Gao Zhenning chaired the Air Force held a seat type and layout of the program review will be, reported by the Xi’an Aircraft Design program, made a number of technical problems. Block program for body and thick, the resistance, leading to maximum speed of less than combat skills indicator; and ejection seat program also difficulties. When the U.S. F-111 fighter-bombers and a double seat, aircrew ejection is along the entire cockpit with the pilot ejected. Ejection by conventional means if we get the main driving after the jump, jump after jump personnel who have to suffer before the danger of burning jet rocket seat; Qi jump around flowering program is also considered, but the feasibility study to conduct the necessary tests and technology research, To arrange a time, manpower and funding. At that time the study of cockpit layout there are many contradictions:
1, string, and two-seat machine to work simultaneously, the first human, insufficient financial resources, stretching the length, fearing the loss, even if the two types of machine slightly opened some of the research progress, such as 1 to 2 years, it is difficult to resolve this conflict.
2, the first test flight for the shape of a five test machine, the machine is also difficult to arrange the flight test mission. Some advocates and seat-type three, two-seat string, so that the result is a lot of comrades are two types of aircraft flight cycle, they have extended to the entire work is very unfavorable. Should the flight test aircraft used for training to increase the number of frames, then the availability of funds, manpower issues, there are technical risks, in the event of unexpected technical problems, can lead to rework and more losses.
3, but also special emphasis on the funding. The total cost was just above set out a model has been very tight, while two types of dry, can not support.
short, “a machine two-type” string that is both dry and seat layout, great contradictions, find it difficult to speed up the development work. October 20, 1986 – 22 of five former Armament Department of the General Staff, National Defense organization responsible comrades of the sixth inning the Air Force, Navy and Aviation Industry bodies and host, plant director of comrades, met to discuss the “Flying Leopard” Air Force aircraft type of problem, a consensus was reached two days of work. That is, according to the prevailing objective conditions, only concentrate manpower, material and financial resources to better the conditions string-seat five machine dry out as quickly as possible, as soon as possible to get hand, to obtain some experience. And being first on the block type to carry out some research, and create conditions for the right time to press on. After the report of the ideas discussed, formally approved by the Executive. “Flying Leopard” aircraft development work in this arrangement, history proved to be correct, reflecting the concentration of forces to fight a battle of annihilation of the spirit. Block-type string and problem solving can be described as the first solution in aircraft development research projects.
do everything possible to compress development funding
1982 by the former National Defense submitted, approval of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, with additional funding to continue to develop in a suspended state. ” Flying Leopard “aircraft. At that time the funding system, the annual costs of military research are allocated COSTIND concentrated industrial sectors; the Ministry of Aviation Industry was still in the research of the J-7, Yun-7, F 8, Y-8 and other models, the total funding is still insufficient. “Flying Leopard”, although the column on the project, but give very little money every year, it is difficult to accelerate the work. After the post, many plants and organs in charge of personnel at all levels of the Ministry of Science, Technology and requested the meeting, especially the efforts of the Navy comrades, National Defense issued to wear a hat, “Flying Leopard” aircraft development costs. From 1984 to 1987, about a year × × × million, but the total budget nearly exhausted.
the financial sector, according to statistics, cost overruns would be great, then National Defense, the Navy leadership that can not accept, it was difficult to say stay here, take not so much money. At this time we can only strive for work, trying to Yajian funds; the relevant authorities comrades have to perform, I would be duty-bound to lead to. The National Defense Science and Technology six innings, sea containers, before and after the Ministry of Aviation Industry organs comrades more than a year’s work, that is repeated investigation, accounting, bargaining, hard to the, hospital, factory set targets, Yajian funds rate is large. February 1988 by the Department of the Navy equipment and Xi’an Aircraft Design Institute, Xi’an Aircraft Company, flight Institute, Xi’an engine company officially signed the contract, on-board products, materials, processes other items also cut funding for the block. In the same year before the completion of God to ensure the safety of large-scale flight tests, by the end of the first flight.
considered stable funding over two years. But not after four machine factory in late 1990 early 1991, in addition to flight time outside the hospital, the factory, the funds have serious cost overruns; the background is the price surge, although all aspects of work are as usual, but as the work of the competent authority adds a lot of difficulties, and at another as the key to long-standing problem.
1991 June, Commission of Science, held in Shaanxi Yanliang “Flying Leopard” on-site office will just concluded, according to the instructions of the leaders, National Defense sixth inning, the Ministry of Sea loaded aircraft and industrial sectors within the comrades in charge to discuss,
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