Qian Yi development of missiles: two bombs, it was thought out errors (Figure)
1980 年 5 18, China’s first successful launch of a long-range rocket. Photo: China Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
from “bombs and one satellite” to “manned space flight,” China’s space for 60 years after the Republic’s strong cast an invaluable asset
a large number of Space scientists today can stand for the Republic of space powers in the position, sacrifice all of the talent, youth and even their lives. Qian, represented especially by the many scientists, played an invaluable role.
Premier Zhou I missile
Qian (fifth former Defense Research Institute, the original seven machines, vice minister of defense Commission of Science, deputy director of the CPPCC National Committee Vice Chairman, Chinese Academy of Engineering, was “bombs and one satellite” Merit):
I came back missile, the first one told me that this matter is Chengengdajiang. Autumn to early winter 1955, I returned to the motherland soon, work in the Academy of Sciences. Leadership Academy, said: “You just go back to see China’s industrial bar, the best is China’s industrial northeast.” I said, I have not been to the northeast, and thus to the northeast to learn. Then spinning to Harbin in Harbin Military Engineering Institute arranged for me with the dean of Chengengdajiang meet.
Geng met with me, but also Chile Dun dinner. Chen Geng asked me: “Chinese people can not engage in missile?” I said: “Why can not engage in? Foreigners can engage in, we Chinese people can not do? Is China a length shorter than foreigners?” Chengengdajiang said: “Well ! “after they told me: Chen Geng morning from Beijing to Harbin is to receive me at night, I listened to was very moved.
later, he is also very active, once Yeshuai invited us to eat at home, my wife also went, Chen Geng also. After dinner, probably Saturday night, they said, go to the Prime Minister to the Prime Minister on the three doors to dance. We went there, and so on down a dance, the Prime Minister came, Ye Shuai, Chen Geng their conversation with the Prime Minister. Was probably negotiated, the Prime Minister gave me a task, asked me to write an advice – how to organize a research institution? Later, I wrote an opinion, but also in the West Hua Ting opened once, decided to engage a missile. Will finish the day, eat a meal at lunch where the Prime Minister, on the table steaming eggs, bowls on the side of the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister has deliberately filled with a spoonful of me.
we understand that China as an industrial and technology base is very weak case to engage in “two bombs”, not the socialist system does not work, that is, the CPC Central Committee, Chairman Mao by orders, no two words we do, and direct leader, Premier Zhou Enlai and Marshal Nie organizer is.
patriotic our technology staff is consistent, there is a glorious tradition. Nie CEOs saying comment that: “Chinese scientists not stupid!” Indeed. I also said that China is very clever scientists! And Chinese scientists are driving through, and few foreigners such as driving through the Chinese people.
when the central IPCC’s decision, to which a unit to do a what, it is not two words. The decision is simple: what times what the central IPCC meeting, decided to do what you what units, what time limit to complete … … do not say why, this is the command! Central comrades take the IPCC, the leaders got to order a reading, it would have to do so ah! So do a lot of collaboration is, and sometimes to rail transport vehicles, a command issued to the car. How did this line? Mighty force to do the atomic bomb to explode, to launch a missile, how to time we do not unite them? Of course, now undergoing a series of reforms in our country, anything with a command does not work, but do contract it! It also said the contract will do ah.
was a period of time there are some misconceptions that engage in “two bombs” is a mistake to spend so much money, not to develop production. This is not the individual’s views. I always explained: “Not like this. First, we engage in ‘two rounds’ to spend less than foreign, because the party leadership, specifically the leadership of Premier Zhou Enlai and Marshal Nie in us then there are the excellent quality of Chinese scientists So to complete this task, loss of the smallest, least expensive. “
of course, can not say we did not error, nor that did not spend that money wasted. China’s industrial, technological backwardness, as I am still in contact with some foreign rockets, missiles, but little understood. So, not without mistakes, we can not say that money is not wasted, it is tuition. But the general view is much better than foreign, because that is the two aspects mentioned above. I said: “You should not do that, then good; If you engage in, not atomic bombs, missiles, satellites, and that China is the status? You can not engage in economic development, because there is no kind of peaceful environment.”
memories “Fifth Research Institute” in imitation of work
Liang Shou wooden tray (China coastal defense missile weapon system was the first chief designer, chief engineer of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics , of the China Aerospace Science and Technology, China Aerospace Science and Industry, senior technology consultant, Chinese Academy of Sciences):
First Five Year Plan period, China’s construction of over 100 major industries are provided with the Soviet Union technology based on the information. Therefore, many people think: low level of technology the Chinese people can not separate start for industrial construction.
a view that: in the past by the Soviet Union to help the construction industry construction. Missile technology is emerging in the international project, in addition Qian domestic technology, but have not seen the missiles. Barely launched, will inevitably lead to waste, as suspended.
Another view is that: any new technology products, by “no one has seen” the state began. For example, the German V-2 missile, developed at the beginning, its chief architect Braun certainly did not see too kind, but only commission feasibility reports for approval to work. He started from 1936, six years after the first successful launch. Although the technology behind China, but Chinese technical staff levels in 1956, no more than twenty years ago the level of the German poor. And know, V-2 missile can be made, not scientists fantasy, as long as the determination to work together, we will be a success.
these two opinions, at loggerheads. While foreign newspapers and magazines, also sent a message that Americans have access to the German V-2 missile technology information and scientific and technological personnel, the success of imitation, and made a new “Red Rock” and “Pershing” missile.
Marshal Nie, after listening to opinions from all sides, to the five branches of the CPC Central Committee proposed the establishment of three principles: self-reliance; strive to foreign aid; take full advantage of the capitalist countries have the scientific results. Approved by Chairman Mao, a clear direction of the five branches of the work in the October 8, 1956 formally established the “fifth Defense Research Institute.” The summer of 1957, the Soviet Government note the Chinese government is willing to provide all the technical information of several missiles, and to send experts to assist the generic work.
Marshal Nie have special instructions, said: “With the Soviet Union, drawings and technical data, can accelerate the development of the missile, but let us not forget ‘self-reliance’ in imitation of each type of missile (ballistic, air defense, Haiphong), to thoroughly understand its design theory. Fangzhi designed and carried out immediately after the success of tactical missile target more of its kind made. “
1960 summer, Khrushchev suddenly tear up the contract for China’s trade withdrawal of China experts. Experts before leaving, and no longer answer a variety of technical problems. Missile imitation finishing work has also been some impact. The five branches of the technical staff, united effort to discuss and solve various problems.
from this period of history, showing the five branches of the central establishment of the hospital approved the three principles is absolutely necessary. To aid in the fight, if abandoned the principle of self-reliance, meet in the “continuous imitation,” not in accordance with scientific theory to find out exactly what the spirit of the Soviet product design, then all foreigners should be led by the nose, experts in the Soviet Union to withdraw will get lost. In the self-designed new products, if you do not consider the results of the capitalist countries have, then all new design ideas and theoretical analysis will be difficult to promote, innovation can not be implemented.
Memories “FY” weather satellite
Ren Xinmin (former Deputy Minister of seven machines, Aerospace Industry Science and Technology Committee, of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, China Aerospace Science and Industry, senior technology consultant, Chinese Academy of Sciences, International Astronautical Academy of Sciences, was “bombs and one satellite” Merit):
“FY” meteorological satellite project including satellites, launch vehicles, launch, monitoring and control communication system and ground application of five. Among them, the “FY” satellite is the first one with the visible and infrared optical remote sensing satellites; “Long-March 4″ A rocket launch is the first sun-synchronous orbit satellites; launch the “FY” is the Taiyuan Satellite Launch satellite launch center for the first time performed the task; “FY” China’s satellite ground application system is built using a large department in the first data receiving and processing system.
“FY” meteorological satellite project, has been the party and state leaders care. As early as January 29, 1969, Premier Zhou Enlai met with representatives of the Central Weather Bureau stressed that: “We should do our own weather satellites.” February 16, 1970 Premier Zhou has personally issued the CPC Central Committee and State Council, Central Military documents, issued a meteorological satellite developed by the task. Premier Zhou Enlai in the Cultural Revolution, under extremely difficult conditions, timely development of weather satellites, meteorological support the modernization of major decisions.
smashing of the “Gang of Four”, because of temporary difficulties, the state economic plan had been several major changes, including reduced capital investment, or even reduce military spending and so on. In this case, Deng Xiaoping still approved, including the “FY”, including a number of major development projects.
1996 年 1 月 17 日 Jiang Zemin inspected the Central Weather Bureau in weather satellite in the national economy that play an important role on the development of meteorological satellites to give full recognition. September 25, 1999 he inspected CASC eight hospital, was pleased to lift the “FY” C star model, highly appreciated.
the development of China Li Peng has always attached great importance to its own weather satellites since 1984 he made important instructions on many occasions, he emphasized, “We are determined to engage in meteorological satellite down, we have our own China meteorological satellite “,” our Chinese financial and economic aspects are not so rich, even in this case, the central and the State Council the importance of taking into account the weather, we make every effort to promote the two satellites (the polar orbit and geostationary meteorological satellite) development. ”
up to 30 years time, many central leaders have successively on the “FY” the development of meteorological satellites made instructions to help solve the “FY” developing problems.
remote launch vehicle control system development the whole story
Liang Sili (Department of Space was the chief engineer of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation CST, senior technology consultant, Chinese Academy of Sciences):
missiles in the history of our historic “eight four bombs” planning the fourth bomb, is a remote launch vehicle. Its successful development, whether to solve the problem, so that our country has to fight back.
as General Zhang Aiping said: “Remote rocket, was born in troubled times, inherent.” Demonstration started in 1965 long-range rocket program, one year after the “Cultural Revolution” began, seven machine department began to chaos. Although most researchers still persist in the workplace, but work is still under great disturbance.
smashing of the “Gang of Four” after the National Defense Zhang Aiping, director of Comrade “three arrested.” This is the “eight four bomb” plan and later a new set of goals. “Three arrested,” the first catch is that the Pacific launched in 1980 to a remote launch vehicle approval test, or “580 test.” To the high seas in accordance with international practice rocket, designated area to pre-announced launch of latitude and longitude and time. This is equivalent to our public performances on the world stage, our aerospace technology. Guidance system for our team to engage the pressure is particularly great.
12 and 13 by the joint team composed of nine precision analysis, I headed. We design, technology, environment, reliability, accuracy of analysis with great care, and take the appropriate measures. China also sent two to the Pacific “Yuanwang” tracking ship and a sizable convoy, one measurement trajectory parameters, measuring instruments salvage compartment, the other is the Navy’s first ocean-going fleet exercises. “580 test” is a major historical event. Deng Xiaoping, Nie and other central leaders came to headquarters to watch and guidance.
me as a technical advisor is also headquarters of duty. Report in front of the United States and many Western warships are arranged in the waters near our observation of forecast, see our rockets can fall into a predetermined box. May 18, 1980 At long-range rocket blasts off from Jiuquan base, toward the Pacific, after about 30 minutes into the flight the rocket scheduled to accurately frame the sea. Salvage ship’s helicopter took off rapidly soon reach the impact point. In the vast sea painted a blue dye from the dye out of emerald green, when the helicopter flew over the placement, the rotor blew sparkling blue. This is absolutely fabulous scenery forever engraved in my memory. Salvage workers pull rope down from helicopters, the measuring instruments picked up from the water tank, the “580 test” a complete success. Indicates that China really become a nuclear club members can not be ignored.
development of solid rocket
Lu Wei Huang (Huang Wei Lu: China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation CST senior technical adviser, Chinese Academy of Sciences , by “bombs and one satellite” Merit):
1970 年 4 22, I transferred to liquid-propellant rocket Solid rocket control systems, Institute of System Engineering, The redeployment of my work a big change from my work from liquid to solid rocket rocket, rocket from the ground to move toward submarine rockets, rocket from the control system to the general.
solid rocket submarine is submerged a certain depth from the submarine out of the solid rocket launch, there are many different characteristics of land-based liquid rocket and key technologies. This rocket was originally called “dragon”, the leadership of a director by the House sent a message: Premier Zhou hosted on a central to our special committee to consider a new name, because the dragon is not interested in Chairman Mao Zedong, and once likened to evil dragon objects, such as “today Changyingzaishou what day tied black dragon” is an example, so we respect the views of Chairman Mao, to avoid using the “dragon” character, the “dragon” to “waves.”
was more a result of a hospital model, developed to speed up the progress of the task in 1979, and from this model to adjust to a hospital from hospital, I followed back to two homes and the overall design as the model division. At that time, due to a number of important cooperative unit in hospital or in part, for the strengthening the management, a weekly coordination meeting held two homes, check the implementation of the plan last week and arranged for next week mission, seven Vice Minister Cheng Lianchang machine, research Secretary for the money Weisong and Shao Jincheng and Deputy Secretary for National Defense Science and Technology Commission three high and WANG Yong-Su Ding Heng attended. Those who can not solve the problem two homes, seven machines are the Ministry of Science and Technology Commission to help resolve and defense, so the work is progressing more smoothly.
launched the first submarine at sea, you need to spend hundreds of ships, thousands of people involved in the tests. Trial date to determine the October 7, 1982 -12, all participating personnel and ships in place, leaders and commanders are gathering on the slopes of the command post at the beach, the implementation of all aspects of the contact command, the submarine set sail bound for scheduled to sea.
everything is ready, all the staff nervous, preoccupied. Commander issued a pre-order the password, the captain came the last speaker in the password: “Ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one, fire!” All eyes are fixed on a floating raft light the direction of the sea, that is how “long” three or four seconds ah! Suddenly, a fire-breathing dragon leaping out of the water, with a huge column of water straight to the sky, everyone’s heart also will fly the sky, all excited.
only hear the horn constantly heard joyful sound: “× × area found the target, × × station tracking normal, secondary ignition, two separate head-body separation.” Each information pull the heartstrings of millions of people. Hundreds of seconds later, as a celebration of exciting news of the outbreak when the salute out: “the end zone that goal.” Crew cheered, tears, how many people it is fighting hard for success for many years, how many people dream of results. Flight test was a complete success! China has become the world can develop their potential to master the underwater rocket and launch technique. (Text/”Outlook” Newsweek correspondent)