China’s military spending below the world average per capita cost difference between the number of times the U.S.
Israel in 2008 per capita military spending in the world, the United States ranks second. Chart Source: Agence France-Presse
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Sweden (SIPRI) 6 月 8 release “SIPRI Yearbook 2009,” said the 2008 United States remains the world’s largest military spending country, China rose to second place. The study, to make some of the world, “Kind” has started a new wave of “China threat theory” rendering. So in the end of today’s military spending stack up?
of the Yearbook of the Swedish think tank said in the context of the financial crisis in 2008, global military spending is still hit a record high, reaching $ 1.464 trillion. Among them, the United States $ 607 billion in total military spending ranked first, accounting for 42% of world total, more than 14 countries ranked the subsequent military spending combined. China’s military spending actually increased by 10% over the previous year, reaching $ 84.9 billion, the second largest in the world scale for the first time.
for the yearbook, a China military expert pointed out that international spending on the military there are many statistical and computational methods, the Swedish think tank every year according to their method of publishing a yearbook, presumably through the real purchasing power of national currencies and the “invisible costs” are included, but the statistical methods of the international community does not recognize.
of anything can not look at the surface, “SIPRI Yearbook 2009″ Although published some statistics, but a closer look, we can clearly know the level of world military spending has.
First, military spending per capita for China is relatively low. Israel’s per capita military spending in 2008 over 2300 U.S. dollars, ranking first in the world. Military spending per capita in 2008 ranked in population in less affluent countries, especially Gulf oil producers ranking jumped significantly. For example, Saudi Arabia, the total investment in the military ranks ninth on the table, while the average in the calculation of the population rose to No. 6.
2008, China’s defense spending is $ 60.9 billion (China’s official figures released), but the United States, 1/10. The average spending per soldier on, China is only $ 26,000, while the U.S. is $ 520,000, the United Kingdom is 34 million.
Secondly, from the military spending of China is also small in absolute terms. Visit a country the size of military spending can not just growth, growth speed and size of the base. If military spending base, even if higher growth rate, its absolute amount is very limited. For example, in 2006 China’s military spending only $ 35.1 billion in 2007, although military spending increase of 17.8 percent, also was an increase of $ 6.248 billion. The U.S. annual defense spending of $ 532.8 billion, even if the growth of 1% will increase the $ 5.328 billion. Shows a simple comparison with the growth rate, at best, can only show a trend of defense spending and trends.
In addition, from military spending to GDP and the proportion of total expenditure two indicators, our country is low. International, national defense spending on the main indicators of military spending relative to GDP ratio and the proportion of total expenditure two indicators. In 2007, for example, the U.S. defense expenditure accounted for 4.6% of GDP, the proportion of total budget expenditure was 16.6%, the UK was 3% and 6.9%, respectively 2% and France 13.5%, Russia 2.63%, respectively and 15.1%, India 2.5% and 14.1%, while China’s was 1.4% and 7.2%. These figures are sufficient to show that China’s military spending not only lower than the world’s major countries, but also below the world average.
China’s military growth and external motivation
In recent years, the US-led Western countries blame the problem on China’s military voice never stopped. They “hype” in the subject no more than two-fold: First, China’s military spending grow too fast, a threat to world peace; Second, China’s military spending transparent, announced the number of untrue.
we all know, China is a peace-loving country and adopts a defensive national defense policy. China increases military spending in recent years, with a wide range of internal and external reasons:
■ One reason: too many historical debts need to compensate
last very long time, China’s military spending declines. Such as the 1979 -1988, from actual military expenditures index study, the 10-year changes in China’s military spending is divided into two stages:
first phase (1979-1983): the normal decline phase. Military expenditure in 1978 index 100,1979 -1983 years in actual military expenditure index were 130.1,106.8,90.4,93.1,92.2. Where: 1979 Index is too high due to self-defense war in Vietnam caused the incident, in 1980, real military spending index is still high, due to factors not completely eliminate the previous year. Then start the actual military spending index fell 90 percent in 1978. During this period the annual decline rate of military spending by 1.6%, the number of columns from the dynamic point of view, this decline is normal.
second phase (1984 -1988): excessive contraction phase. Military expenditure in 1978 to 100,1984 -1988 index of actual military index were 91.5,89.1,88.1,85.7,75.2. As seen from the figures, the rate of decline accelerating military spending in this period, the phenomenon of shrinking, the average annual decline rate of 4%. During this period, China’s serious shortage of investment in national defense, military demand and supply gap widening, the scale of military spending is not only much lower than the United States, Japan and other countries, even South Korea is also less than this is very normal.
■ Two reasons: to improve the living conditions of the troops need
a long time, our men’s living standards remain low. For example, although several soldiers for food increased, and now per person per day was 14.2 yuan (RMB), is not only much lower than the U.S., also lower than Russia (82 rubles per day, or about 24 yuan) standards.
With the further development of the new revolution in military affairs, military readiness training intensity continued to increase physical fitness of soldiers raised new demands, in order to protect the soldiers to eat, eat, and to offset rising prices for their the impact of life, must also increase military wages and living costs of inputs. In recent years, military officers and soldiers pay, allowances have gone up a lot, the company has improved living conditions, food, clothing and recreational conditions have been greatly improved than before.
■ Three reasons: the use of different exchange rates caused by military inflated
Chinese government announced in 2008 defense spending to 417.769 billion yuan (RMB), budget execution over the previous year the number increased 62.379 billion yuan, up 17.6 percent. According to the Yearbook of Sweden speculated that China’s military expenditure in 2008 amounted to approximately $ 84.9 billion, is 1.4 times the number of Chinese public. Western military experts also believe that China’s actual military spending is open 2 to 3 times. Speculated that different institutions have been such a big difference, mainly due to a difference using the exchange rate.
Western countries are currently in the calculation of China’s military spending, not by the yuan against the U.S. dollar exchange rate to calculate the current market, but converted at purchasing power parity method, so the number of natural and has been published in China figures vary widely. If, according to market exchange rate for the dollar against the yuan parity 1:7.1, while the purchasing power parity exchange rates, it could be 1:4.5. If the exchange rate in accordance with the latter, China’s military spending in 2008 will be $ 92.82 billion figure, which apparently greatly overestimated China’s military spending.
■ Four reasons: to safeguard China’s national security needs
era, China’s security interests also expand as security requirements, extension of the security forces must keep up. 10 years since the Cold War period, China has not occurred in any country with any war and armed conflict, and the surrounding areas a long period of relative peace and stability of the state. The fact that China’s defense spending is essentially no different from investment in peace.
present, China still faces separatism, terrorism and the enormous threat of international hegemony, a modest increase in defense spending, for the containment of war, safeguard national stability and world peace, the same significance.
■ Five reasons: to increase military spending to offset some of the inflation
growth of China’s defense spending is rising in price index in case of compensatory growth . Examine the adequacy of a country the size of military spending, not only the nominal growth rate of military spending, military spending should also look at the actual growth rate. Growth rate of real military spending is adjusted for inflation-adjusted growth rate. Calculated on this basis, 1999 to 2005, average annual growth of China’s defense expenditure is 15.36% over the same period of the consumer price index annual average growth of 5.22%, adjusted for inflation, real average annual growth of only 10.14%. 2006-2007, adjusted for inflation, real growth rate of less than 10%. (Ji Zhi Li Daguang wins)
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