Decrypted Soviet satellite killer plan: attack the satellite spacecraft astronaut set
Soviet Union “Union-п” spaceship
Soviet “Union-р” spaceship
Soviet military manned spacecraft series, from left to right are: Alliance-п, alliance-пкп, alliance-р, Union 6 (Kozlov design), the Union 6 (Mixin design)
no doubt, from the human launch the first artificial Earth satellite that time, the former Soviet Union and the United States, experts began to consider how to eliminate each other in near-Earth orbit spacecraft. Former Soviet Union in the early 1960s began to study anti-satellite system. At that time it was clear threat to national security is not just a missile fired from space. Once you start military action, orbit satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites and meteorological satellites are also military targets should be eliminated. Thus, experts of the former Soviet “satellite killer” with a series of ideas and plans.
initially prepared to destroy intercontinental ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads each other’s satellites. Effective program is 100%, guaranteed to eliminate 1,000 kilometers from the explosion of all space goals. But this way, not only each other’s satellites and their satellite will be destroyed. In addition, the effects of radioactive radiation is difficult to predict the consequences of this study was not enough. Therefore, this program was rejected almost immediately.
followed by studying a plan from an altitude of 30,000 meters in a small aircraft fired missiles (aircraft to carry about 50 kilograms of explosives), this plan did not materialize. Should be close to the target missile, the target at a distance of not more than 30 meters explosion. But the flight test did not achieve the desired results.
1961 年 4 12, the former Soviet Union to successfully send a cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into space, from the people’s vision, and that human beings can destroy the spy satellite in orbit. Early in the first while several “Oriental” spacecraft launch, when the former Soviet Union Korolev Design Bureau began to study multi-manned “Union” spacecraft, which aims to send astronauts to orbit, docking with other facilities and with the other action. December 1962, when the stop implementation of the “Oriental” when the spacecraft program, Korolev made a study of two-seat manned “Union-A” spacecraft, planned to use 11A511 launch vehicle spacecraft. This launch vehicle would later become the most used launch vehicle the former Soviet Union. However, Korolev’s plan ultimately failed to achieve because of financial problems. The experts understand that only the Department of Defense is planning to invest heavily, so the proposed “Union” of the two military programs, the study of “Union-п” interceptor spacecraft, and “Union-р” reconnaissance spacecraft.
two programs have been the former Soviet Air Force and the Strategic Rocket Forces leaders. They are similar to the U.S. Air Force manned orbital test program, which in December 1963 was still just a prototype. At that time, Korolev Design Bureau no ability to implement these plans, as other research projects have made him and his colleagues exhausted. Thus, the “Alliance-A” spacecraft projects to design a Branch Office in Kaliningrad, the “Union-п” and “Union-р” plans to design a three bureau Kuibyshev Branch.
1964, the “Alliance-п” spacecraft into the active research phase. Manned spacecraft to inspect and destroy enemy satellites, so I plan to arrange two astronauts in the spacecraft.
specific programs is this: the discovery of the satellite to look after the enemy, “Union-п” should close proximity to the target spacecraft. At this time, one of the astronauts out of the spaceship, the search satellite. However, the spacecraft may be destroyed, may disappear, may also return to the ground in special containers to be for future research.
This is a technically complex, there is physical danger to the astronaut program. Because all of the former Soviet Union and the United States are installed in the spacecraft into the hands of others, the system automatically destroyed; difficult to calculate the other encounter with the enemy, the parameters of the satellite, in particular, have lost radio contact with the ground especially in instances where . Thus, the design bureau abandoned the “Union-п” spacecraft program.
design a 3rd Branch began to study the “Union-пкп” manned interceptor spacecraft, planned for the spacecraft is equipped with eight small missiles. If a satellite is to destroy the list, the spacecraft in the 1,000 m distance you can hit the target.
interrupt this program mainly because of the leadership of Vladimir Chelomei design fifty-two Council successfully developed and launched in November 1963, the first a strong strain of “flight-1″ satellite, the designer has become a pioneer of space interceptor automatically. Although Chelomei interceptor in the plan is a one-time, development time and not aware of this interceptor so high marks, but it still became the most important areas of the former Soviet Union Aerospace as a spacecraft. “Fly” satellite April 12, 1964 for the second launch established the automatic device in the aerospace military priority. “Union-пкп” spacecraft in 1965 planned dismount.
At this time, the former Soviet Union Defense Ministry to “Union-р” project into the 1964-1969 five-year plan. Academy of the former Soviet Union, some military institutions and the general machinery manufacturing department in 1965 years ago are busy for this project. Design a Branch Office three five-year plan beginning in put on the “Union-р” spacecraft research.
“Union-р” system is composed of two separate spacecraft launched in orbit docking device consisting of the system 15 meters long, 2.7 meters in diameter, suitable for living space 18 square meters, re- 13 tons, can carry two astronauts. This ship is relatively small, mainly for photographic reconnaissance. Plan to achieve in a few parts of the docking station to form a complete track. November 1, 1967, with the camouflage of the “Union-р” logo appears on the spacecraft.
for docking and security “alliance-р” spacecraft safety, Kuibyshev also developed a transport ship. July 1970, “Union-р” spacecraft program also died.
in the “satellite killer” class spacecraft research programs, “Union ви” The work of military spacecraft for the most widely used, but for various reasons halfway. Also studied the password name “stars” of the “Union-ви” another type of spacecraft. Two astronauts in orbit to take three days of combat operations. Plans to use nuclear energy as an energy source.
the former Soviet Union manned “satellite killer” program has not achieved. However, in the course of the study to obtain a unique experience and knowledge has come in handy, you can play an active role in the civilian manned aerospace field. ((Russia) Andrei Ostrovsky ? Niagara concept Lee has compiled)