Did not substantially deviate from the French return to NATO’s Gaullist (Figure)
data for : French military parade
Xinhua News Agency World Studies Center, Shen Xiaoquan
French President Nicolas Sarkozy in the April 4 NATO summit at a news conference that France has withdrawn back 43 years of NATO’s military integration institutions. This is a major adjustment of the French foreign strategy is currently an important event in international relations, is bound to European security and transatlantic relations have a huge impact.
“Gaullist” symbolic action
Atlantic Treaty Organization (referred to as NATO) was established in 1949, France is one of 12 founding members of the . NATO as an alliance of Western countries, the political, military organization, the main role is to deter the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact Group. Western allies through the organization draw on U.S. military strength to ensure their own safety, and the United States to counterbalance the Soviet Union but also the purpose of control in Europe, obviously, the United States has a dominant position in NATO.
as French president Charles de Gaulle, the arbitrariness of the United States is dissatisfied with that in France in NATO as a “tame role.” Charles de Gaulle from 1959 to confrontational measures: the withdrawal of the Mediterranean fleet from NATO, the United States refused to stockpiling of nuclear warheads on French soil, the deployment of U.S. bomber base in France was forced to withdraw to the United Kingdom and West Germany, refused to NATO’s integrated air defense of the French withdrawal from NATO’s Atlantic Fleet … … These measures have made the French gradually out of NATO’s military integration institutions. February 21, 1966, de Gaulle finally taken a step that shocked the world, announced that France pulled out of NATO’s military integration institutions. This decision means that France, while continuing to stay within the North Atlantic alliance, but NATO has become a “member of incomplete.” At the time the status of East-West confrontation, the French Charles de Gaulle’s decision making between the two opposing camps in the Soviet Union to take an independent diplomatic stance in international affairs, play a unique role in safeguarding the national interests of France, so at home and abroad obtained a high reputation. “Out of NATO” has become a symbol of Gaullist action.
Sarkozy is to abandon the “independent”
Sarkozy as president since 2007 has been committed to France’s diplomatic strategy adjustment, return to North about military integration institutions is an integral part of this strategic adjustment. In 2008 France proposed a “return” to the conditions, one of France in NATO’s military command structure must occupy an important position. January this year, both France and the U.S. reached a preliminary agreement, the United States agreed to the French command structure as a NATO commander of the two. In March, the French government would return to NATO’s consideration of the motion before the National Assembly, after heated debate, and ultimately the plan is approved.
Although Sarkozy got his wish, but the domestic Voice of challenge has always been a major concern is that the French return to NATO’s long-term is detrimental to the principle of pursuing an independent foreign affairs, which is French governments always adhere to the principle of the French people are proud of the national spirit. Then, return to NATO’s mean to give up an independent foreign policy?
world today is undergoing profound changes. With the end of the Cold War, France occupied between East and West’s unique position no longer exists, in recent years as France’s opposition to U.S. war in Iraq led to bilateral relations in the doldrums, France, the United States in its Western allies in a major squeeze pressure object, its diplomatic space shrinking, increasingly on the international stage sound weak. EU new members and increase the gap between the old members, internal divisions increase, making the EU develop a common foreign policy, foreign plans to speak with one voice more difficult to achieve. This restricts the EU’s French division in Europe could play a role, but also threatened its dominant position. In addition, Russia’s resurgence and emerging developing countries to enhance the strength of France formed a new challenge.
end, Sakeqiti out to improve the French-American relations as the core of the strategic adjustment, return to NATO is an important part of this adjustment. All aspects of the situation in France this is mainly due to the following considerations:
first attempt to regain the NATO military command and decision-making power. Although France is a “not full membership,” but in the financial and human resources has been a NATO remains the main provider. From the 1990s, France launched an active part in the name of a number of NATO in international peacekeeping operations, there are about 5,000 French soldiers involved, which will provide funding of NATO non-military budget accounted for 15.3% of the total military budget and 13.8% Nevertheless, NATO’s military command system did not take part in France.
Second, the transformation of NATO for the right to speak. France and the United States between the transformation of NATO’s future and there are differences, the United States advocated the role of NATO expansion was originally confined to Europe to the world; and France opposed the U.S. attempt to NATO “globalization” to rule the world security affairs. However, the French stood outside NATO’s transformation is difficult to influence it, so once a return to NATO, NATO’s future will have some decision-making powers.
third, to reduce the resistance of the construction of the European common defense. France has always advocated construction of the European common defense, however, difficult, slow progress, because Britain and other EU member states to “fighting for independence,” the French have doubts about the United States is worried that an independent European defense would weaken or even replace NATO in Europe role. France fully into NATO once will help to dispel these doubts, the resistance of European defense building also will be reduced accordingly.
Fourth, to return to the West family, together to meet new challenges. For France, the threat of military conflict and other traditional shrinking, but the non-traditional security threats such as terrorism increasing, the rapid rise of Asia, the Russian revival, these factors are considered in France and the potential threat and challenge the West. French public opinion generally believes that France has long been separated from due to the special status outside the West, but now the situation is no longer benefit from the French. Therefore, NATO, Nicolas Sarkozy is clearly the common transatlantic values ??and interests of the symbol.
can be said that Sarkozy’s strategy to adjust precisely to deal with the changed international situation. The outcome of this adjustment needs to observe. However, simply that the French return to NATO to give up the traditional comprehensive independent diplomatic principles, lack of basis.
Sarkozy is deviated from the “Gaullist”
some of the opposition of France, another accused of betrayal of the Gaullist Nicolas Sarkozy. Gaullist tradition in a country where over half a century, to do one from the “exit” to “return” to NATO, this 180-degree turn of the strategic adjustment, the people will indeed result in departure from the Gaullist impression. It is noteworthy things, Sarkozy described the idea of ??full return to NATO, stressed four points: First, French President Charles de Gaulle’s government insist on the principle of an independent nuclear deterrent, the French nuclear forces do not accept instructions from other countries; two in France Although the NATO integrated military organization, but to mobilize its army and is involved in a military mission still has its own discretion; three French return to NATO’s U.S. approval is a prerequisite for an independent European defense building; four in France to improve relations with the United States does not mean that the French follow the orders of the United States, but an “independent ally.”
four principles above are implemented if real, rather than to deceive the public, then, Sarkozy is still the major policy adjustments in order to safeguard France’s national security and strategic interests, its essence has not deviated from the Charles de Gaulle the essence of Marxism. Perhaps this is the Gaullists in the new development under the new situation, after President Charles de Gaulle as the French presidents have been the light of the changing situation and make policy adjustments as. Editor: Lian-chi
information: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
established in April 1949, NATO, initially only the United States, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom 12 member states. In 1952, Turkey and Greece joined NATO. In 1955, the Federal Republic of Germany to join NATO. In 1982, Spain joined NATO.
20 1990, with the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, the United States to NATO’s eastward expansion ideas, the West’s sphere of influence eastward expansion in Europe. In January 1994, formally adopted in Brussels NATO Summit NATO’s eastward expansion plan proposed by the United States. In 1997, the NATO summit meeting in Madrid decided to accept Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic joined, officially launched the NATO’s eastward expansion plans brewing for years. In 2002, the NATO Prague summit decided to accept Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria join. April 1, Albania and Croatia officially became a NATO member. Currently there are 28 NATO member states.