U.S. military Hummer can be AK-47 rifle breakdown may be eliminated in 2013
data for: The U.S. military Humvee armored vehicles
data for: U.S. military Humvee military vehicle destroyed by insurgent
Editor’s Note: GM 3 announced and Machinery Co., Ltd. Sichuan Tengzhong the sale of “Hummer” brand reached a memorandum of understanding. According to the relevant provisions of the Memorandum of Understanding, Tengzhong will be the Hummer brand in this luxury off-road and all rights and interests of senior management and operations teams. But at the same time, the U.S. Army in that the GM to the Chinese company to sell its “Hummer” brand off-road vehicles to the military agreement would not “Hummer” impact. U.S. auto comprehensive spokesman 史蒂夫克劳森 said military and civilian projects are separated from each other.
civilian Hummer may flowers now well-known Chinese enterprises, and military “Hummer” will be towards where? Let us review the military, “Hummer” of the development process and explore its direction of travel.
A military “Hummer” Legend
◆ Hummer was born
1970s late, the U.S. military are not satisfied with getting a variety of military vehicles, decided to develop a high mobility multi-purpose four-wheel drive vehicles (High Mobility Mutlpurposc Wheeled Vehicle-HMMWV, the U.S. military is now nicknamed Humvee), in addition to transport personnel, can also set up machine gun, ambulance the wounded, firing missiles can not play the old jeep military tasks.
There were three companies bidding to the military, and provides a HMMWV design blueprint. After a decade of fierce competition, U.S. automakers General Corporation (AM General) will be like the first car to the nation’s largest vehicle testing center – Nevada Automotive Test Center to conduct a comprehensive test. The final design uses a model-type 6.5 l V8 engine, four-wheel independent suspension system, often four-wheel drive system, low body, wide body. 1984 through a variety of rigorous tests to become a new generation of multi-purpose off-road vehicles, officially named the HUMVEE, and received 55,000 U.S. military procurement contracts.
so far, “Hummer” series of off-road vehicles total of more than 20 million, of which 16 million or so military-type, equipped with 100,000 active duty U.S. military is about.
◆ famous Bay
the early 1990s that the field of the Gulf War, left to the people is undoubtedly the most impressive of the “Desert Storm” operation , US-based coalition of absolute control of the air precision strikes on Iraq. In the subsequent “Desert Sabre” operation, coalition ground forces from south to north all the way forward. Equipped with “Tao” anti-tank missiles and small-caliber guns of the “Hummer” off-road vehicles, under cover of helicopter gunships led the way, the Iraqi Republican Guard famous “Medina” armored division trounced. The “Desert Sabre” operation lasted only 100 hours, “Hummer” off-road vehicle with its sturdy appearance, plenty of power, firepower as the war ground weapons, the most dazzling star.
1990 年 8 7th (U.S. Pacific time), Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell announced that from now on the U.S. Army to launch code-named “Desert Shield” military action, the mobilization of troops to the Persian Gulf. The next day, the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division first arrived in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, in this action in almost all the “Hummer” and the M151 off-road vehicles (not completely eliminated) as the main equipment of U.S. combat troops lightly armed troops and the mountain, the speed of its assembly and deployment of almost the first U.S. military Armored Division and First Infantry Division and other such heavy armor more than 4 times. The secret of their high mobility strategy, is that a lot of equipment, “Hummer” own characteristics.
forces us to quickly put the U.S. one of the main models – C a 130H “Hercules” tactical transport aircraft, for example, can hold its standard three heavily armed “Hummer” and belongs to the soldiers, five hours from Europe or the Indian Ocean, arrived in Saudi Arabia on a military base. M151A1 off-road car in the transport, a C-130H transport aircraft barely off-road vehicles and carrying four soldiers belong. However, “Hummer” is a standard 1.25-ton off-road vehicles, M151A1 only 0.5-ton off-road vehicles only. With a quantitative comparison is not very scientific method, we can say three “Hummer” in combat is four M151A1 200% or more off-road vehicles.
If we say that the “Hummer” as the representative of light equipment on the strategic mobility will exceed your expectations, then the tactical mobility and combat capability is its fame during the Gulf War in the capital. As we all know, tactical wheeled vehicles during the maneuver, it will face many problems. First affect the ability of the vehicle is the vehicle by the pressure on the ground, at this point on the tracked vehicle with a large master-long track, MMP index (average vehicle maximum pressure) is much lower than wheeled vehicles. Data show that when the “Hummer” of the MMP index is only 272 kPa, much lower than other wheeled military vehicles, tracked combat vehicles, and most similar to the MMP. In other words, tracked vehicles through the road, for the “Hummer” is all smooth.
if you think that “Hummer” SUV’s “magic” only this one, it would be wrong, to support its first charge of the “magic” as well as its superior drivetrain. “Hummer” with powerful 6.2-liter V-8-cylinder diesel engine, maximum output power of 110 kilowatts. In the armed state (carrying four soldiers, combat weight 3574 kilograms), its unit power up to 31 kW/ton. Combined with the car is equipped with GM 3-speed automatic transmission and hydraulic power steering system, even if the “medical stop those girls” also can “Hummer” off-road drive too fast.
really let the “Hummer” off-road vehicles is still highly praised its unique design. To make the vehicle more rugged, the car abandoned M15l the Unibody design with a rectangular tubular beam structure of the frame. In addition to the necessary small amount of steel body components, the large use of aluminum, fiberglass or even carbon fiber and other lightweight materials in order to achieve “the lightest weight of vehicles, the largest baggage carrying weapons and fighting ability.”
II Hummer technical modifications
◆ technical improvements
HHV equipment number M1097 1992 年初, AM General Motors on the “Hummer” in the first round of large-scale technological improvements. “Heavy Hummer variants” (Heavy HMMWV Variant), referred to as the “HHV”, equipment number is M1097.
HMMWV A2 models based on the HHV further details of the perfect car in early 1993, work started to improve after the vehicle was known as the HMMWV A2 models.
HMMWV A1 model in early 1993, HMMWV A1 models of development work started, the use of HHV-based Model of the early part of the technical models of the HMMWV improvements to upgrade. This model is the benchmark car in the small range of HHV-type sound, basic performance of their vehicles closer to HMMWV A2 model, but details on the use of the HMMWV AI model specifications.
HHV transformation of armored equipment number XMl109UV-HHV 1993 year, the famous American Ordnance Company Aogai La House – 埃斯哈德特 in HHV base armor on the vehicle chassis transformation. Effective weapon carrying capacity of the car’s base model by the HHV 1.996 tons, down to only 590 kg, the number of samples in the car after the completion of the plan termination.
HMMWV ECV equipment number M1113 1994 year, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command and General Motors signed a new “Hummer” off-road vehicle development contract. Modified the “Hummer” is known as HMMWV ECV (The Expanded Ca-pacity Vehicle), referred to as ECV model, its equipment number is M1113. ECV was the model known as the “ultimate Hummer.”
equipment number M1114 M1116 models developed in the ECV, the United States Aogai La Ho 斯埃斯哈德 special ordnance company immediately launched a new “Hummer” armored transformation. One modified in accordance with U.S. Army tactical requirements out of the car, the equipment number M1114; in accordance with the tactical requirements of U.S. Air Force special operations forces out of the car modified, equipment number is M1116.
three fatal weaknesses: the lack of armor protection, firepower less than
1989 years later, the U.S. military Hummer is not any absence of a major military operation. Among them, the 2003 Iraq war, the U.S. military with more than 10,000 Hummer. Allegedly, the U.S. Army, about 10 soldiers each have a “Hummer” vehicle.
However, famous in the Gulf War the “Hummer” of the Iraqi war, many exposed fatal weaknesses. According to the U.S. Department of Defense statistics, of every five Americans were killed in Iraq, there is one person died in the “Hummer” in the car.
◆ AK-47 will be able to penetrate
1993, the U.S. military to help the Somali capital Mogadishu, the United Nations in humanitarian assistance, elimination of local warlords and rebels, which the United States suffered the most disastrous war in Vietnam after a military operation, 19 U.S. soldiers were killed.
to this action, AMG company will launch a special type of light-armored M1114 Humvee. Light armored vehicle and installed bullet-proof doors, in order to drive the body weight gain in diesel engines fitted with turbochargers, the engine power increase to 140KW. But these did not change the Hummer’s fatal weakness: the lack of armor protection, firepower enough.
the same failure in the 10 years after the war in Iraq reproduce. The lighter the Hummer and other military vehicles have become anti-American guerrillas choose the best target because of its protective almost zero. Roadside bombs, mines, rockets, or even a simple AK-47 rifle bullets can penetrate it.
◆ too easy to roll-over is known as “death traps”
According to the U.S. military in March 2003 to November 2005, accident data analysis of the ground display, 85 in the Iraq war because of “Hummer” of soldiers killed in a car accident, 60 people died in rollover accidents. During this period, a total of 337 soldiers for “Hummer” car accident injuries, including injuries due to rollover accidents 149 people. U.S. researchers even to the impractical “Hummer” played a very nasty nickname, called “death traps.”
◆ Hummer embarrassing thing: it became the Taliban, “patrol”
Associated Press November 11, 2008 report, a group including two “Hummer” off-road vehicles, including military supplies, local time, 10 in the border area between Afghanistan and Pakistan looted.
local officials said the incident was, one composed by a 13 truck convoy was driving slowly along the winding road, about 60 heavily armed masked robbers suddenly appeared, launched from four directions the raid. After a brief exchange of fire, the attackers will be on board with small losses all goods themselves, including two new “Hummer” off-road vehicles. Subsequently, the Taliban would rush to open the “Hummer” in the tribal areas of Pakistan, four patrol. This makes the U.S. military commander in the coalition was “very embarrassing.”
Fourth, the military, “Hummer” towards where
◆ U.S. military claimed a high-profile military Hummer does not sell
in the U.S. Army said General Motors to sell its China business, “Hummer” brand off-road vehicles to the military agreement would not “Hummer” impact. U.S. auto comprehensive spokesman 史蒂夫克劳森 said military and civilian projects are separated from each other.
acquisition of the start of the fight, some people worried that the United States sold to China’s Hummer brand, the U.S. military vehicle technology will also be access to China, as a U.S. military owns nearly one of every ten units of military vehicles, the sale of Hummer brand impact is devastating, at least in front of the Chinese people, this mixed cross-country vehicle will be no advantage at all.
view of this, the U.S. military said on June 4, the U.S. General Motors plans to sell Hummer brand will not involve the military version of the Hummer, “Hemu Wei”, the military will not sell Hummer brand , how much tension to appease the American conservative mind.
◆ “nag” or have been abandoned
In fact, senior U.S. military had acknowledged as early as 1994, “Hummer” Military Jeep In the first Gulf War and U.S. special forces ground operations in Somalia in poor performance, at most, be considered “impractical”, even with the armor can not protect the members from the local fire inside threat.
to find a better “horse”, U.S. Department of Defense set up a total of up to $ 60 million, “joint light truck” project. This is the “future combat systems” part. Roadside bomb attack in defense, the new car site is equipped with heavy armor can withstand the powerful bomb attacks on their tires will not be easily torn to pieces by shrapnel. This lightweight tanks for the Army and Marine Corps general-purpose products. New electric car can be driven engine, which is more suitable for night missions.
The Pentagon said the U.S. Army and Marine Corps in the next few years to buy up to 60,000 active duty tactical vehicle to replace the current 160,000 Hummer. At present, three research and development company, launched in 2013 vehicle production. In other words, in 2013, also to draw a conclusion for the Hummer military vehicle time.
◆ knowledge link: “cavalry” and the civilian Hummer differ
military and civilian Hummer Hummer look, in particular, is similar to the front face, are 4-wheel drive, body are relatively large, car lies between 2-5 tons, higher fuel consumption.
and civilian Hummer is different from the military, “horse” is usually equipped with various weapons, coated with anti-infrared paint, with the helicopter hook. Some Army “horse” is also equipped with mines shield. However, the civilian Hummer full leather interior and air conditioning systems and other luxury treatment, “army” had no horse Fu Xiaoshou.
civilian Hummer chassis and powertrain based on the GMC and Chevrolet trucks, and military versions are different; the U.S. military Hummer still overall U.S. auto company.