Taiwan’s low-level missile defense system (Figure)
Data Figure: Taiwan’s Patriot-2 missile defense system
2001 年 12 月 Taiwan’s military said the development of low-level Taiwan Shan Institute of Science “anti-tactical ballistic missile defense systems” (ATBM) plan into service in 2005. Taiwan’s military plans to ATBM replace the U.S. “Patriot” type 3 anti-missile system. ATBM own research and development in Taiwan, “Tien Kung” air defense system is an upgrade from “Landrace” radar-guided. Shan Institute of Science, said period of 10 years to complete the project, a total of $ 8.7 billion funding. Taiwan military ATBM high hopes, is expected to eventually deploy 12 ATBM even the future of Taiwan, “low-level anti-missile system”, 1/3 by the “Patriot” missile components, and the remaining 2/3 will depend ATBM.
U.S. Raytheon February 15, 2007, said Raytheon Integrated Defense Division and the U.S. Air Force Electronic collaboration center complete with a three-day Taiwan “surveillance radar program,” the hardware critical design review, This also marks the program critical hardware design work completed. Raytheon Integrated Defense Missile Defense Division is responsible for Franklin, vice president, said the review is “surveillance radar plan” a critical milestone, which is Taiwan’s integrated air defense and missile warning capabilities of the core. As a “surveillance radar program,” the prime contractor, Raytheon Integrated Defense Division was the construction of an early warning radar to Taiwan and missile defense center for the Taiwan Air Force to detect and track tactical ballistic missiles, air targets and surface ships of the ability .
for Patriot II in the Gulf War exposed the shortcomings of the United States to improve them, has developed and produced three models of the “Patriot” missile system: “Patriot” Ⅱ guidance Enhanced Missile (PAC-2 GEM), “Patriot” Ⅱ enhanced guided missile + (PAC-2 GEM +), and “Patriot” -3 (PAC-3) missiles. One PAC-2 GEM is equipped with enhanced warhead, improved ability to intercept ballistic missiles in 1996, began to equip the U.S. Army. 1997 delivery of three sets of Taiwan with 200 missiles the system, is this model. PAC-2 GEM + in November 2002 was equipped with the U.S. Army, the use of new low noise seeker, improved seeker sensitivity, enhanced radar cross-section of smaller goals (such as missile warheads) detection and tracking capability. In the Iraq war, PAC-3 edge the first test, two launches were successfully intercepted the Iraqi tactical ballistic missiles.
Taiwan’s three sets of Patriot II missiles deployed in Taipei City as a key, the configuration of the surrounding area in Taipei Nangang, Linkou and thousands of miles three military bases, missile sites near the Freeway and North Freeway in the vicinity, in order to facilitate mobility. A base with a company. Each connection with a MPQ-53 phased array radar, an MSQ-104 combat controllers, 5-8 four-mounted missile launchers, and communications relay stations, antenna station. MPQ-53 phased array radar is a world leader in radar systems, search, tracking, IFF, and command guidance and other functions in one, and has a strong electronic warfare capabilities, the scanning electron beam can be measured quickly the target position, height, the search range. Missile has a maximum shot high 24 km, combat radius of 3-80 km, the maximum speed of Mach 6, warhead weight 68 kilograms, using fragmentation methods. According to reports, the system from the discovery, tracking, calculating emission Moroto, to launch missiles, guided missiles hit the targets of the whole process took about 35 seconds.
As in the United States and Taiwan were the two were the “acceptance of launch”, so the actual delivery of the United States to Taiwan, 196 “Patriot” Ⅱ type of improved missiles. June 20, 2001, from 9:00 9 am start, the Army has from Pingtung, Taiwan Jiupeng fired three military bases, “Patriot” Ⅱ type of improved missiles, Orchid Island and Green Island in the sky were intercepted and shot down a target missile and drone.
1996 年 4 月 Taiwan, “Tien Kung” Ⅱ surface-volume production, widely deployed, its ballistic missiles can only “hope bombs sigh.” 1997, Taiwan Shan Institute of Science began to develop its modified “Tien Kung” Ⅲ, 1998 年 9 15, for the first live missile interception test. Interceptor missile launched from the Pingtung County, with anti-aircraft missiles from restructuring target missile launched from the town of Taitung County’s success. Met over the two bombs off the coast, the interceptor missile hit the target missile in a direct way collision. According to the Taiwan military has said: the intercept test is “exciting”. Taiwan media have claimed that “Taiwan’s armed forces to become Asia’s first successful intercept of a live-fire anti-missile forces.”
“Tien Kung” Ⅲ missile from the first a solid ramjet boosters and two cylindrical missile composed of conical projectile head, no tail, the maximum rate of more than Mach 4, the effective range of 80 km, shot a 25 km. Single-mounted missile sealed box launchers Vertical launch. Guidance system uses inertial guidance early stage, middle command guidance, the last paragraph of the composite active radar seeker guidance, direction on any incoming target to respond quickly, can be used with multi-purpose missile system with “Changbai” Phased array radar guided cited intercept incoming ballistic missiles, improved its performance in general and the “Patriot” Ⅱ same. Currently “Tien Kung” Ⅲ still use the “Sky Bow” missile launcher, a total of 48. Missile system consists of missile launchers, “Landrace” Phased array radar control center, power cars and transport loading vehicles etc., with mobile operations.
and “Tien Kung” Ⅱ compared to the “Tien Kung” Ⅲ The main improvements are: First, to high-thrust solid rocket motor ramjet engine, increased speed to intercept and kill airspace; the second is using dual-mode active Leida Jia infrared seeker, improved anti-jamming capability and accuracy; third is improved fuze and warhead, the missile can intercept tactical ballistic missiles, conventional; Fourth, improved supporting the use of phased array radar, the The detection range from 160 km to 460-500 km. “Tien Kung” Ⅲ 300 km range can intercept ballistic missiles, some reports claimed that “Tien Kung” Ⅲ within 600 km range can intercept tactical ballistic missiles.
during the Gulf War, the “Patriot” Ⅱ interception success rate is very low (Kuwait, Iraq launched a total of 47 “Scud” missiles, only four were successful intercept, block success rate of 8.5% ), and thus the war in Iraq, the United States with the PAC-2 GEM, PAC-2 GEM + and PAC-3 anti-missile missiles as the main combat three kinds of interception. The early war, Saddam U.S. military base in Kuwait to launch a total of 24 “Al Samoud” -1, “Al Samoud” -2 and “Ababil” -100 three types of tactical ballistic missiles, including nine blocked (6 is PAC-2 GEM interceptors, one is PAC-2 GEM + intercept, two PAC-3 interceptors to be, each time firing two missiles to intercept), made more obvious anti-missile effect. March 27, 2004, north from Basra to the Iraqi high command of coalition forces – where the U.S. Central Command launched an “Al Samoud” missile. U.S. air defenses, the missile’s flight trajectory solver after that, the Iraqi missile attack was “well prepared” in advance of the effective intelligence gathering. If not blocked, the U.S. Central Command, is likely to have been hit, so some people liken to the missile attacks on coalition forces to Saddam Hussein launched a “decapitation.” Just about to hit the target missile when he was two bursts of the “Patriot” Ⅱ improved missiles to intercept and destroy.
the remaining 15 Iraqi missiles were not intercepted, nor cause any casualties to coalition forces. That disclosure of the U.S. military after the war, because the “Patriot” air defense missile forces through the flight path of these solvers, to determine not pose any threat to take the initiative to abandon the intercept. As the Iraqi army launched 24 missiles are in the range of about 150 kilometers (“Scud” for 300 km), and thus the “Patriot” missile early warning system in the war shorter, increasing the difficulty of interception. If not consider the disclosure of U.S. post-war initiative to abandon the intercept factor, “Patriot” PAC-2 GEM and PAC-2GEM + intercept in this war a success rate of 32%.
Currently, Taiwan’s “Patriot” Ⅱ modified missiles were equipped with a camp three companies, each with at the same time, can track 96 targets, but only eight goals for them (missile) intercept, three even at the same time able to intercept the target 24. According to the Iraq war in “Patriot” Ⅱ 32% interception rate improved real terms, at the same time, nearly eight intercept incoming missiles. In order to improve the blocking effect, each firing two missiles to be fired in 24 goals 48 missiles. In other words, by the Taiwan authorities have loved treasure, care of equipment plus the “Patriot” Ⅱ improved missile, is all the family property can all be at different times, was successfully launched in batches (in fact, obviously not), the most they can intercept 32 missiles.
“Tien Kung” Ⅲ small missile production began in 2001, the number has not been reported. Taiwan’s military plans in Taipei, Tainan, Taichung deploy anti-missile system 12 sets, 3 sets of “Patriot” Ⅱ improved already deployed, plans to buy six sets of the U.S. “Patriot” Ⅲ missiles still in operation to date , then the other three sets is the “Tien Kung” Ⅲ. It is estimated that Taiwan even if the deployment of the “Tien Kung” Ⅲ, also only dozens. According to Taiwan’s “cutting-edge technology,” reported, “Tien Kung” Ⅲ interception success rate of even 20% can not be achieved. If Taiwan can be launched “Sky Bow” Ⅲ number of 80 missiles, each fired two interceptor can intercept the target of 40 by 20% interception rate, you can intercept eight missiles.
In summary, if Taiwan to join together, the two trump cards are all the anti-ballistic missile was successfully launched to intercept, block 40 can be up to the incoming missile. If you go to war, according to the “Taiwan Times” November 15, 2004 reported: “the Japanese side to judge the Chinese in 10 hours, five waves of Taiwan launched a devastating attack.” As the number of missiles can be fired paralyze Taiwan, 2003 In August 31, Taiwan’s “United Daily News” in an analysis of the article said: “The Chiefs of Staff judged that the island of Taiwan can withstand the amount of 96 missile attack, if a large number of troops firing missiles ‘military’ defense would have been fatal of combat. “Clearly, the Taiwan anti-missile weapons is widely believed the two” trump card “, hundreds of missiles in the mainland sub-waves of attack under the anti-missile capability is really tiny. Moreover, far from the mainland missile “Scud” missiles such as comparable.
Taiwan’s military of course, aware of its anti-missile defense system has serious deficiencies. Affect mainly the lack of satellite support the use of weapons performance, a small number of ABM, ABM inadequate coverage, lack of detection capabilities. The U.S. “Patriot” Ⅱ improved missile interception rate in the Iraq war, is extremely abundant in the United States, a strong and effective support to obtain the satellite system, Taiwan is currently no support for such a satellite system. The analysis of the Taiwan anti-missile capability is to have satellite support systems as a precondition. Therefore, the Taiwan independence forces, under vigorous agitation, Taiwan Taiwan is stepping up the anti-missile defense system, mainly in the following four aspects.
accelerate the development of equipment, “Tien Kung” Ⅲ. As the “Tien Kung” Ⅲ to have an anti-short-range tactical ballistic missile capability, and has been shooting live ammunition successful intercept test, present and future, Taiwan will accelerate the development and improvement, production, and strive to be completed in a short time the original equipped with 3 sets of 200 or so the number of a certain defense capabilities, and deployed “Patriot” Ⅱ with improved missiles, the initial formation of the greater Taipei area (including Taipei, Taoyuan, Keelung and other cities and counties) limited anti-missile defense.
try to buy PAC-3 system as soon as possible to resolve Taichung, south of defense, to enhance Taiwan’s limited anti-missile capability, the Taiwan authorities have recently set off a new round of arms sales frenzy, in which there are six sets of PAC- 3 and 384 missiles (some say 500), and the three existing sets of PAC-2 GEM upgraded to PAC-3. In the PAC-2 upgrades prior to PAC-3, PAC-3 and PAC-2 missiles will be mixed. According to reports, when a missile will be equipped with a fire-control radar, six four-mounted improved PAC-2 missile launchers (24) and two sixteen-mounted PAC-3 missile launchers (32) . PAC-3 system by the C-130 transport aircraft and other transportation, can be implemented rapidly mobilized to deploy. Taiwan plans to buy PAC-3 is in full swing, if successful, plans to start deploying in 2010, Taichung, Kaohsiung.
PAC-3 is the improved PAC-2 GEM, with air defense, anti-ballistic missile and cruise functions, and its positioning in the atmosphere to intercept incoming missiles and aircraft in the short-range protection ports, airports, military bases, command and control centers and other smaller range of targets. PAC-3 by the MPQ-53 phased array radar, launcher, interceptor, etc., can intercept the missile range of 1000 km. Complete radar detection range 300 km, can track 100 targets simultaneously, guided intercept eight goals to defeat a high degree of 20 to 30 km, 30 km radius of defense, intercepting way to “direct collision” instead of PAC-2′s “fragments destruction “, greatly improving the damage effect, and conducted a number of live missile interception test, successfully destroyed a ballistic and cruise missiles. The war in Iraq has gone through actual test, conducted two operations to intercept, were successful. During the war, the reason why the majority of the U.S. military with the improved PAC-2 interceptors, just 4 PAC-3 interceptor operations, such an arrangement “ulterior motives”, whose purpose is to Fu Yijun more threatening of the “Scud” missiles. But “keep up with changes planned,” a large number of PAC-3 and before the war, the war is over, even an Iraqi “Scud” is also not launch. Thus, PAC-3 missiles, all the performance has not been fully tested.
plans to purchase the “Aegis” ships, deployed sea-based missile defense system. “Aegis” is the U.S. Navy an all-weather, carrier-based air defense weapon system-wide airspace, the U.S. theater missile defense system is one important component. The entire combat system consists of 22 high-performance computer control, can simultaneously control multiple pieces of “standard” Ⅱ missile launch. System-wide operations short reaction time and high efficiency. Missile has a maximum combat radius of 70 km altitude 19.8 km (one that 120 km, 35 km). Taiwan plans to buy four U.S. “Aegis” ships, ready to deploy on rotation from the two Taiwan Strait, the south (Kaohsiung offshore), and the north (Tamsui export offshore), the other two are for training, maintenance. “Aegis” system has not only its own, the low-altitude anti-missile capability, but also, and “Patriot” systems complement each other, providing support for the missile search and track. Taiwan’s military wants is to strive to achieve as soon as possible by the “Patriot”, “Tien Kung” Ⅲ, “Aegis” system composed of matching the performance art form, blocking ability, land and sea combined to cover the entire island of Taiwan anti-missile defense system. Once equipped vessels in Taiwan, “Aegis” ships, also has a maritime anti-missile defense capabilities, and with the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier battle groups as the main body of the vast battlefield as a whole.
Asia-Pacific region seeking to join the U.S. ballistic missile defense system (TMD). U.S. TMD in the Asia Pacific region claimed to be one of the important objectives “to protect U.S. troops and allies overseas personnel and the security of critical assets,” so the United States wants Japan, Korea, China Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand and other countries and regions to join the system. In September 1998, North Korea “Taepodong” missile test No. 1, which has caused panic in the U.S. and Japan once, thereby speeding up the pace of implementation of TMD, Japan, Australia, etc. have been announced to join. The Taiwan authorities know that, with Taiwan’s financial, military, technology and the existing anti-missile weapons can not effectively prevent the mainland missile attack, so in addition to the above trends, Taiwan also stepped up and sought to join the system (due to resolute opposition from the mainland not yet implemented). This will enable Taiwan to obtain more from the deterrent power of U.S. weapons, “sense of the word” access to satellite early warning, surveillance and other anti-missile combat information and technology.
“Patriot” PAC-2 systems
“Patriot” air missile weapon system developed mainly by Lei Xisi company is now divided into the prototype and variant two. Prototype is mainly used to intercept a variety of high-performance aircraft, code-named MIM-104.
to strengthen self-defense capability for the U.S. Army from March 1985 started to increase the “Patriot” anti-tactical ballistic missile capability improvement plan, the plan abbreviated as PAC (PakioCAdvanced Cap Hill ihty), three two stages, will continue until after 2090. Improved product models were PAC-l, PAC a 2, PAC-3.
PAC-l in December 1988 to complete the troops, the improvements are mainly ground guidance equipment, software, but this improvement only to ballistic and tactical ballistic missile from the original failure, not good .
PAC-2 system is the only battle-tested U.S. theater missile defense system. The PAC-2 system, mainly by the “Patriot” missiles and their launchers,
A14/MPQ-53 multifunction radar, AN/MSQ-104 engagement and fire control station (FCS) and other support equipment (such as power generation vehicles) and other components. Each fire unit (ie a company) has l radar, I a war with the fire control station, eight missile launchers (each with four missile launch vehicle). United States is now a total of 54 fire units of the PAC-2 type “Patriot” missile system.
PAC-2 “Patriot” missile length 5.2 m, diameter 0.41 m, the tail fin has four activities, take-off weight of 914 kg, 90 kg with I high explosive fragmentation warhead (each fragment weighs 45 grams, a total of 700 fragments). I have a new type of warhead the M818E2 pulse fuse. The fuse has double cone beam: narrow beam is used to deal with flight speed of the missile target, wide beam used against slow flying aircraft targets. PAC-2 “Patriot” missiles in mid-flight instruction in the use of inertia plus revised guidance, terminal guidance system with “by the missile tracking” (TvM) semi-active radar guidance. PAC-2 “Patriot” missiles mounted on four-mounted inside the missile launch, launch vehicles boxed in I M-901 trailer, tractor trailer towing vehicle by l. Launch, launch boxes elevation of about 30 ‘.
PAC-2 “Patriot” missiles, the exact performance of the present have not been reported. According to public comments, the performance is quite reasonable: the missile firing tank left when speed of Mach 3, block 6 can be accelerated to Mach, intercept tactical ballistic missiles distance of 10-20 km height is about 5 km.
related topics: China’s ground-based missile interception technology