Chinese military expansion around the strong: heavily built adjacent sea power Sea States
Data Figure: Vietnam’s old naval warships
data for: South Korean Navy KDX-II class guided missile destroyer fleet
text _ Lee because he was
U.S. government approval late January 6th Taiwan sale of “Patriot 3″ missile defense system, but not ratified offensive F-16C/D (1992 Bush had sold Taiwan 150 F-16A/B). Have commented that this is Obama in 2008, Bush sold the remaining half baskets to sell weapons to Taiwan. The implication, Xiaoguicaosui, this is not a large offensive. But China’s official protest after three days five times sales, civil discussion on how the lessons of the United States. January 11, China announced in the territory of a ground-based midcourse missile interception technology trials. Success of the trial, after the Chinese crossed the United States and Japan, following more than nuclear weapons, manned space technology more “middle of the anti-missile” threshold. Compared to January 11, 2007 Chinese secret “missile launched satellite” test, this statement not only China’s initiative to improve the transparency of its military, but also to be regarded as an indirect hit back at U.S. arms sales to Taiwan.
cross-strait development or introduction of competing defensive missiles, indicating that 2010 will be another turbulent year for Sino-US relations. And on the surrounding environment look great, some countries vigorously promote military modernization and emerging emergency, urgent need to deal with traditional and non-traditional security threats, allowing the emergence of the regional arms race continues to heat up the signs. Which, in addition to China at an annual rate of more than 10 percent increase in military spending, the most impressive is the sharp increase in India’s military spending 24 percent in 2009.
New Delhi made massive military campaign
2009 fiscal year, the Asia-Pacific Asian countries, China and India’s military spending was particularly significant. China’s defense budget is 480.686 billion yuan (about 70.25 billion U.S. dollars), the number of the previous year’s budget execution increased 62.482 billion yuan, an increase of 14.9%. India’s total defense budget 1.41 trillion rupees (about 290 billion U.S. dollars), although much lower than in Japan (Japan, 53.833 billion U.S. dollars), compared with the previous year but its growth rate was as high as 24 percent since independence in 1947 the largest increase ever.
Moreover, in recent years, New Delhi to raise the level of military modernization, the military put on a really spend much. U.S. Research Bureau report shows that from 2001 to 2008, India’s foreign arms purchase amount up to $ 30.8 billion. In developing countries, this figure is second only to oil-rich Saudi Arabia, in second place. China Sourcing same period amounted to $ 12.9 billion, Pakistan is $ 11.8 billion.
2009, New Delhi threw out an unprecedented scale procurement plan, the project covers the heavy transport helicopters, submarines, surface ships, artillery and other weapons. Of which only 126 multi-role fighter a value that is 104 billion dollars.
India’s huge military arms dealers around the world flock to the market. To gain share, Washington no longer insists on continuation of a decade of high-tech export restrictions on India and policies. Obama took office two months later, the new government that approved the two largest amount in the history of arms sales, agreed to sell India eight Boeing P-8I maritime patrol aircraft, worth $ 2.1 billion. In addition, the two sides also six C-130J Super “Hercules” transport aircraft trading case to reach agreement. The end of November last year, Prime Minister Singh’s visit, the two countries signed a package again military-technical cooperation agreement.
trying to win over Washington, New Delhi is fully balance its foreign military cooperation deal with the relationship was as smooth and sophisticated multilateral political relations, both ways in order to maintain their dominant position. In 2009, despite soaring prices, India and Russia are still on the “Gorshkov” aircraft carrier transfer deal agreed renovation, and plans to purchase 50 Su-30MKI fighter jets to make the kinds of models can amount to 2015 increased to 230. In addition, New Delhi also received from Russia in the hands of three custom A-50Shmel in an early-warning aircraft, 16 MiG -29K/KUB carrier-based fighter of the four. In the meantime, Israel began to implement five years ago and India finalized a $ 1.1 billion in sales contracts, transmitted to a detection range of 300 kilometers of “Phalcon” airborne early warning aircraft, the remaining two aircraft of the same type machine will be delivered in 2011 to complete.
with the purchase of bait thrown Pang Dajun, New Delhi in the United States and Russia to France, Britain and other countries deal between the four. New Delhi’s intention is clear, it is not only necessary to obtain more favorable terms of arms and advanced technology, but also to further build their own diversified “global defense relationship.”
However, the frequent crashes events and military procurement dollars going abroad, but also to New Delhi to step up military equipment and technology localization effort. 2009, compared to purchases from abroad, in the arms of localization in New Delhi to pay a larger effort, the results should be much more fruitful. March 4, known as the world’s fastest cruise missile flight, “BrahMos” II missile was successfully tested. A few days later, in the Orissa coast has successfully conducted the third anti-missile intercept test, Indian experts claim that have the ability to intercept ballistic missiles with ranges of 2,000 km, although only in the last paragraph of the missile to intercept the flight is very risky. May 19, “Ira W.” was served tank landing ship, ship to India’s national construction of the fifth ship tank landing ship. September 18, the second Navy ship P15A-type “Calcutta” class stealth destroyer, “Cochin” was launched. September 23, 2008, following the “kill ten Star”, the Indian “to kill Seven” once again successfully vacated.
in the local transformation process, the Indian Navy in 2009 to create a number of the first. In February, the first a self-made, 4-ton aircraft carrier began laying the keel is scheduled to be delivered in 2014, India formally entered the construction of large ships with a capacity of a few countries ranks. That same month, “Carney Cobar Islands” and “La police he” was fast attack boats in Chennai while serving as the first batch of Indian Navy in the history of water jet propulsion boat. In July, the first nuclear submarine made a “body count” was launched, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh personally live to celebrate. In November, the first one made 5300 tons P17 stealth frigate “Shivalik” was in service, the other two are scheduled to deliver in the next two years.
as strong in the Indian domestic companies naturally from the government’s procurement program in 2009 isolated a large number of fat difference. Among them, the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, the 20 “brilliant” light fighter contract, Garden Ridge Shipbuilding and Engineering Company received 78 water-jet propulsion stealth attack boats and three large frigates orders. The dock is located in Mumbai Mazar Kong Ltd. is responsible for the Navy to build four new “Calcutta” class stealth destroyer and four frigates.
large-scale, multi-field-made military campaign, it is difficult to be completely reasonable as New Delhi’s military modernization efforts, because it clearly exceeded its normal defense needs. India’s rapid economic growth is precipitated by the great power ambitions of its vitality. New Delhi, more and more difficult to meet the corner of the subcontinent in the Sung, but eagerly look forward with a stronger military response and delivery capabilities, which go beyond South Asia, Asia-Pacific region as well as the role of global power, and play an important role.
in the past year, this vision of New Delhi the other side by the Himalayan people’s cynicism, but Indian people are taking advantage of the energetically speculation, “China threat theory.” August 13th Sino-Indian border talks around this tit for tat war of words reached its peak. From accuse China of Myanmar, Bangladesh, Pakistan and other countries to build on the construction of ports in southern India “pearl necklace” type of siege, to fabricate PLA repeatedly disputed region of northern military “invasion” myth, should the “China threat” as the expansion New Delhi arms of the major reasons. British “Jane’s Defense Weekly,” made the following comment: “In the context of the financial crisis, India still actively updating equipment, do not appear to deal with a double into the economic and political crisis in Pakistan, but to prevent the rapid development of China.”
great awakening awareness of the Asia-Pacific sea power?
2009, the Asia-Pacific Asian countries, especially Western countries, the proportion of GDP, its military budget and little change in the case in previous years, invariably invested heavily to build its own naval forces to vigorously .
them, “hidden killer” submarines much all ages. Vietnam and even took out half of the annual defense budget to buy six Russian-made “Kilo” class diesel submarines. Defense budget is only $ 3.2 billion in Indonesia, signed in 2007, two “Kilo” class submarine, in 2009 after a careful screening, once again set to two 636 Russian submarine contract, worth $ 700 million.
with Vietnam, Indonesia to Russia to buy submarines different, Singapore, Malaysia, submarines are “made in Europe.” June 2009, by the Swedish Kockums for the transformation of Singapore’s two submarines in the Navy’s first aircraft – the “shooter” was launched, delivered at the end of Singapore in 2010 to replace the service time for more than 30 years of active duty. ” Challenger “class submarines. Other maritime countries, Malaysia is held in September 2009 the first ship the rule of law “Scorpene” class submarine stationed in the ceremony (the other one also arrived in March 2010 will be installed Marxist-Leninist). Following on from the Indonesia, Singapore, the third after the Southeast Asian countries have submarines, giving the submarine Ma Long unusual case. Not only in the Army Day ceremony election day, but also to the country’s first prime minister, “Abdul Rahman” in the name of life.
addition to bid for the submarine, the former military power in Indonesia last year, also decided in 2005, purchasing 23 PC-40-type patrol boats, based on the re-added a new 96, to implement anti-piracy, prohibited fishing and border protection operations. At the same time, the government and state-owned company signed two arms purchase orders, one for the Indonesian Navy to build two 2400 tons of small frigates, valued $ 530 million, a purchase of three Indonesian Aerospace CN-235- 220 maritime patrol aircraft, worth $ 80 million. In addition, Indonesia 2009, also from the old hands of the sovereign state to receive the fourth ship of the Netherlands, “Sigma” class corvettes, and put into service.
Interestingly, Indonesia, Malaysia then as the sea challenge rival general, made the first ship “Kedah” class light frigate deployed to the Navy. Indonesia’s “Sigma” using advanced technology the Netherlands, and the “Kedah” is originating from Germany, two frigates evenly matched.
in Southeast Asia, Singapore, although few people in the narrow, but deep pockets, the defense budget in recent years are above $ 10 billion. Therefore its naval construction in recent years, the speed fast, doing well. January 2009, six “fearless” class frigate of the last two “strong” and “extremely” was to begin serving the Changi Naval Base. The French frigate “Lafayette” and improve the upgrade version can be used for air defense, anti-ship and anti-submarine warfare. In June, the group of Southeast Asia’s largest stealth frigates out in force in the South China Sea exercises, envy of neighbors.
in Northeast Asia, although the response to North Korea threatens South Korea, had to focus on the development of ground and air and missile defense equipment, but its naval construction is quite sensual. December 1, 2009, the national hero, “An important root” name of a Type 214 submarine AIP and officially launched service in Busan. The submarine stealth superior performance, AIP technology so that it can not surfaced in the case of continuous refueling operations for two weeks, and its equipment ISUS-90 combat system can track 300 targets and process, able to perform to-ship warfare, on the air, submarine warfare, blockade the enemy base and other tasks, known as the world’s most advanced. Hyundai shipyard in South Korea has built three of these submarines, based on the South Korean Navy and is now ordered a 6.
Coincidentally, in October 2009, Japan’s first five “black dragon” in the third-class AIP submarine fleet, but also in the Kobe shipyard of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries launched. Compared with South Korea, Japan eye early identification of AIP technology, imported from Sweden in the 1980s that is now basically done independent research and development.
as Asia’s maritime power, challenges exist in Japan and ships around the competition in the case of super strong interest in naval construction, the scales gradually break the constitution by. March 2009, “day to” helicopter destroyer was officially settled in Yokosuka. Five months later, the second vessel with the level of “Ise” was also held in Yokohama, naming and launching ceremony. Two ships of 197 meters long, the standard displacement of 13,950 tons, much higher than the general displacement of ships, helicopters can carry up to 11. While Tokyo insists that the ship is different from the aircraft carrier, and never will be equipped with fighters, but was sunk in 1945, “Ise”, “on the” aircraft carrier twist resurrection, still makes some uneasy.
“on the” class destroyers of the scale, may soon be broken. By the end of 2009 the annual defense budget in 2010, Tokyo allocated 116.6 billion yen, will include the construction of a new helicopter destroyer project. According to the plan, the benchmark displacement of 19,500 tons ship, length 248 m, capable of carrying 14 helicopters can transport 3.5 tons for the GSDF 50 trucks, personnel 4000.
Japan’s wild ambition that may be something wrong, after all, Korea is also building a similar vessel. May 2007 launched the “King Sejong” destroyer, captain of 165.9 meters, a displacement of 13,500 tons, equipped with advanced Aegis systems and aircraft, missiles. The same level there is two under construction, will be held in 2010 and 2012 settled in the Navy.
Western Pacific is becoming a powerful naval force will soon show their influence. Following the end of 2008 in the Gulf of Aden in the Indian Navy escort, after Japan and South Korea and Singapore also have a small country between February and March 2009, sent his fleet.
However, to combat piracy and protect marine channel security is considered one of the countries to develop the Navy, in fact, some countries even escort activities as a wonderful opportunity to take the opportunity to put their ships, officers pulled up to drill in international waters .
Obviously, the Navy’s military eyes in different countries with completely different meanings. Marine survival of a small country regarded as capital, the regional powers is seen as prestige tool. There is competition in the surrounding circumstances, this rule is particularly effective.
present, the West Pacific Rim countries generally designated land borders, territorial waters, but there are many overlapping maritime rights and interests disputes continue, no doubt stimulate the Navy to accelerate construction. With the introduction of the parties or the construction of submarines, destroyers, frigates and large in place after another, a large sea race is likely to occur.