Experts say the military air defense equipment to be integrated with the operational effectiveness of early warning
Li Shihua, Associate Professor of Air Force Command College, Air Force Colonel expertise.
Israel India-made ‘Phalcon’ AWACS
Data Figure: China’s Air Force air marshals -2000 AWACS and F-8 fighter planes flying in formation
dialogue experts: Li Shihua, Associate Professor of Air Force Command College, Air Force Colonel expertise. The first Air Force high-level scientific and technological talents, Master Instructor. Air Force engaged in teaching and research equipment, by the military and technological progress award a second and third four times; outstanding achievements of the Air Force study of military theory 1 first prize, second prize four times and third five times.
News Background: 2009, the Indian Air Force received its first aircraft Israeli-made ‘Phalcon’ AWACS. Not long ago, “India Times” reported that India’s military is stepping up development of China-made airborne early warning aircraft, the first aircraft is expected to be delivered in 2011, the Air Force AWACS use. The report quoted India’s Defense Research and Development Organization official as saying that the first China-made AWACS aircraft cost about 180 billion rupees (1 U.S. dollar is equivalent to 48 rupees), operational performance is similar to the deployed Israeli-made “Phalcon” airborne early warning aircraft. Military expert commentary, as the world’s most advanced early warning aircraft, one of “Phalcon” AWACS Indian Air Force will become a force multiplier, and the pattern of air power in the region have a profound impact. Airborne early warning aircraft, the development of 60 years and often-changing technology, new equipment, once again become a hot topic in the majority of military enthusiasts. Recently, this reporter to connect the Air Force Command College Li Shihua, associate professor of early-warning aircraft in-depth interpretation.
Q: In modern warfare, early warning aircraft, what role, what role?
A: make a metaphor, airborne early warning aircraft as a command post, which combines early warning and detection, command and control, intelligence, reconnaissance, communications, navigation and other functions, the Air Force C4ISR system important part.
modern warfare, early warning aircraft, combat missions mainly in the following areas:
airborne early warning. This is the most important early warning aircraft, the most basic tasks, to early detection, identification and tracking of targets for adequate warning time. AWACS early warning air defense can independently carry out the task, but also with the ground far, short-range air defense early warning radar network together constitute the further expansion of airborne early warning detection range.
electronic surveillance. AWACS electronic surveillance system that can detect early-warning radar detection range than the electronic radiation source, with fast response and high-precision measurement capabilities in a complex electromagnetic environment with high interception rate, can quickly determine the orientation of the enemy electronic signals and associated electronics parameters.
command and control. Airborne early warning aircraft as a mobile command post, in the larger context of a comprehensive grasp of air, and will be beneficial to one’s own aircraft, tactical guide to the location of the pilot before the enemy to create the conditions found. Especially in the middle and long-distance air combat, AWACS command guidance and specific briefings on the objective of early detection of one’s own aircraft and take the right tactical mobility will play a key role.
In addition, early warning can be responsible for communications relay, air traffic control and other tasks.
Q: Can you briefly on the origin of early warning aircraft, it?
A: The early warning can be traced back to World War II generation later. Pearl Harbor, the ground (sea) surface radar blind spot of the existence of low-altitude, resulting in the U.S. Navy suffered heavy losses. In 1943, the United States perform Cadillac plans to begin developing the Navy’s airborne early warning aircraft and radars for early detection of hiding in the ship’s radar shadow of the low-flying enemy aircraft.
1945 end of the Plan to succeed the then more advanced radar onto a small aircraft, launched the world’s first one AWACS TBM-3W “Avenger.” In 1948, the U.S. military set up the world’s first early warning aircraft squadron.
1950 year, the U.S. military for using C-14 “traders” small transport aircraft and new radars AN/APS-82, converted into AWACS. Successful flight test aircraft in 1958, named the E-1B “follow by” carrier-based early warning aircraft, which is the world’s first practical early warning aircraft.
“Tracker” has a streamlined fuselage above the radar dome, which is the modern AWACS radome prototype backpack. E-1B has a certain determination of the location of ships and aircraft capabilities, but also to guide the implementation of the fighter, in 1960 formally incorporated into the U.S. Navy, produced a total of 88, have now been retired.
Since then, the micro-electronics technology, the rapid development of microwave technology, the development of early warning capabilities from a simple warning to the simultaneous implementation of several groups of target command guidance, and truly become a highly mobile airborne early warning command system.
Q: the original intention of developing early warning aircraft, is derived from “air radar” vision. Compared with ground radar, airborne early warning aircraft which have the advantage?
A: airborne early warning aircraft in the history of every improvement, are based airborne early warning radar modifications marked. AWACS from simple to complex, experienced by the conventional pulse radar, moving target display, pulse Doppler phased array pulse Doppler radar to 4 generations. Even today, airborne early warning radar early warning aircraft are still the core of electronic equipment. Airborne early warning aircraft and ground radar, has three major advantages compared to:
First, low-altitude target detection distance, the small blind. Curvature of the earth by ground radar and terrain influence on the height of 100-200 meters, the target detection range of only 30-40 km, but 10-20 seconds warning time, and there is a lot of blind spots; and early warning aircraft detection of targets from the air, greatly increasing the radar search range and detection range, an increase of warning time, especially in that low-altitude, low altitude and sea targets, the effect is particularly significant.
Second, mobility, ability to survive. Ground radar is not easy to maneuver, deployment location of the long-term exposure to enemy reconnaissance surveillance, can easily be destroyed; and early warning in the general speed of 500-900 km, in the face of the enemy threat, it may take protective or circumvent measures strong ability to survive.
Third, flexible deployment, a wide range of activities. AWACS according to operational need for rapid deployment, support or strengthen the weak links. As the AWACS generally have a longer battery life, and aerial refueling capability, can arrive in theater offensive operations outside activities, greatly increasing the early warning and detection range.
Q: In appearance, the biggest feature is the machine back early warning aircraft laden with a large disk – radome. Can you briefly explain the early-warning technology constitute it?
A: The only powerful radar is not enough, is extremely complex integration of early warning systems, including the radar sub-systems, identification friend or foe subsystem, electronic surveillance and communications surveillance subsystem, navigation subsystem, the data processing subsystem, communication subsystem, display and control subsystem and so on.
Q: Over the past several local wars, the AWACS performance?
A: The 1982 classification of the war, Israel sent the first E-2C “Hawkeye” early warning missile launch site close surveillance and the Syrian Air Force Base, dynamic, and then they sent 96 fighter planes, in in just six minutes over the Bekaa Valley in Syria will be destroyed 19 missile battalions, and shot down 81 aircraft against Syria. After the war strategist commented that one of the main Israeli to win is to use E-2C early warning aircraft as air surveillance command center, to take the initiative.
1991 in the Gulf War, more than 30 multinational force sent AWACS aircraft to perform air command, reconnaissance, battlefield surveillance, command and close air support and other tasks, in command of the air assault to destroy the Iraqi military command Center and the “Scud” missile bases, etc., played a significant role. E-3 on the single is out 845 sorties were flown 10,538 hours, guide, directing coalition air strikes by aircraft and 120,000 vehicles per block, directly responsible for the air war in Iraq 41 times 39 times that of the E-3 as the communication command and control platform role.
1999 war in Kosovo, NATO forces in Kosovo to launch joint operations, NATO’s 14 AWACS out 656 sorties were flown over 4800 hours, dispatched eight sorties per day, almost all-weather operations.
2003 war in Iraq, the United States and Britain have deployed early warning aircraft, 20 E-2, 22 架 E-3, perform the task more than 3,000 sorties, played an irreplaceable role.
Q: early warning of future trends is what?
A: To meet the needs of future war, the world’s military powers are improved early warning capabilities. First, the active phased array radar will become the main features of the next generation of AWACS. Great strength, great depth, integrated land, sea combat and stealth mode as well as the practical goal of the emergence of complex electromagnetic environment, early warning system for a new challenge, and active phased array radar for the completion of new tasks to provide a good overall performance. Second, the early warning function of the system further. Air Force Research believes that the future will be the Joint Surveillance Target AWACS radar systems, airborne battlefield command and control center mission systems, electronic devices combined air combat platforms. Finally, the early warning system in the systematic use of institutional networks to develop in the direction. Future information warfare called for early warning systems into the air and ground combat command system to become part of command information an important part of the network.
Q: Can you talk briefly about the early warning aircraft, air defense for the significance of our land it?
A: China has 9.6 million square kilometers of land territory, there are more than 300 million square kilometers of territorial waters, it is difficult to rely solely on ground-based radars cover the entire airspace. Army to defend the national sovereignty, territorial air defense to complete the task, you must have a certain number of early warning aircraft, so as to effectively command and control a unified fighting force, the operational effectiveness of air defense equipment into full play. To borrow a military expert as saying: “If a country has a good early warning, surveillance, intelligence gathering capability, even if only the opponent’s half of the number of fighters, too, can win the war.”
( Hu Yun, interview by our reporter Liu Gang)