Pilots said that China should use domestic planes 3rd generation machine developed by Navy
data for: sea-made F-10 aircraft refueling training
more than ten years ago, I made friends with several Navy pilots. They are the Navy’s first “Flying Leopard” fighter pilot, is the joint space flight pioneer in the Navy.
“Flying Leopard” as the first multi-function domestic medium attack aircraft (although it named JH machine), it is equipped with special significance for China’s naval air force. Time flies, “Flying Leopard” the first ten years have passed since the Navy installation, and over ten years twinkling of an eye, the world situation and national power of naval equipment has undergone tremendous changes.
2009 年 7 28, Naval Operations Adm. Roughead, not without complacency declared: “F-35C fighter aircraft represent the highest level of class!” With Lockheed Martin’s assembly plant The heavy curtain slowly opened, ill-fated Navy F-35C has finally officially unveiled, this indicates that a new round of Navy fighter competition will heat up.
here, the focus of public opinion seems to have focused on the F-35C carrier-based functions, Asian countries bustling carrier equipment competition, but also to attract people’s concerns about China’s aircraft carrier research and development process on . The Navy’s shore-based aviation equipment development but rather few people talking about. This just want to talk about this seemingly “popular” topic.
construction depends on the country’s naval air pursuit
talk as an Air Force pilot, naval aviation, it seems a little suspect lively outsider.
In fact, I was not concern for the Naval Air Force and Navy pilots because of the cooperation. The end of 2008, in the study of aerial refueling technology, before and after World War II, I examined a large amount of information remotely raid. I published at the end of 2008, “the soft and hard battle refueling”, the first reference is the “Matt Horn” program of the wars. I was, “Matt Horn” program and other World War II, the grand and tragic wars touched, but I moved, I left behind is deep thinking. Attack on Pearl Harbor, Midway, Coral Sea battle, captured the Mariana Islands, and the bombing of Tokyo, from the brutality of the Pacific War and its huge impact on the outcome of World War II behind, I read the two warring sides pursuit for naval aviation . I seem to come to this conclusion: For a country, what kind of maritime air power, is not what his ability, but rather the pursuit of what he has!
the early twentieth century world powers, such as terms from the traditional strength of British sea power is undoubtedly the most powerful country. Although in 1910 and 1911, the Americans Eugene Ely’s first carrier to achieve a takeoff and landing of human, but the world’s first aircraft carrier in 1918, was built by the British, “Argus.” Early twentieth century, the Japanese shipbuilding technology with China, as are imported from the West; the Americans are not the European countries is so “lucky” to be in a war to hone their navy. In 1921, the Italian Douhet wrote, “air supremacy”, Japan and the U.S. seem to not have the same level of strategic thinkers. However, the real interpretation of the First World War through to obtain “insight”, it is the so-called newcomers – the United States and Japan. After a brief peace, the Eurasian powers seem to have foreseen the advent of the next war, however, to prepare for the sea, only Japan and the United States. Although Stalin had foreseen the importance of the war for the future aircraft carrier, and ordered the aircraft carrier technology research and development began, the sponsor of the German World War II can be described as fully prepared, but the sudden and unexpected outbreak of World War II, only Japan and the United States established a strong aircraft carrier fleet, the Pacific sea and air shopping unavoidable in between these two maritime powers began.
interpretation of history we see often is the result, but I am more concerned about is the results before the arrival of those who seek power. Opened biography “Isoroku Yamamoto” I clearly see the World War I, Japan and the U.S. Navy aviation development path.
the twenties, although equipped with a catapult to take off the British aircraft carrier “Argus” has come out, but countries still focus on the Navy’s large-scale manufacture of super-battleships, aircraft carriers and Navy Air Force only be regarded as an auxiliary force, imagine using it to cover battleship, cruiser strikes, on the sea.
But Americans Billy Mitchell has seen the importance of air power for the Navy. In July 1921, in Mitchell’s repeated suggestion, the U.S. Navy surface ships for the bombing of the trial, Mitchell tried to prove his ideas through the test, despite the test was a sensational effect, but Navy officials still legalistic ignore Mitchell’s view, this, Mitchell angrily left the Navy Air Corps.
the other side of the ocean, the Japanese naval officer Admiral Yamamoto during the same thoughts. After the war, Japan and the United States in Asia is increasingly open competition in the ocean, the face of strong American Yamamoto filled with pessimism. After several years of commuting in Europe and America, he suddenly found the inspiration, “Aviation victory” in Asia is Japan the only means of protest with the United States, he believes that “in the future will rely mainly on aircraft operations at sea.” He became an avid aviation enthusiast. In 1923, Japan built the world’s first aircraft carrier, an official of the “phoenix” was. In 1924, Yamamoto chose but he craves a completely unfamiliar environment – Kasumigaura Naval Air Force, Navy, Air Force officially became deputy chief of Kasumigaura and education long. Seize every opportunity to learn about his knowledge of aviation and 40 years old completed his first life, the air solo.
1925, the Jimi Du Litas driving a U.S. aircraft Curtiss R3C-2 victory in the racing season, the average speed of 232.5 miles. April 1942, is led by Du Litas B-25 bombers, completed during World War II on the first bombing of the Japanese homeland.
1926, the second ambassador to the United States Yamamoto. In 1927, the fanatical “aviation winning,” wrote Mitchell, American advocates of the “Air Defense,” a book. The book deeply touched the nerve of this mountain, now, Yamamoto’s “aviation winning” idea has been developed to “air the first” high. March 1928, Admiral Yamamoto ended his career in the United States naval attache, returned to Japan, he first served as the cruiser “Isuzu” Captain, followed by another transfer, “Akagi” aircraft carrier captain, he finally plans to start their own well-built Japanese naval aviation. As a result, Yamamoto embarked on the “brilliant” but the sea is full of tragic life, but also for the twentieth century left a lot of amazing sea air cases.
At this point, I do not want to go repeat the tragic scenes of the Pacific naval battle in the air. People in the study and reflection on Pearl Harbor, Midway, the Marianas and other famous naval battle, it always has repeatedly stressed the importance of naval aircraft carriers of the at, but through these battles at sea, it is read to the sea islands for Japan and the U.S. The bloody battle, the sea base in the Pacific War’s most important strategic resource.
1940, the U.S. Navy has a very significant move, the West Coast of the United States is the original home base in the Pacific Fleet moved to the Hawaiian Islands Oahu Pearl Harbor, this action with the U.S. Pacific Fleet The distance between mainland Japan and it would shorten the thousands of miles.
1941 年 12 8, Admiral Yamamoto led the attack on Pearl Harbor the Japanese aircraft carrier fleet, the United States four battleships were sunk, including four battleships and three cruisers, including 15 ships were damaged, 311 aircraft were destroyed, the main U.S. Pacific Fleet battleship basically lost the capability.
1942 年 4 18, carrying 16 B-25B bomber, “Hornet” aircraft carrier battle groups, came to Japan, 500 sea miles from the sea, as suddenly encountered a Japanese fishing boat “Nitto Maru” No. For the first bombing of the Japanese mainland was forced to advanced. 8:15, Col. Du Litas first flew off. The creative action and not to the Japanese bombing of strategic objectives resulting in much harm, because there is no shore-based naval base as a backup, not in the B-25B aircraft carrier landing in addition to being shot down two bombers, an aircraft is a miracle landed in the Soviet Union, Vladivostok (Vladivostok) 60 km north of the airport, planes are landing in the rest damaged. This is called “Ten well-known twentieth-century air” bombing campaign caused enormous repercussions in the international arena, however, Lieutenant Colonel Du Litas seems that the operation was a complete failure, but no shore-based naval air force base The direct cause of the failure of action. From the sea for the next bombing the Japanese mainland after a lapse of more than two years in November 1944, the U.S. Navy occupied the Marianas Islands, Japan announced the end of World War II bombing of Tokyo began.
In my opinion, the Pacific naval strategy turn is not the real Battle of Midway, but the June 1944 Battle of the Marianas. The battle, Japan lost 92% of the carrier-based naval air force, which led to the failure of the campaign is an important reason, is precisely the low quality of the Japanese naval air force pilots, after years of war in the Pacific, consumption of well-trained pilots in Japan exhausted. And because mistakes in judgments of intelligence, stationed in Japan, the Mariana Islands was transferred to shore-based aviation New Guinea Islands, the Japanese air force is extremely weak, the Japanese army in this battle is an important reason for the failure. Coincidentally, when the “air defense” Mitchell, author of American General in command of the battle personally. With the fall of the Mariana Islands, the Japanese mainland completely exposed to the U.S. B-29 bombers within range of the attack, the Japanese are waiting for the spring of 1945 has been extended to the bombing of Tokyo in July.
review of the Pacific in World War II naval battle, we can see that the focus of the two warring sides compete for the Navy, is an important strategic value of the island, while the naval air forces in the war played a key role. With the Japanese navy’s retreat, the U.S. military occupation of one island, waiting for the Japanese, only the outcome of failure of the.
resource war era naval air
1904, the British 哈尔福德麦 Kinder made his famous “History of the geographic hub” a book, only more than ten thousand words of this booklet by Western strategists regarded as a geo-strategic study for the mountains. Twentieth century ago, or the end of World War II and then to push most of the world wars seem to compete for geopolitical and proceed. However, we should be clear that, with the era of strategic resource decisions, more and more towards the resources of modern warfare in the direction of the war, the battle between the great powers is not the traditional sense of the inland territory, but resource-rich hot spots , in addition to energy, minerals and other important resources, Strait, Peninsula, Delta islands as an important platform for the marine resources of war, a growing concern of the points. As an important weapon in naval warfare, aircraft carrier fleet is not the pure sense of the existence of sea power, sea power must rely on any coast, the island to survive. Therefore, for any hope for countries with maritime interests, coastal land ownership and competition (island) resources are related to the strategic focus of the country’s survival, but as a strategic resource to maintain the strategic significance of the Navy shore-based aviation also self-evident. Nineteenth-century Tsarist Russia to fight sea strategically plundered large territory in northern China. The 1980s, the United Kingdom for much of the Malvinas Islands in South America go to war with Argentina. India pledged to the Indian Ocean as their own inland marine, expanding naval power. Americans in order to maintain its strategic interests in East Asia, at the so-called ally, Japan blown grimace. All this behind the words speak for themselves.
dress three generations of computer technology has matured not wait
relative to the rapid development of world air force, naval aviation’s development there is a very uneven situation. The establishment of a small number of maritime power to the aircraft carrier from the shore, from the reconnaissance anti-submarine to the sea attack, from sea to offshore operations, from local to overseas bases of the system large naval air power, and military power in most countries and even many of the naval air force is relatively weak , a few countries have aircraft carriers, the fleet strength is also extremely thin. Maritime air power is extremely uneven status seems to be accepted with all major powers, which in the military field is a special case. When a few large countries in various regions of the world’s oceans reach of frequent moves, when a number of other military powers are still for the future development of naval aviation indecisive. Although some countries have ambitious attempt of the carrier to carry out research and technology equipment, but a few large countries and the United States and other maritime air power than simply incomparable. The high cost of construction of naval aviation and the future strategic situation of uncertainty, making the country are difficult to put into making costly construction.
China’s naval air force has gone through nearly 60 years of development. June 1952, the first aviation division was established in Shanghai, marking the official birth of naval aviation. To the end of 1955, naval aviation has various types of aircraft five hundred and fifteen, basically formed a shore-based air defense system of sea and air combat. January 3, 1980, the first landing with the Navy’s ship-borne helicopters, the success of naval aviation from the shore to the carrier to achieve a breakthrough. The 1990s, the “Flying Leopard” fighter-bombers, electronic reconnaissance, anti-submarine aircraft, early warning and patrol aircraft, tanker aircraft fielded forces, expanding the scope of activities of naval aviation, and naval forces to seize command of the sea surface ship laid a full range of support. January 2009 release of “2008 China’s national defense” white paper that formed a naval air forces attack aircraft as the representative of the sea air strike force, with reconnaissance, anti submarine, air defense capability.
However, we must recognize that our naval air power is relatively weak, and the growing maritime interests of big powers did not match.
U.S. Navy fighters and equipment are mostly self-made independent of the Air Force, but this phenomenon does not seem widespread in the world. As a military power, Russia’s Air Force, Navy fighters were powered by the models, the so-called Navy aircraft in the Air Force is only to make the appropriate on the basis of small changes, this phenomenon is common in some other military powers. As a result, we can not help but think about the question, whether the U.S. experience of universal significance, affecting the construction of naval air power is the principal contradiction in the end? Countries on this issue seems to have their own needs and ideas.
the late 1970s, the Iranians want from the introduction of a U.S. Air Force fighters, Iranian military officials visited the United States in a variety of aircraft, the unexpected choice of a U.S. F-14 fighters. This is of course the U.S. propaganda developers factors, however, Iran’s strategic situation and the surrounding circumstances considered, they choose F-14 is an important reason. A new aircraft in development costs while moving billions of dollars today, specifically for the independent development of a Navy fighter is unbearable in many national economies, not to say that there is no independent research capacity of state. In fact, the most important fighters for the Navy is not whether the Navy’s special-purpose, but its ability to meet maritime defense needs.
Navy fighter is the most important task of naval operations, whether at sea or sea attack defense, air-surface attack capability and ability to attack on the ship is the most important functions. The so-called Air Force fighters, as long as it has a strong air-surface attack capability, with high-performance sensors for offshore and special weapons combat, it can be used for maritime operations. Therefore, one-sided that the Air Force Aero-weapons can not be used for maritime operations point of view is biased. Navy fighter air combat capability is an important indicator. Low-air combat capability the aircraft is unable to meet the future needs of naval operations. For Navy aircraft, in addition to outside attack, sea mobile combat capability is also extremely important. For example, the U.S. Navy’s F-14, F-18 are medium twin aircraft, have the ability to range far from the characteristics of strong mobility, therefore, territorial air of the light combat aircraft is not suitable for naval use. Viability is an important indicator of the Navy aircraft. Compared with conventional air combat, sea combat survivability of the aircraft made a higher demand, because the ambulance is very difficult at sea parachute, the pilot survived unlikely, therefore, the Navy fighter redundancy in the system design with special requirements. In addition, due to difficult sea combat coordination, multi-purpose combat aircraft for the higher performance requirements.
shape as the J-10 aircraft and equipment, three generations of the Chinese Air Force to accelerate the pace of local dress. The small amount of imports in addition to the three generations of Navy fighters and continued facelift JH-7A aircraft, there are a lot of second-generation fighters continue to use. Its design is mainly high-altitude high-speed operations. Later, made its second generation with a radar sensor though, and add a corresponding empty, air-surface weapons. But because these fighters are mostly developed by Air Force fighters, air and sea attack capability is relatively weak, and these aircraft are equipped with large conventional fire control systems, small arms attack, attack accuracy is also lower, deal with the complicated electromagnetic environment weak, has not suited to modern naval warfare environment, the Navy’s second-generation fighters urgent facelift.
nowadays, the demand for naval air operations, new research from a Navy aircraft development cycle of three generations of the basic point of view is not feasible, use existing domestic third-generation fighter is the only choice for retrofit programs. Three generations of machine-made design concepts in the empty focus on operations, electronic warfare environment and air-surface attack of the overall combat effectiveness of air attacks with strong and self-defense capabilities, and in the air-surface (particularly air and sea) attack, since with advanced sensors, and powerful integrated fire control system, as long as the add a sophisticated air and sea assault weapons, can become an excellent sea combat aircraft. In view of the status of naval aviation equipment, aircraft equipment because the number of significantly less than the Air Force, so the plane should not be used on the multiple choice options of the program, but should fully demonstrate its excellent selection, so that maintenance and operational use of the equipment is good .
be noted that three generations of machines and equipment does not affect JH -7 aircraft equipment, operational functions from the analysis because three generations of machine-made aircraft with JH -7 component cross-less, can complementary advantages. Currently, four generations of machines (the Russian Five unit) development has been widespread concern, but the combat effectiveness of four generations of machines, in particular, its cost has not been a real test for the Navy’s development of next-generation fighters should learn from foreign the case of experience, combined with strength and China’s ordnance technology needs of Naval Operations to seriously carry out research projects. At the same time, three generations of machines in the existing technology is more mature, we do not need to wait, three generations of Navy aircraft properly equipped and trained in continuous improvement in the combat capability of naval aviation, which is building the new era of military transformation needs also needs to win future wars.
In summary, carefully study the future needs of naval operations, the Navy proposed future aircraft design requirements, development of new aircraft is the Navy’s new defense industry issues. Meanwhile, the situation in China and future needs of naval warfare, use of existing and under development in the Air Force fighters, Navy fighters as modified, should be the future for a long time an important strategy for the construction of naval equipment.