After 2007, the United States that China stopped the import of basic weapons systems ready
From the early 1990s, China began to introduce hundreds of Russian-made Su-27 series aircraft
BEIJING, March 18, 2007: U.S. think tank the Hudson Institute Senior Fellow management Check De Weici 16 network in the U.S. World Politics Review published an article, said that China’s military build-up trigger a regional arms race. He quoted research data, said in Stockholm, Sweden, China from 2005 to 2009 the import of large number of conventional weapons is far more than any other country, but since 2007, basically to stop imports of ready weapons systems, but only from Russia in 2007 and a fully equipped helicopter imported from France.
China regional arms race triggered a large-scale military build-up
article said that at present, China’s Southeast Asian neighbors being sustained military buildup, they are in 2005 – 2009, imports of major conventional weapons systems by the number almost reached more than double between 2000 and 2004. While some of the import of weapons may be used to replace outdated weapons, or weapons procurement in order to make their own flat with other Southeast Asian countries, but China’s massive military build-up is driven by countries in the region to promote the modernization of national defense is an important factor.
Sweden Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) released the latest data show that in the two five-year period, Indonesia’s imports of major conventional equipment increased by 84%. Singapore’s growth rate was 146%. In addition, compared to the period 2000-2004, Malaysia 2005-2009 increase in the import of arms as high as 722 percent. Such a large number of military procurement that Singapore has become since the end of the Vietnam War since 1975, first in Southeast Asia among the world’s top ten arms importing nations of the country.
In addition, in 2009, the Vietnamese government began ordering foreign-made submarines and long-range aircraft, exacerbating the perception of a regional arms race. With other Southeast Asian countries like Vietnam and China, there are territorial disputes. In this regard, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Senior Fellow 西蒙维泽曼 said: “Although the government has not publicly reveal the Southeast Asian countries and China-related concerns, but they did consider this matter, but also in the instructions on the purchase of weapons for 15 years before, although there are also the same South China Sea dispute over sovereignty, but it was the countries do not have the tools to enforce those declared now as a country where oil exploration began in the South China Sea situation might seem a little dangerous. “Japan, Australia or South Korea, these Southeast Asian countries did not sign a bilateral defense treaty with the United States.
nearly stopped after 2007, China imported ready weapons systems
article points out, arms proliferation and Southeast Asia the situation is different, the world between 2005 -2009 arms exports over the previous five years, only a 22% increase. Since mid-2007 has continued since the global recession, the 2008 and 2009 the overall sales decline. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, “Arms Transfers Database” to track and record the seven major conventional weapons sales: fighters, air defense systems, armored vehicles, artillery systems, sensors, components, warships and a variety of missiles. This does not include trucks, small arms, ammunition and most of the light weapons.
the past 20 years, China has maintained double-digit defense budget growth. 1996-2008, China’s defense budget announced by the average annual growth rate of 12.9%. In 2009, the Beijing government announced defense budget of 600 billion yuan, compared with an increase of 17.6% in 2008, exceeding the 1989 budget announced by China for more than 12 times.
However, foreign analysts say, China announced defense budget figures exclude nuclear weapons, the purchase of foreign weapons and defense R & D expenditure. For this reason, experts have long suspected that China’s actual budget is it two or three times the published figures, that China’s defense budget in 2009 could exceed $ 100 billion. In addition, the U.S. Department of Defense released its March 2008 report that China’s military power, according to 2007 prices and exchange rates, they calculated the total number of China in 2008 at 105 billion defense spending -1500 million.
International Peace Research Institute, according to data released between 2005-2009, China’s imports of major conventional weapons are more than any other country. But this period, China’s share of global arms imports have dropped to an average rate of 9%, this is because China’s domestic defense industry sector, the increasing capacity, they have been able to provide for the Beijing government had previously purchased from abroad (mostly from Russia), conventional weapons systems. Since 2007, China has actually suspended the import of weapons systems ready, and in 2009, when Russia and France imported only from a small number of fully equipped helicopter. However, Chinese companies need to continue from Russia and several European countries imported engine, so as to aircraft, ships and armored vehicles to power – some of which are China licensed production.
Iran has become China’s second largest arms export market
addition to the import of weapons, China has sold weapons to other developing countries. Currently, Pakistan is still China’s best customers – Recently, Pakistan had just purchased two China “Jiang Wei” class frigate, which is the first time in years Pakistan Navy ships access to the new surface. Moreover, the Pakistan Air Force has recently begun to receive in accordance with the contract from China JF-17 fighter aircraft, such as reception is completed, the aircraft will reach 300.
article said that in the past five years, Iran has become China’s second largest arms export market, accounting for arms exports to China between 2005-2009, the amount of 14%. This year, Iran bought weapons from China, including more than 1,000 anti-ship missiles and 50 infantry fighting vehicles. Iran has also hinted intend to purchase more weapons from China (probably including China as “Red Flag 9″ surface-centric air defense systems), to replace a few years ago from Russia, but the delay in order to deliver the S-300 air defense system – the air defense system said to the price of $ 800 million.
However, China is still a lack of major conventional weapons systems, other important foreign customers. With Italy, Spain and Sweden, the Chinese exports over the past few years, the average of only 3.8 billion U.S. dollars. However, with the ability of China’s growing defense industry, this figure is expected to grow in the coming years.
Currently, the U.S. remains the world’s largest arms exporter, its annual military exports of 70 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for exports of major conventional weapons worldwide, according to 30%. Germany rose to third place, accounting for 11% of global exports – the country’s arms exports than doubling the previous five years. France occupies fourth place, global arms exports accounted for 8%. In addition, within the next few years, with the Eurofighter sale to Saudi Arabia’s 72 “Typhoon” aircraft delivery, the UK share of global arms exports 4% of the share should be increased.
The article said that in addition to the wide range of energy trade between Iraq, China also hopes to sell more weapons to Iran, which is the Beijing government may be reluctant to Tehran in the Security Council to impose additional economic sanctions against the government reasons. China to buy large quantities of oil from Iran, a number of refined gasoline to sell Iran conventional weapons and consumer goods. China’s defense and energy industry, the Beijing government’s decision-making process will have a significant impact.
cynic might predict that, since the EU and U.S. officials have said that if the UN Security Council sanctions against Iraq can not, they will implement unilateral sanctions against Iraq, then China will adopt a tougher policy makers line against the UN sanctions against Iran. China (and Russia) in Iran enjoys a very favorable market environment for competition, because Western governments to do business with Iran will punish its own citizens, so as to let go of Chinese and Russian companies to create big opportunities.
recently, the Chinese government claims that its 2010 military spending will increase less than in previous years. However, even slow the pace of China’s military construction, defense budget growth is still greater than 7.5% of the other major military powers.
article concludes that China’s military transparency will help to eliminate the decision-making in Southeast Asia and other countries may use China’s growing capabilities of these concerns. However, this being a major problem still exists: the size of China’s sustained rapid economic growth (relative to other countries), will generate more resources to enhance China’s military. As the intent of the change faster than the ability to change, so essentially other countries tend to support the national defense by building, to contain China’s rise, even if it is peaceful rise. (Spring)