Highly of our military experts to lead the development of F-35 military-technical revolution
F -35 fighter aircraft during the flight test
(Du Wenlong Author: Academy of Military Sciences)
in the field of military technology, revolution means jump in and beyond that, because The emergence of a new type of equipment, outdated equipment will automatically withdraw the previous stage of history. Since the emergence of F-35 fighter jets, because many high-tech convergence, making it extremely brilliant aura enveloped. Perhaps expectations are too high in it, enlarge it in the development that occurred during some of the twists and turns and defects. However, regardless of whether the F-35 and eventually became immortal, it is the emergence of a revolutionary fighter in history.
the revolutionary armed forces General
general level of weapons under the conditions of modern equipment is an important indicator of economy. In the era of mechanization, the different branches according to their characteristics, development of parallel mounted a dazzling new equipment reflecting the strength of the basic approach. Caliber artillery range of the Soviet Army, Air Force MiG and Sukhoi fighter model after another, which the West fears, but also to the Soviet military equipment maintenance and protection of enormous obstacles. In addition, as the equipment prices jump up, low-volume, multi-model development and production methods also allow the military suffered enough, a huge burden of military spending so many countries can not afford. In 1945, a P-51 “Mustang” fighter unit price $ 50,000, the equivalent of U.S. GDP, then 1/4000000; by the mid 1980s, an F-15 fighter unit price of $ 30 million, equivalent to the United States had one hundred thousandth of GDP, relative prices have jumped 40 times. Former Federal Republic of Germany, a military expert said a well-known words: “One day, a country’s entire defense budget, enough to buy a fighter.”
and F-35 fighter aircraft production and development , light weapons, the Army borrowed the gun on the family concept first appeared, through a platform of different configurations to meet the Air Force, Navy, Marines armed forces demand that the armed forces is no longer a result of a military branch with a new type of equipment, and anxiously look for a military enterprise to seek common development. There are three F-35 Model: First Navy, you can take off from aircraft carrier-based aircraft carrier (CV); the second is the Air Force model, you can take off and land on conventional land-based airport-based (CTOL); third marines type, you can quickly flew hotspots short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL). These three aircraft to use the same engine, the same navigation equipment, spare parts 60% to 80% of the general.
this research concept and development model is a revolution in the history of fighter aircraft, the F-35 before, there is not a plane capable of a machine with three armed forces to meet the needs-based approach. Proud of the F-15 designers who once claimed: “do not pay for the ground attack pounder.” Later, a change of F-15E F-15 was originally designed to start focusing on the development of ground attack has been dismissive of the ability, the original wild and stubborn to become the laughing stock of the aviation industry.
today’s weapons and equipment development, clutter model is no longer the advantage of excellent platform to focus on the exquisite remodeling has become a choice. For the F-35 development, the U.S. official view is the same: F-35 is not only part of the Air Force, it also belongs to Department of Defense planning the next part of the overall defense system. F-35 to the power of a machine, Qingqi armed wings, it is revolutionary is not excessive.
simplify the spectrum of the Revolution
weapons not only military branch boundaries, in the same military services, the need to refine the model according to different operational requirements. This refinement process, usually before the realization of the convergence of equipment performance. So the Army ground combat there 100,105,122,152,155,203,270, 300-mm artillery, in order to find precise division of labor, in the same caliber of guns there are different kinds of models. In the aircraft, in addition to air the F-15, there are low-cost F-16 with, in order to strengthen the capacity of, A-10, AV-8B has a grand appearance, even in the Navy F-14, F/A -18 also developed on the basis of A-6, A-7.
Throughout this approach, one single function as weapons. Technology at the time unable to meet the needs of all space operations, thus using the additive form of compensation. The second is for the interests of arms dealers. Only one model per cent more, there will be procurement of funds and matching ammunition, fuel and maintenance costs. This duplication is a huge waste of military resources, military frustration, companies are happy to see.
and F-35 fighter jets there, so F-16, A-10, AV-8 and other military aircraft come to an end, in order to achieve more than one machine instead of the target machine, so that resources to achieve the integration. In considering the development of equipment, the military can have the energy to be more concerned about the airborne equipment and high-performance ammunition, more concerned about the potential to dig out the other combat aircraft. In this way, the resources will be injected into the different platforms the same platform, this concept is a machine, playing a win-win choice.
advanced design revolution
an advanced equipment research and development, may often be driven by a huge role in the industry. Perhaps when this type of equipment into the history, people can fully understand the effects of the industrial revolution it brings – it is not only to improve combat effectiveness, and is the industry’s ability to realize the level of national science and technology leap.
F-35 for the first time the use of digital design techniques, creating a digital technology in aircraft design applications of the precedent. This fully digital design methods to save time and cost a tremendous effect. “Digital three-dimensional solid design” means that the world involved in the project design of all designers are able to enter the web design, whether it is Italy, Norway, or the United States, California, Texas, engineers and suppliers can access the design database, the different demand-side changes real-time transmission of data, efficiency and accuracy greatly improved. Design a virtual plane can be digitally manipulated, but can also be applied to the data processing program, and thus to obtain accurate dimensions to ensure the accuracy of processing, so that manufacturers avoid the physical prototypes due to rework and bring expensive manufacturing costs.
by extension, a fighter can design and manufacture of such a tank, a warship, even a civil aircraft and developing new concept car, may well refer to this approach to design manufacturing. F-35 not only to reform the F-15/16/18 their lives, but also to promote the progress of the country’s industrial strength.
American “Apollo” moon program consumes a great, 45 tons of “Apollo” spacecraft with the weight equivalent to 15 times the price of gold, 183 kilograms of moon rock brought back the equivalent of diamond prices 35 times, the United States each family to Kennedy’s moon program interested the burden of $ 472. The smart Americans invested $ 1 on this project will benefit at least $ 12 for the whole project using 630 computers, the U.S. still has Microsoft, Apple and IBM, these famous brands. Today’s F-35, may be yesterday’s “Apollo” spacecraft.
country carrier is weighing equipment Naval Operations is an important indicator of ability. For aircraft, the most important thing is carrier-based aircraft, without high-performance fixed-wing aircraft carrier, aircraft carrier is a standard Khrushchev in the eyes of a giant coffin. The fixed-wing aircraft carrier catapult and the combination of gold, medium and small countries in general, no doubt, is a huge problem.
U.S. fleet of large aircraft carriers generally equipped with four C-13-2/3 catapult, 1 minute ejection eight heavy F/A-18E/F carrier-based aircraft, the aircraft can be accelerated in two seconds required to take-off speed of 265 one thousand meters. The size of the existing steam catapults 1132.8 cubic meters, total weight 530 tons, 405 cycles without failure time, one should consume 614 kg of steam, traction power in this strong, 20 to 30 tons of aircraft to be able to leap onto the sky .
complex process because the steam catapult, technology too difficult, it is currently monopolized by the United States, there is no pair of giant “slingshot”, heavy fixed-wing carrier-based aircraft and land-based AWACS only dwelling in the airport, or used to shrink 20 percent performance fighter aircraft flying leaps of sliding mode.
and the F-35 appeared to V/STOL become a reality, but also expensive and complex to catapult indifferent. “Harrier” fighter Although a small aircraft carrier aviation to achieve a dream, but a combat radius of 150 km so this revolutionary equipment as tasteless, Pocket Navy aircraft carrier into a small window dressing props. Britain, Spain, India, Italy and Thailand, due to the lack of high-performance fixed-wing aircraft carrier, the carrier’s combat capability is very limited. The aircraft carrier in front of large aircraft carriers in the United States, subject only known carrier. As for Japan’s 22DDH, “Osumi” and South Korea’s “Dokdo” and can only carry a limited range of anti-submarine helicopters and amphibious attacks.
F-35 aircraft and the potential to solve a small aircraft carrier shell. March 24, 2010, the U.S. military announced the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter for the first time trial down the screen vertically, vertical landing fighter pilots in the 28 square meters of the landing point. This means that if the deck has 28 square meters of space, we can become large for small aircraft carrier, will be able to make quasi carriers into the aircraft carrier.
F-35, is the forerunner of the revolution deck. By then, the Japanese do not have their own displacement of twenty thousand tons of “destroyer” groundless defense, South Korea will be the end of “Dokdo” lonely wait, the aircraft carrier as standard equipment a day, Korean navy’s flagship.
the United States, Britain and other Western countries through long-deck amphibious ships, would thus have the carrier’s combat capability. Can be seen, the revolution also Mi flat deck amphibious ships and aircraft of the boundaries of modern naval air and sea within the meaning of one will have more and more efficient channel and means.
strengthen the Alliance’s Revolution
F-35 early in the design is not unique to the United States. F-35 “Lightning,” the “world fighter,” said. U.S. military “joint advanced attack techniques” new concept in aircraft Lockheed Martin – Northrop Grumman X-35 was jointly developed early on now, there are eight countries in the world, participation and cooperation, investment funds with over $ 4.5 billion, had pre- estimated market 3500 or 5000 intentions needs.
but is no free lunch. The former U.S. can negotiate with the legal significance of a piece of paper called a treaty with the Western countries gather to NATO’s, as against the outside forces tie, despite the occupation of the country is full of tired of domineering the United States, but the strength is king, more state victims. The global role of the F-35 show, the decline of intellectual and financial Both the European aristocracy, unable to cope alone in the only situation in the region and even change the world, but also unable to develop the next generation equipment in the case, F-35 will be the best choice.
this awareness, once formed, the aircraft, once in place, F-35 will note the text of the law than a more powerful effect. Because the fighters from four generations of a leap to five generations, the vast majority of Western countries, is doing much with their ability.
so F-35 became the only straw, together with the F-35 will not easily reveal the core technology, the alliance’s members with a lot of euros just earned the right to use, to to F-35 combat operations in the future to really play the power without U.S. support, in order to get in a few years later the F-35 upgrades and maintenance, are also inseparable from the United States. There is not any kind of equipment, with money, and win their hearts and double effect, while the F-35 did.
more muddy road, the more it can leave clear footprints
recently, around the F-35 has generated considerable controversy. Since the simulated air combat fighter who lost three generations after the Russian-made, F-35 performance has been seriously questioned. In addition, the original F-22 low-end products as the F-35 development costs are increasing year by year, gradually catch up with the F-22 a great trend. According to the U.S. Administration to monitor the statistics, F-35 unit from the 1.0170 one hundred million U.S. dollars in 2008 rose to the present 1.1550 million, is expected to begin small batch production in 2016, its average price reached 1.4250 to one hundred million U.S. dollars, F-35 facing an unprecedented crisis of confidence.
however, must be cool to see, F-35 is not air combat aircraft, it is characterized by stealth and efficiency of airborne weapons, in real air combat, three generations of Russian-made machine may not be shot down before can not find traces of the F-35, and no fighting chance to enter the state. If we let the F-35 and Su-27 combat, the conclusion can be easily shot down with the MiG-15 F-117 as funny, this proud too paranoid. As for the F-35 prices, probably with the original order quantity substantially shrink the scale of the relationship between the simple and cost, the cost of new technology must be embodied in the product.
these disputes and suspicion, perhaps, founder of Dakar Rally Sabine’s words are worth pondering: Before starting, always a dream; after the road is always challenge.