China-made third generation early warning radar can simultaneously detect hundreds of approved sea and air targets
data for: 2009 National Day military parade show mobile radar
Last year’s National Day parade in the appearance of self-propelled ground radar
participate in the 2009 National Day military parade in the motor-warning radar
Liu Yongjian Zhou Yuan
special correspondent Lin Liu turn our reporter Liu Gang
dialogue Expert: Liu Yongjian, the rank of colonel, an Air Force Armament Research Institute, senior engineer, Air Force-level experts, the State Council Expert Advisory Committee on Military Products stereotypes Committee, National Science and Technology Prize experts, enjoy special government allowances, long-term engaged in radar and electronic warfare equipment, technology research, has won the national scientific and technological progress second prize two, the military and technological progress award four, three second prize State, national defense more than 10 patents, awarded the second class four times, third class 2 times.
April 22, is the 60th anniversary of the formation of military radar. 60 years ago, the military use of radar equipment seized, on a tall building in Shanghai, the first since the formation of a radar station, “East of the sleeping lion, since it opened the eyes of blue sky tour.” In celebrating the 60th anniversary of founding of new China’s capital on the parade, square, and airborne early warning aircraft radar equipment the first appearance before the world, winning acclaim. From scratch, from weak to strong, military radar equipment through a difficult development. On military radar in this special commemorative historical moment, the reporter on the history of radar equipment, and military role in the development of radar equipment, status and other issues, spoke with an Air Force Armament Research Institute, radar and electronic warfare experts Liu Yongjian.
Q: Last year, square and airborne early warning aircraft radar equipment the first National Day military parade, as military radar equipment experts, what are your thoughts?
A: proud, and no glory. Radar equipment from behind the scenes to the fore, that speaks in the future information warfare has become increasingly prominent position and role. National Day military parade in the first public appearance in the radar equipment, reflecting the new China was founded 60 years ago, especially 30 years of reform and opening up the domestic radar equipment building results. I have to work in the 28 years witnessed the development of our country across the radar equipment, catch up with world history. I am most proud of is the National Day parade of the three types of two types of ground radar and AWACS radar is we have argued, is “their children.”
Q: Can you briefly explain to participate in the 60th anniversary of the parade ground and airborne early warning aircraft radar equipment radar features?
A: They are our researchers from the line nearly 10 years development, independent innovation of domestic radar equipment, have complete independent intellectual property rights, has reached world advanced level.
see the radar is a third-generation main battle ground radar equipment, both long-range three-coordinate radar, there are low-altitude radar, both to detect tens of thousands of meters above the ground within a few hundred kilometers of aerial targets, can be seen in several ten meters high degree of low-altitude targets. Its main features: high mobility, compared with similar foreign equipment, they favorably; combat survivability, and has a strong anti-electronic jamming, anti-radiation combat capabilities, able to adapt to the future operational requirements under conditions of informatization; environmental adaptability strong, able to adapt to the roof of the world from sub-tropical climate, in the islands, mountains, desert, Gobi and other complex geographical environment deployment.
see the main features of the AWACS radar: First, “stand above”, especially in low-altitude detection capability, can “see” a few hundred kilometers from the low-altitude and sea targets; two is a multi-target detection capability, can detect hundreds of batches of air and sea targets; Third, target tracking capability, you can simultaneously detect dozens of approved high-speed maneuvering target tracking; Fourth, rapid mobility of a wide range of ability.
Q: radar word come from? As equipment, but also when the stage of history?
A: radar (radar) is the “radio detection and location,” the abbreviation, the term not only describes its technology from the radio, but also illustrates its use – the use of radio means of detecting the presence of the target and target location.
make a popular analogy, if the entire weapon system compared to a person, then the radar is the people’s “eyes”, is mainly used for “see” the air and the sky goals for agencies at all levels of operational command air and space intelligence information early warning and detection; for air attack, air and missile defense operations and provide early warning and detection of daily intelligence support to air defense; of integrated joint operations, providing battlefield intelligence support to joint early warning surveillance.
radar, with the advent of aircraft for the war. During World War I, some Western countries to defend against air attack, air observation posts set up, visual and listening machines found by enemy. To speed with the air weapons, warning that the original manner difficult to meet operational needs.
1935, the British developed the world’s first radar. In 1936 the British took the lead in the first deployment of the Thames near the mouth of the “local chain of” short-to-air surveillance radar, responsible for air defense early-warning task.
Q: radar played in the history of war, what kind of effect?
A: From its birth on the radar demonstrated its tremendous military value, and missiles, together with the atomic bomb, known as the Second World War played a decisive role in the new weapons. World War II military experts have commented: “The atomic bomb only ended the war, but radar has won the war.”
specifically to the role of radar in the combat, without mentioning the war in the history of the world’s largest air – “Battle of Britain.”
1940, the German air force bombed overwhelmingly British. Radar to become Britain’s “protection.” After nearly 10 months of the contest, the United Kingdom with the help of the radar to the cost of loss of 915 aircraft, so that the German air force lost 1733 aircraft and 6,000 pilots, has won the victory. Churchill wrote in his memoirs: “With only a handful of people know when the radar, we defeated the German air force attack on the island of Great Britain.”
Q: war in the history of radar in the actual military wars it?
A: May 11, 1950, Taiwan, a B-24 bomber attack on Shanghai, is the newly established radar to detect, based on radar information to military fighters to shoot down, which the army air force to shoot down enemy aircraft using radar to protect the breakthrough.
with the Ministry of the old movie called “blue sea and the red wave”, a vivid reflection of the Korean War in the heroic deeds of our military radar. In 1951, a young military radar during the Korean War, and then had the world’s strongest air power the Air Force battle to protect the air force and anti-aircraft troops have shot down 207 enemy wounded, including the protection of air force shot down U.S. “ace” pilots Davis and the “double ace” pilot Harold Edward.
Q: Can you briefly explain the basic radar works?
A: The basic principle of radar, and the natural world is similar to the biological characteristics of the bat. Bats in the dark, narrow cave free flight, avoiding collisions, because the bat itself is a natural “radar.” The issue of a bat flying high frequency sound waves, sound waves encounter such obstacles will be reflected back, it’s eardrum will be able to distinguish the position from the obstacle. Each bat has its natural frequency, can distinguish their voices to each other, mutual interference will not occur.
radar as well. Work, the radar antenna to the transmitter of electromagnetic energy to provide a direction to space radiation, electromagnetic waves will be encountered when the target reflected back and displayed on the screen. Therefore, the radar can not only determine the presence of the target, but also pointed out that the target direction and distance.
Q: You mentioned that the National Day parade is the third generation of radar equipment, radar, please briefly describe the intelligence radar defense “on behalf of the other”?
A: air defense radar intelligence “on behalf of the other” division, mainly considering the level of radar technology, technical characteristics and key indicators, but also considering its overall combat effectiveness. In its 70 years of development history, has gone through four air defense intelligence radar replacement.
first two coordinates of a non-coherent radar-based, reliability and low resistance to active interference, equipment, time since the birth of air defense radar intelligence to the late 1950s, its representative model of the United States AN/FPS-8 two coordinate surveillance radar, the former Soviet Union П-35 guided radar warning two coordinates.
coherent second-generation full-coordinate radar-based, significantly enhanced anti-jamming capability, reliability is still low, and equipment time in the 1960s to the early 1980s, its representative model of the United States AN/FPS-50 intercontinental ballistic missiles, long-range early warning radar, the former Soviet Union 5H88 coordinate radar, England S713 coordinate radar.
coordinate the third generation in solid-state radar based, to achieve a fully automatic enrollment, automatic networking and a few duty and unattended, electronic warfare capabilities and objectives of adaptation to the environment have reached the ability to adapt to the environment high level, there are some anti-stealth aircraft and anti-radiation missile capabilities, equipment, time for the mid-1980s to the mid to late 90s, is currently developed with the main air defense surveillance systems and equipment, on behalf of the United States model AN/FPS -117 coordinate radar, Russia 67H6-coordinate radar, British AR-327 coordinate radar.
set of fourth-generation air defense radar intelligence surveillance, interception, tracking, identification and assessment of fire support and information gathering of anti-in-one, the detection range, accuracy, electronic warfare capabilities, and target identification and self- adaptability, reliability, etc has been a qualitative improvement in the early 21st century had just begun to be equipped to use, models of the United States on behalf of a national missile defense system with the active phased array multifunction radar, the British “commander-S” with multi- Source phased array radar. Current fourth-generation air defense radar is still evolving intelligence.
Q: simple outline what military radar equipment 60 years of development?
A: Prior to 1953, military radar equipment is mainly captured American, Japanese system of radar and radar imports of the former Soviet Union. May 1953, made radar began the troops, end the history of military radar to rely on imports. Recalling the history of the development of military radar equipment, has undergone four stages –
imitation stage, the 1950s, mainly former Soviet Union, the introduction of generic radar, so that the whole country with the production of radar capacity; self-development phase, the 1960s and 1970s, China developed the first generation made its own warning, guidance radar; R & D stage, in the 1980s, with the rapid development of science and technology to promote our radar equipment from the tubes to transistors circuit direction, creating our own design of a new era radar equipment, a large number of the second generation of radar equipment fitted out and put into use; leapfrog stages of development, since the 1990s, to meet the needs of information warfare, our military to speed up the remote coordinate radar, special radar system, air-based radar and other new equipment development and fielding.
Q: Can you evaluate what our military radar equipment development status quo?
A: After 60 years of development, radar equipment and technology in China has been gradually approaching international advanced level, in some areas has entered the ranks of the advanced world.
present, conventional radar, a relatively complete variety, special detection methods have greatly developed, initially formed as the main ground-based radar to space-based radar as the backbone, supplemented by special means of detection multi-institutional, multi-platform, multi-band early warning network, and established a relatively complete three generations of fighters for air defense early-warning system.
Q: Radar in the information war in the increasingly important role, military radar equipment can look ahead at the future trends?
A: radar to guard the blue sky of the motherland “telescope” is a national early warning system in the main sensor. In order to safeguard our national security and the needs of future joint operations, the development of radar equipment to be defensive to the offensive and defensive early warning detection of early-warning monitoring changes to meet the needs of offensive and defensive operations; by the regional air defense early warning alert to the continental shift, expand the detection area and space, improve the long-range early warning surveillance capability; branches by the protection of a single change to protect the combined operations to meet the needs of integrated tri-service joint operations; fire separation from the information changes to the integration of fire information, fire units from the sensor to build a seamless link interconnection of early warning information network.
the same time, in response to future information warfare, radar equipment and technology will be mainly to develop the following aspects: First, the band broadening of the working frequency band of microwave frequencies from the traditional extended to the entire frequency domain; second Haiti integrated air and space platforms, working platforms to the sea from the ground-based, airborne, airship set, satellite platform extension, and form land, sea, air, and space-based combination of integrated systems; third means diversification, the main means of detection to the radar from the radar, infrared, laser and other multi-sensor combination, mainly from the active to the combination of active and passive direction; Fourth, comprehensive integration capabilities, the main function mainly from the early warning and detection of early warning detection and surveillance to combat guide integration; Fifth, a variety of detection integrated network of resources.