Countries compete for resources in the US-Russian satellite orbit frequency 80% gold band navigation
satellites in orbit
OU Xiao-kun Zhang Yong newspaper correspondent Japanese
satellite frequency track: competing for the strategic resources
satellite orbit is the satellite radio frequency use spatial frequencies and satellite orbital position which is the invention of satellite technology as the beginning of the human exploitation of natural resources, all satellite systems to establish the premise and foundation, but also satellite system can work properly after the completion of the necessary conditions. In other words, there is no support for the satellite orbital frequency of the system will not fly in space.
frequency satellite orbit resources supply and demand contradiction
mainly refers to the satellite frequencies of radio spectrum for radio services space parts. Any satellite system of information perception, information transfer and control unit will need to use the electromagnetic spectrum, space stations installed in the artificial earth satellites, radio communication between the ground and in space, there is the atmosphere during the propagation loss.
different propagation loss in different frequency bands, including the loss of between 0.3 ~ 10GHz band at least, is called “radio window”; in the 30GHz frequency band around a relatively small loss, often called “radio window translucent . ” Currently, the main types of satellite applications using these bands, other bands relatively large losses. Therefore, the satellite radio frequency band used only a small portion of the radio spectrum.
With the development of space technology and satellite applications, a significant increase in the satellite frequency resources become increasingly strained. Meanwhile, the satellite during operation and use of outer space must be an orbital position, the satellite orbit positions are located above the equator, from ground level to 35,786 km of the geostationary orbit, but also from the ground a few hundred to 1000 km low orbital position 10,000 km above the ground and in orbit around the location. Regardless of the geostationary orbital position, or other orbital positions, resources are limited.
to the geostationary orbit location of resources, for example. Geostationary satellite can cover about 40% of the Earth’s surface area, and easy to track the earth station antenna, the signal stability. Therefore, most communications satellites, broadcast satellites, meteorological satellites are geostationary orbit location of choice.
but limited by the ability of the antenna, the same frequency band, the same or overlapping coverage area of ??the geostationary satellite is only a certain distance interval, the interval from surface to a certain point of view, the earth station in order to distinguish different satellite signals to achieve normal work. Therefore, the two satellites in the longitude interval between the need to not less than 2 degrees, throughout the geostationary orbit satellite with the band usually does not exceed 150, the number of geostationary satellite orbit far from being able to meet world demand.
can be seen, common non-geostationary orbit resources are limited. According to preliminary statistics, the man fired into the air by a variety of satellites and spacecraft has reached more than 30,000 pieces, only in geostationary orbit above the equator running on more than 300 pieces of synchronous geostationary orbit satellites. They are widely used in communications, remote sensing, reconnaissance and positioning services around the world, thousands of earth stations and vehicles, ship terminals, the use of satellites for a variety of business, economic, military and other fields play an important role, satellite orbital frequency resource supply and demand more obvious each day has become an indisputable fact.
orbit satellite frequency limited non-renewable resources
due to the frequency track resources is a limited, non-renewable natural resources, and satellite orbits in the world coexistence of space, is common to all humankind international resources. Therefore, the frequency of rail access to the resources a country can not dominate, and all countries must be based on ITU rules for the development and utilization, frequency of use of the track must be coordinated internationally.
this end, the major developed countries in the West, especially the United States, Russia and other space powers under the impetus of international rules in the satellite orbital frequency of the main form of distribution of resources for the “first priority declaration can be used” to seize way.
In this way, countries according to their own needs first, according to international rules need to declare the ITU frequency of the satellite orbit resources, to declare the country a priority right to use; then, the order established in accordance with declaration priority order, the relevant countries to follow the international rules of international negotiations frequency interference, after the declaration of the state should take measures to protect the right to declare state of satellite-generated harmful interference.
international rules also provide that the frequency and satellite orbit resources after seven years in the declaration, the declaration must be enabled to launch satellites of resources, declared resources or automatically expire. Meanwhile, the ITU “Organic Law” also requires “that each country or group of countries would be fair to use radio frequencies and the geostationary satellite orbit” to prevent a small number of developed countries with their technical and economic strength, to seize all the satellite frequencies and orbital resources. The core of the principle of “equitable distribution” for each country and regional planning some of the satellite orbital frequency resources.
declared as resources, the growing number of international negotiations has become increasingly difficult. Satellite production cycle typically takes about one and a half, and frequency of rail resources to get the negotiations will take years or even longer.
frequency satellite orbit resources, competition is very fierce
as satellite reconnaissance, communications and navigation applications such as demand, the frequency resources become tighter orbit around a frequency tracks the increasingly fierce competition for resources, countries in the world have increased the frequency of reporting efforts to track resources.
the United States, Russia and other space powers from the 1950s and 1960s would have to declare the ITU in accordance with international procedures and the frequency of the track to get a lot of resources to support its large number of satellite systems, which led to the current band and a lot of useful orbital positions are occupied by these powers, from which a slice has been difficult to think about.
the U.S. GPS system and Russia’s GLONASS satellite navigation system has occupied 80% of the “golden navigation band”, forcing other countries to seize only one of the few remaining bands. In addition, Japan, Korea, Indonesia and other Asia Pacific countries are also stepping up the frequency track reporting and access to resources.
Moreover, the Kingdom of Tonga early to declare a large number of frequencies and orbital resources to obtain the priority right to use, then priority right to operate to obtain economic benefits. It can be seen, countries maintain their own military or economic interests, are stepping up to seize the satellite orbital frequency resources.
how to protect and track the frequency of use of existing resources, and actively apply new resources, has become an urgent task in front of us. To this end, we should promptly formulate various types of satellite system master plan, pay close attention to reporting frequency satellite orbit resources and increase efforts to train personnel, and actively carry out international negotiations, and effectively protect our country’s space interests for China’s economic and social development resources and support .
(the reporter Qiao Tianfu edition photo provided)