People’s Liberation Army Korean War prompted the rapid construction equipment
data for: the latter part of the Chinese People’s Volunteers in the Korean War generally equipped with Soviet-style automatic rifles. 2010 年 11 月 5, Chinese People’s Volunteers in the Korean war abroad 60 anniversary commemoration at the Korean War Memorial in Dandong. The picture shows the memorial collection of two war hero Zheng He then blew the bugle played.
the Korean War, after World War II is the first large-scale international wars. This highly modern war, greatly promoted the modernization of the PLA, for the people’s army to become a powerful modernized, regularized and revolutionary army laid a solid foundation.
PLA quickly become a modern synthesis of various branches of the military fighting force
PLA is a revolutionary war in China to grow in the smoke fire The people’s army, the new China was founded, the party and the country a series of measures to improve the level of military modernization, but by the state financial resources, technological level and other aspects, the military modernization process faltering, difficult.
after the outbreak of the Korean War, the CPC Central Committee and the Central People’s Government has taken extraordinary measures, import or copy a large number of Soviet-style equipment, the PLA’s modernization started so quickly, significantly accelerated.
1950 年 8 26, Zhou Enlai in the northeast frontier inspection work conference on national defense, the armed services should have a profound ideological war, and immediately initiated the preparation of three-year construction plan. People’s Liberation Army of the armed services, then determine its own development plan, troops began a large-scale expansion or modification. By 1952, various branches of the development plan identified goals, in addition to the basic realization of individual projects. The newly formed army and air forces of the technical branches of the military have entry into the war, fighting so volunteers have made great progress.
On this basis, the CPC Central Committee, Central Military Commission and PLA headquarters full of volunteers fighting in the Korean War, according to the operational requirements of modern war and modern military requirements of the building, the development of military modernization to adjust thought . In July 1952, the Central Military Commission and approved by the General Staff from 1953 to 1957, proposed five-year military construction Plan for the modernization of the PLA described a new blueprint for the development: By 1957, the Army prepared in accordance with the new equipment, 100 divisions ; Air Force completed 150 missions, the phasing out of piston aircraft; Navy has a variety of vessels 785 and the naval air division, Coast Artillery; Artillery Field Artillery has 30 divisions, 84 teams artillery regiment; armored tank division has 10 . Although the five-year military construction Plan in the implementation process for a number of adjustments, but its goal is to determine the development of the army remained unchanged, in particular, to reduce the number of enhancing the quality of the development of ideas, a modernization of the PLA to follow the basic principles.
to 1958, the establishment of the sequence of the PLA Air Force 12.2% of total posts, navy 5.8%, 4.8% artillery, armor, 2.3%, the synthesis of the basic realization of the strategic objectives. Whether it is the structure of the military or combat, have undergone tremendous changes. At the same time, the military implemented a salary system, compulsory military service, rank system and the common rules and standards for the standardized management system, built by institutions as the main military education and training system, the implementation of a formal training system.
all of this, the PLA infantry dominated by the one developed into the Army infantry, artillery, armor, engineers, air defense, railway corps of the Army and other branches of the military as the main component, plus a sizeable air force, navy and other military forces composed of various services and arms synthesis to achieve a transformation to a modern fighting force.
PLA equipment by leaps and bounds
the Korean War broke out, the equipment and volunteers are significant differences between the U.S. military, which directly affects the combat capability of volunteers. Beginning of the war, U.S. troops surrounded several volunteer groups or formed units above the regimental level, but the wars to wipe out the U.S. military establishment is only one group. Headquarters of the Central Military Commission and the transformation of the Army and Air Force units to form the focus of a large number of imported Soviet-style equipment, the formation or expansion of new branches of the military forces, making the people’s armed forces and equipment in a short time a major breakthrough. Major achievements include:
First, light infantry weapons facelift. October 1951, the Soviet Union signed an agreement between the two countries, the Soviet Union to China to determine the 60 Infantry Division’s equipment, while providing a variety of weapons and ammunition, the Army first, the manufacture of light weapons and ammunition blueprint. By 1954, 56 volunteers and domestic divisions were equipped with Soviet-style dress. China’s major ordnance companies use a blueprint for the Soviet Union succeeded in providing a generic 50-style assault rifles and other firearms. Although imports of Soviet-style firearms, mostly used during World War II the old Soviet goods, imitation firearms performance is not as active duty U.S. military equipment, but all volunteers and thus eliminate messy domestic forces and equipment, for the first time the army unified models of firearms, which is the PLA’s modernization has taken a decisive step.
second artillery facelift and expansion. Artillery is the focus of Army modernization. Since 1950, China has imported from the Soviet Union to receive a variety of artillery and more than 4,000 doors, the basic unit to form a group the following as the main equipment, mortar, infantry troops to the above cannon, howitzers, artillery equipment for the major equipment system, the Army fire support forces a fundamental change.
third, armor, air defense construction. Korean War broke out, the PLA’s armored forces only three brigades, equipped with all the captured Japanese or American tanks. From November 1950 to April 1955, China has purchased from the Soviet Union more than 3,000 tanks and self-propelled guns. The development of air defense forces more quickly, when volunteers entry into only one regiment, and to the war, in addition to keep the four field artillery division mobile combat, there are 13 city defense regiment, more than 50 independent artillery battalion has entered the war.
Fourth, the development of the Air Force. Korean War in the Air Force is focused on building military services. Outbreak of the Korean War, the Air Force combat units is only a mixed brigades, the Soviet Union through the introduction and reception equipment, to the beginning of 1954, people have developed for the Air Force has 28 air divisions, 70 Air Corps, more than 3,000 aircraft of various types of aircraft, a powerful air force, equipped with 12 groups of which the world’s most advanced MiG-15 and MiG-15 jet fighter type Bies, over the propeller stage, directly into the jet age, the development by leaps and bounds.
weaponry improved performance for the volunteers directly enhance the combat effectiveness. Korean War’s last battle – Jincheng campaign volunteer 28 minutes of artillery fire in preparation for the launch of more than 1900 tons of shells, tanks, artillery and infantry troops under the cover of only 1 hour to 30 km front line break four divisions of the enemy strong line of defense, 21 hours to complete the task of campaign attack, recovered more than 160 square kilometers of land. July 1953 to the eve of the Korean armistice, whether it is defensive or offensive combat fighting, the volunteers have demonstrated a strong fighting force. To the end of 1955, the PLA with the import and imitation of the Soviet-style weapons, a total facelift and was equipped with 106 infantry divisions, 9 cavalry, garrison, within the health division, 17 ground artillery divisions, 17 artillery divisions, 4 tank and mechanized divisions, 33 divisions and nine ships aviation detachment, weapons and equipment to achieve a level of integrity leap, a new look.
PLA operational concepts is undergoing profound changes
learn war from the war is the people’s army to grow the basic experience. Volunteers inherit and carry forward the fine tradition of the Korean War to become the people’s military knowledge, experience and ultimately learn to harness the best class of modern warfare.
in the Korean War, from the Central Military Commission to the volunteer officers and men are difficult to explore all the modern war to victory, eventually forming a set with strong Chinese characteristics, strategy and tactics of modern warfare. That is: the war guidance, adhere to the “in a trustworthy basis for all possible victory” approach; strategic guidance, to adopt a motion annihilating mainly with the part of the trench warfare and guerrilla warfare approach, implementation of operations with strategic counter-offensive in nature, laying the basis for victory; the logistics of military command as an important part of all great to be strengthened into a “fight constantly, fry is not bad” and “Steel Transport Line”, the logistical support by the ” millet plus rifles, in front of the warehouse “into the” directing the battle, organizing supplies, “a new era of war and other new concepts.
these new strategic and tactical thinking, improve people’s army response and the ability to win a modern war. So, for the people’s army, the Korean War is not merely played the national prestige and military might, to complete the Korean War, the glorious mission of defending the homeland, but also a knowledge of modern warfare and the ability to control has made substantial progress. Mao Zedong summarized the experience of war, it had to “get the military experience” great significance of the Korean War as the second, he said: “The U.S. military, if you do not touch it, it will be frightened, we simply asked to hit $ 3.3 months, it learned the geography of the bottom. U.S. imperialism is not terrible, it is that one thing we have made this an experience, this is a great experience. “
experience of the Korean War become a people’s army modernization extremely valuable asset. In 1955, a special military commission composed of the Chinese People’s Volunteers editorial board of the Korean War lessons learned to prepare a “lessons learned from the Korean War.” Korean War experience is widely used in the PLA’s combat, training and construction, its impact continues to this day.
PLA experienced the baptism of modern war, a substantial increase in combat troops contracts
before the outbreak of the Korean War, the PLA officers and men of the characteristics of modern warfare, an understanding of the law , but the lack of depth perception, very restrictive, or lack of confidence with the U.S. military operations, or to use the concept of civil war look at modern warfare, so people just started modernization of the armed forces when undergoing a baptism of modern warfare, such as the Korean War , significance.
during the Korean War, and the rotation of combat operations through the turns, the PLA has been to the North Korean troops entered the war a total of: 27 infantry troops and a division (of which 25 troops and a division took part in the fighting), 12 Air Division, Field Artillery 10 divisions and 18 groups, antiaircraft artillery five divisions and 13 groups and 50 independent battalions, tanks and three divisions 9 groups, 15 group engineers, railway corps 10 divisions, responsible for logistical support and a large logistical task division, depot, hospital, car groups, and other forces. To the Korean War armistice, the war of volunteers has already reached 2.9 million units. To August 1953, undergone training in the Korean War military forces units account for the proportion of 70% or more infantry, air force and 41%, 73% artillery, armor 30%, 60% of antiaircraft artillery, engineer for the 57%, railway corps of 100%.
confronted war, a senior People’s Liberation Army also exercise authority and senior command cadres. From the spring of 1951, the Central Military Commission and the headquarters have consciously drawn from the various military regions and headquarters staff officers and senior cadres, strengthening the volunteer headquarters offices, and the rotation system. Such a large scale, large-scale rotation of troops, senior commanders and command organs personnel, not only solve the Korean War needed to be supplemented by problems and that more officers and men received the baptism of modern war, modern weapons to master the use of technology, in particular to enhance the confidence and ability to defeat the enemy.
Therefore, after the baptism of the Korean War, the people’s army officers and soldiers of the modern army and modern warfare is more direct and clear insight, the effect of a direct impact on the PLA’s construction and development, to accelerate the modernization of the PLA played to crucial role.
(author of Military Sciences, Military History Institute)