U.S. Navy submarine hunting satellite technology to track the development of Chinese submarines (Figure)
data for: the U.S. Navy,” Virginia “class SSN-776″ Hawaii “nuclear attack submarine arrived in Yokosuka, Japan.
Xinhua Zhuangao (Yu-new) is a 21st century ocean century, the importance of maritime sovereignty and rights is increasingly important. Since early 2010, as a maritime country or coastal countries attach great importance to its naval weapons and equipment construction and development, improve the country’s naval forces, to safeguard the country’s maritime interests and sustainable economic development.
a U.S. naval weapons and equipment to lead new developments in the world
2010, the U.S. special attention to strengthening the naval weapons and equipment, the beginning of the beginning, the United States looks quite science fiction New ships on the water the color of service. January 16, the U.S. Navy in Alabama in Mobile City, a port for the “Independence” for the coastal service ships at the ceremony. Than ordinary surface warships, the “Independence” smaller, faster cruising speed, significantly reducing the crew required, with operations in shallow waters offshore capability, but also according to the task requires assembly with different combat systems. “Independence” captain of 115.5 meters, for the three-body aluminum vessels, speed up to 45, a displacement of 2,800 tons, built by General Dynamics. Ships look quite sci-fi color, thin bow, and aft ship is wide, from the air, just like a pin. Statement in accordance with Roughead, warships “does not look like boats, such as from the film” Star Wars “some kind of monster.” “Independence” with four waterjets, two diesel and two fuel engine, endurance of up to 6500 km. Ships in shallow to 6 m deep shallow water navigation, but also in a small range of steering. In addition, only 40 ships running the core crew, for up to 78 crew members, and a destroyer usually have more than 300 crew members. “Independence” is the second ship of the U.S. military developed for coastal ships, the first ship called “free” sign, was formally commissioned in November 2009. “Free” was led by the Lockheed Martin built the design length of 113 meters. In addition, in response to China’s anti-ship ballistic missiles, the U.S. ballistic missile defense destroyers being built deep-water development of deep-water ballistic missile defense capability.
because of “bad money” to buy new U.S. nuclear submarines have to pay in installments. Strategic submarine (SSBN, also known as ballistic missile submarines) is an important U.S. strategic nuclear forces component of. So far, the U.S. Navy 18 “Ohio”-class strategic missile submarines, including 10 deployed in the Atlantic, the base is Kings Bay, Georgia, another eight in the Pacific, Base Bangor in Washington state port. But in the past eight years, the Navy spent about $ 4 billion, the four should have retired, “Ohio”-class nuclear submarine has been transformed. This four through transformation of the “Ohio”-class submarine was originally equipped with 24 “Trident” intercontinental ballistic missile has been “Tomahawk” cruise missiles instead. Currently, the four submarines of the mount 154 Tomahawk cruise missiles, these missiles usually carry conventional warheads, and high precision. The four ballistic missile submarines – “Ohio”, “Michigan”, “Florida” and “Georgia” was, can be regarded as invisible aircraft carrier battle group, they can be extended to the development of submarine warfare limited extent, in the past had achieved only partial success of the waters. In June, all four submarines were first deployed, of which three are deployed in Asia. However, in order to pursue a more powerful strategic deterrent, the U.S. Navy has begun developing new strategic nuclear submarine SSBN (X), to replace the current “Ohio” class. However, this SSBN (X) expensive (priced up to 60 billion U.S. dollars), the defense budget is a huge challenge. U.S. Congress naval experts solution is to extend the procurement time, and the implementation of installments. U.S. Navy currently plans to buy the first one is 2019 SSBN (X) submarine, in 2033 to buy the last one. The experts suggest buying the first one in 2017, 2035, the last one to buy.
United States is the sea air and space to create three-dimensional anti-submarine nets. The U.S. Navy is the potential of satellite technology to track hunting Chinese subs up. United States is currently developing “non-acoustic submarine detection hunting” projects, mainly focused on laser, infrared and satellite technology, submarine hunting. The main principle of the satellite potential is hunting submarines cruising in the water will cause fluctuations in the formation of the wake, the wake extends to the sea, will form a larger area of ??the ripple characteristics. Deployed on the satellite’s synthetic aperture radar can detect the characteristic ripple. In addition, the submarine activities may also cause subtle changes in ocean temperature, infrared detection satellites were captured. According to U.S. military planning, reconnaissance and anti-submarine network should be submarines, surface ships, unmanned underwater boats, maritime surveillance aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with exploration potential link, merge into a huge ‘underwater dynamic library’, for anti-submarine forces. Future U.S. military space satellites and submarine anti-submarine sonar arrays, surface anti-submarine ships, air anti-submarine aircraft, together, would constitute a three-dimensional anti-submarine network. With this kind of “submarine reconnaissance from space,” the technology matures, oceans are becoming transparent. In fact, as early as the mid-1980s, the United States had discovered the potential of satellite submarine hunting. In 1984, the U.S. Navy oceanographer Paul 罗斯库利鲍尔 take the “Challenger” space shuttle into space and successfully to detect other submarines of the ripple. May 14, “Atlantis” Space Shuttle will be the last space flight, the crew, including Captain 史蒂芬鲍恩 U.S. Navy submarine force, the U.S. military might use this opportunity to further test the potential of satellite hunting techniques. In addition to the United States, other countries such as Russia, Japan is also promoting the development of satellite technology, submarine hunting. In April, the Russian Space Systems spokesman Boldyrev said the company’s research center has developed a new type of satellite that can detect submarines in the deep-sea navigation. Japan is also the potential of satellite technology is very interested in hunting, in cooperation with NASA, a project also is trying to detect buoys and sea reconnaissance network, with a significant anti-submarine intent.
U.S. next-generation destroyer emphasized stealth, engine cover rubber coat. U.S. next-generation destroyer – “Zumwalt” class (DDG-1000) can justifiably claim to future sea star. In August, the U.S. military correspondent Daniel Teddy Mann visited the “North Carolina” nuclear submarine, the port city of Portsmouth, Rhode Island, they are built on the DDG-1000 conducted field visits. General Dynamics subsidiary is currently located in Maine’s Bath Iron Works shipyard carried out, the first ship scheduled to ship this type of service in 2015. “Zumwalt” class length 182.9 meters, width 24.6 meters, 8.4 meters high, displacement of 14,564 tons, more than any of the existing U.S. destroyers are much larger, but because the introduction of the Integrated Power System (IPS) and other new design , greatly improved energy efficiency, without refueling in case of life but longer. “Zumwalt” class design great emphasis on stealth capabilities, such as a variety of communication devices are embedded in the deck, the ship is designed to tilt inward plane, engine cover with 1 inch thick rubber “jacket”, is generally hidden ships can not match. Ship high degree of automation, fewer passengers, more flexible implementation of complex combat missions, “Let the U.S. military’s missile from the enemy closer.” One contractor, Raytheon Integrated Combat Systems, said director Tom 姆纳尼伯蒂, ship designed to “control the coastal environment”, can be as close to the enemy coast ghost-like, to provide fire support for the landing force, Marines act as a fortress or the sea.
U.S. refining driven gunboats with seaweed, green building combat power in 2012. October 27, in Virginia’s Norfolk Naval Base with a 14.9 m long gunboats, tanks to the injection of fuel by the seaweed extract is made with half and half mixture of diesel fuel. United States Navy in 2012 established the first branch of “green combat power.” It consists of 10 warships, submarines and a number of aircraft, all of the use of biofuels and nuclear energy. The “algae oil” test is the process of building a “milestone.” In addition, the U.S. Navy, “George Bush” aircraft carrier on June 23 for the first time the missile launch. U.S. Navy “George Bush” was the first aircraft carrier fired two modified “Sea Sparrow” missile and 2 “Ram” Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM), the end of the ship for the first time “combat system ship qualification testing “(CSSQT). CSSQT is a series of aircraft must be qualified as part of their upcoming deployment to prepare for the first time. CSSQT is the combat system, running joint operations and weapons systems testing, to test the carrier’s self-defense system. Improved “Sea Sparrow” missile is a semi-active radar-guided missile launcher required for targeting, while the RAM uses a passive radar-guided missile target using the built-in sensor-driven track. Telemetry of missiles are being launched missiles, warheads will be replaced with live data collection devices, to assess the accuracy of the missile.
Second, Russia and constantly improve the Navy’s weapons
Russia’s fourth-generation nuclear submarine to test the water, hidden performance of “best in the world.” Medvedev in the Russian city of Severodvinsk in northern city participated in the “Severodvinsk” nuclear submarine into the water ceremony. He said at the ceremony, the world’s most developed countries have invested heavily in the latest offensive and defensive military systems, Russia should do, should be effective naval equipment upgrades, according to the state armament program more actively latest ship construction . On the day of launching the “Severodvinsk” sign, Medvedev said the Russian submarine was developed fourth-generation multi-purpose submarines, will strengthen the Russian Navy Submarine Force and defense capabilities, and strengthen the position of the Russian Navy.
built in Russia after 17 years of nuclear-powered attack submarine “Severodvinsk” was June 15 to test the water. “Severodvinsk” was a new type of submarine, it was called the fourth generation of multi-nuclear submarines in Russia. “Yasen” level first boat, “Severodvinsk” was in 1993 in the Sevmash shipyard. However, funding the construction of the boat makes the work has been to start up again until 2001, is expected in early 2011 at the end of this year to service. The price of the submarine has been shrouded in secrecy, but is expected to cost $ 1 billion. New design for the world’s first submarine. The hull is made from high strength steel, rubber-coated surface can be reduced to reduce noise and boat load sonar system signal reflection. In addition, the submarine equipped with a floating rescue capsule, the crew can all taken refuge in them. In terms of performance, if “Severodvinsk” was with the U.S. “Sea Wolf” or “Virginia” one nuclear submarine combat, then both “Sea Wolf” or “Virginia” are not likely to win, because ” Severodvinsk “was a submarine in the ears, the most spiritual, and its equipment,” Ayari Alex ‘new integrated sonar systems have excellent search capabilities. It is equipped with advanced track tracking device that can detect enemy submarines three days before the track. Giant spherical antenna is located in the boat first, to make their superior skill “Severodvinsk” was not found himself before the enemy took to eliminate the enemy. “Severodvinsk” was a quiet, deep diving, combat power of a high degree of automation of many advantages. It radiated noise than the United States, “Sea Wolf” class attack submarine to the lower 10 decibels, known as the “world’s quietest submarine.” “Severodvinsk” was equipped with 24 cruise missiles, equipped with eight torpedo launchers capable of launching torpedoes and SS-N-16 anti-ship missiles, is one of the aircraft carrier killer.
Russian strategic nuclear submarine test-fired twice, “Bulava” ICBM success. October 7, the Russian Defense Ministry announced that the Russian Navy conducted a successful day for the first time this year, “Bulava” missile tests. According to Russian media reports, from “Dmitry East Vanscoy” nuclear submarine launched the “Bulava” sea-based intercontinental missile test a success, the missile successfully hit combat unit of about 6000 km from the Kamchatka Peninsula Kula range. “Bulava” missile developed by Russia’s new sea-based intercontinental missiles. In the past 12 tests conducted, only 5 times to be successful. Most recently on December 9, 2009, transmitting the same without success. The 13th Russian military tested the implementation of the most meticulous preparations. October 29, the Russian Defense Ministry announced that the Russian Navy successfully conducted the same day the second time this year, “Bulava” sea-based intercontinental ballistic missile tests, which is the 14th of the missile test-firing. Missile by the Russian Navy, “Dmitry East Vanscoy” heavy strategic nuclear submarine fired from Baihai Hai domain, warhead accurately hit the Kura testing Russia’s Far East Kamchatka Peninsula, the target field. As planned, the Russian navy will be three times this year, “Bulava” missile tests, the first two from “Dmitry East Vanscoy” nuclear submarine launch, if successful, the third will be scheduled equipment “Bulava “missiles” 尤里多尔戈鲁基 “nuclear submarine launch.
Russia and India will jointly develop the maximum speed of 6,000 km hypersonic cruise missile. Hypersonic cruise missiles, supersonic cruise missiles in the “BrahMos” developed based on a range of 300 km, the maximum speed of 6,000 km, while the Indian-Russian cooperation in the development of “BrahMos” is currently a maximum speed about 3000 km. Hypersonic cruise missile development completed in 2016, and began to equip the Indian Navy’s stealth destroyer, to enhance marine quick-strike capability.
Third, Britain and France because of “bad money” and share the aircraft carrier
aircraft carrier has been regarded as safeguarding national interests, “State of the weighing device”, with aircraft carrier the army and the country has become a symbol of overall strength. In view of this, the world’s major powers competing to start the race to build an aircraft carrier. However, play an important role in the British aircraft carrier and the French Ministry of Defence seems, is not the exclusive carrier of weapons, not only rent but also can share. November 2, Britain and France in London, the two governments signed a military cooperation agreement to share the aircraft carrier.
shared carrier can save 10 billion pounds. In order to fulfill the commitment to reduce government deficits, the British government is at any cost reduction of the army personnel and procurement projects, but the most sensitive of the new generation of nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers involved in the project due to numerous jobs and delay is difficult to draw conclusions. However, once France willing to participate in the British aircraft carrier construction program and to defray certain costs, perhaps 10 Downing Street will be able to find a best of both worlds, they will not abandon the two new aircraft carriers being built, do not even have to reduce the level of the carrier’s weaponry . The source said: “(EF) to share the carrier’s model, both sides need the government at the strategic level decision-making, so that the aircraft carrier construction and application with the state consistent with the objectives.” Envisaged, Britain and France to merge their respective aircraft carrier construction program, jointly funding the construction of three aircraft carriers, two of which England, France, one of these aircraft will serve as the European Union’s armed forces, mobile forces, to take “an in flight, one in Hong Kong, a preparedness” model and the implementation of EU Stand-off military and peacekeeping missions. As a result, Britain and France will be at least this saved nearly 10 billion pounds of expenditure.
money with the new British aircraft carrier, the Royal Navy plans to lease the aircraft from the Pentagon. British Prime Minister David Cameron on October 16 intervened, the defense budget cuts down to below 10%. In contrast, many other public sector budget cuts more than 25%. However, even so, the defense budget is not generous. According to reports, the success of the British Navy to keep two aircraft carrier construction program, but because of the “Harrier” type fighters may have been eliminated, and then the F-35 could not be served, two years after the aircraft carrier service may not be equipped with carrier-based fighter’s face dilemma, will almost basket. Navy officials complain, if another war with Argentina, the British defeat. As the British Government to slash military spending, making the active-duty aircraft carrier on board Sea Harrier fighters have been forced to retire in 2018, the United Kingdom’s CVF aircraft carrier under construction in 2014 and 2016, the Royal Navy equipment, then the new carrier will face inorganic available embarrassing situations.
active aircraft carriers are “struggling.” Currently, the British and French aircraft carrier undesirable addition to the small, weak outside of combat, serving aircraft carrier in the fleet are “struggling” status. As the “Clemenceau” and “Foch” was already retired or were sold in France in 2001 with only one service, “Charles de Gaulle” nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. UK ‘Invincible’ class aircraft carrier of the first ship “Invincible” has been retired, in June 1982 is now only serving R06 “excellent” was commissioned in November 1985 and the R07 “Royal Ark”. From the comprehensive combat capability of the point of view, this three are second-class aircraft carrier, and the United States “Nimitz” class aircraft carrier is not a concept than full. “Charles de Gaulle” loaded with only 42,000 tons, carrying 24 “super flag” and 12 “Rafale” fighter jets, in addition to two E-2C early warning aircraft. “Invincible” class is only 20,600 tons, less than “Ocean” was the amphibious assault ship 21,000 tons, nor to the “Northwest Wind”-class amphibious assault ship of 21,500 tons. In addition, because of time already served nearly 30 years, a small carrier aircraft, equipment aging, self-defense weapons, such as thin growing problem, which the two carriers have very little left Portsmouth Anchorage, routine maintenance is also reduced to a minimum. France “de Gaulle” aircraft carrier is not optimistic, the French navy officials said, “Charles de Gaulle” aircraft carrier during the first half of 2010 were only in the Mediterranean coastal patrol operations.
Although the U.S. is “bad money”, but the last one the Navy Type 45 stealth destroyer, “Duncan” was also launched on October 7. The latest a 45 stealth Royal Navy guided missile destroyer in the Port Glasgow, Scotland, the original water. Ship air defense surface combatant ships in the BAE Systems shipyard Gervin and Scottish shipyard equipment assembly, and will enter service in 2014. Ship destroyer displacement of 7500 tons, the main air defense system developed by the European missile group “sea serpent” missile and the BAE Systems Sampson active phased array multifunction radar. Type 45 destroyer landing deck of sufficient size to accommodate the “Chinook” helicopters taking off and landing, and can carry 60 Marines and other combat personnel. Initially, the United Kingdom plans to purchase 12 Type 45 destroyers, but because of project cost growth and the tightening of the defense budget, making the number of Type 45 destroyer procurement into eight, eventually become six.
Fourth, China’s neighboring countries naval weaponry
China’s neighboring countries, particularly India, Japan, Vietnam and South Korea, increase input in the construction of maritime weapons efforts, national naval weapons and equipment continue to be strengthened.
Indian Navy’s first fleet of domestic service stealth frigates, in the last 10 years and equipment 16 stealth frigates. Currently, there are three such frigates imported from Russia has been in service, as well as the construction of three by the Russian side, and the remaining 10 will be built in India and China. Indian Navy’s stealth frigates for future equipment will be divided into two types, namely, by the Russian-made “Taer Wa” class and print their own construction of the “Shivalik” class. “Shivalik” class frigate construction work began in the first half of 2000, the first ship will be April 29, 2010 in service. Ship “Shivalik” class stealth frigates with India, Israel, Russia and the European weapons and detection systems, can avoid enemy radar detection, while reducing its own radar signal, with a strong air defense and antisubmarine capacity.
India plans between 2014 to 2015, to deploy two carrier battle groups. The first aircraft carrier battle group to “Admiral Gorshkov” was as a mother ship, while the second aircraft carrier battle group is India’s national carrier made from Cochin shipyard is currently building the 40,000-ton aircraft carrier displacement the Navy wish their self-made aircraft carrier to be delivered in 2014. At present, India is preparing to extend the life cycle of 50 years, “virrat” aircraft carrier of life, and the carrier currently only equipped with 11 “Sea Harrier” vertical takeoff and landing aircraft. Convinced that the Russian Navy, “Admiral Gorshkov” aircraft carrier in early 2011 for the port test, and in December 2012 or so delivered to the Indian Navy. Since early this year, India agreed to pay $ 2.33 billion worth of conversion costs later, Russia will send aircraft carrier leading the conversion of the working committee to supervise the work. Agreement with the latest aircraft carrier, India and Russia in March this year signed a contract worth U.S. $ 1.46 billion 29 “MiG-29K” fighters of the purchase contract. In January 2004, India and Russia signed the contract when the aircraft carrier that India has ordered $ 1.5 billion of 16 “MiG-29K” fighters.
US-made “Harpoon” missiles for the first time sold to India. According to India’s “Economic Times” reported on September 1, the end of August India signed an agreement with the U.S. government, $ 170 million to buy 24 Boeing’s “Harpoon Ⅱ” anti-ship missiles, in order to strengthen the coastal areas of India air combat capability. This is the first time in years in India’s purchase of advanced US-made anti-ship missiles. According to reports, “Harpoon Ⅱ” anti-ship missile will equip the Indian Air Force “Jaguar” fighter forces. “Harpoon” missiles are more advanced in the United States all-weather anti-ship missiles. Among them, the “Harpoon Ⅱ” type is improved, with a strong anti-electronic jamming capability, low altitude attack can be implemented, mainly for the coastal air combat. In addition to “Jaguar” fighter, the Indian purchase from the U.S. P-8I “Poseidon” is also a long-range anti-submarine patrol aircraft, “Harpoon” missiles platform of choice. In 2009 India spent $ 2.1 billion purchase of eight P-8I anti-submarine aircraft will be delivered in 2013 the Indian Navy. But Boeing officials say, the agreement does not involve anti-submarine aircraft for the P-8I provide missile.
of Japan to actively create a new generation helicopter carrier. Japan’s “world ships” magazine said in 2020, Asian neighbors will have several times in Japan’s modern conventionally powered submarines, and supplemented by a considerable number of attack submarines, and even aircraft carriers, Japan must build this helicopter 22DDH destroyers to make up the gap. In early July, Japan’s “world ships” magazine for the first time details the characteristics of 22DDH ships. 22DDH use of aircraft carrier-style straight-deck, the entire ships length 248 m, width 39 meters, size is almost the last service in March, “on the” class helicopter destroyer is 50%. According to the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force war plan, the ship is completed, will replace “white root” class destroyers, and with the “day to”, “Ise” was composed of powerful anti-submarine warfare ships group, for the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force to achieve from the Strait of Malacca Japanese archipelago cruise operations and lay a solid foundation. Through 22DDH mystery, people seem to see Japan in the Pacific on the aircraft carrier re-Chong giant shadow Beirut.
In addition, a new generation of destroyers of Japan’s first ship, “Moon” was also launched on October 13. Japan’s first ship a new generation of general-purpose destroyers, “Moon” was launched at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries shipyard in Nagasaki, and service in 2012, is expected to further strengthen the implementation of naval surface warfare and missile defense and other missions. Universal Maritime Self Defense Force destroyer destroyer is the main naval vessels, and its performance in air defense, anti-submarine and anti-ship and so more balanced. “Moon” was a standard displacement of about 5,000 tonnes full load displacement of 6800 tons, Captain 150.5 meters, width 18.3 meters, the maximum speed of 30 knots, the ship’s crew of 200. Main armament, including 90-ship missiles, Evolved Sea Sparrow air defense missiles, 07 rocket-propelled vertical launch torpedoes, the ship can carry two helicopters. The launching of the “Moon” destroyer cost up to 750 billion yen. According to the plan, the destroyer will be the construction of three, is expected to serve all of March 2014.
amphibious patrol aircraft in Vietnam may buy to strengthen monitoring of the disputed islands. In recent years, the Vietnamese continue to introduce advanced weapons and equipment for the Navy to “shake.” In addition to buying Russian “Kilo” class submarines to enhance deterrence, the same focus on the Vietnamese Navy patrol aircraft, the introduction of advanced fighters and to enhance maritime patrol surveillance capabilities. May 12, the Vietnamese Navy and from the Canadian company imported six amphibious maritime patrol aircraft, becoming the first sale of military fixed-wing aircraft to Vietnam Western companies. British Columbia in Western Canada Viking Aircraft Company said it has signed an export with the Vietnamese Navy contract to supply 6 DHC-6 “Twin Otter” 400 aircraft. “Twin Otter” has a highly mobile, versatile features, with a short takeoff and landing capability, with its landing gear wheel, skid and ship floats and other options. Equipment “Twin Otter” will help strengthen the Vietnamese Navy in waters near the disputed islands and their monitoring capabilities.
Korea occur “day” ship sank after an explosion, South Korea decided to build a 2018 will be similar to another ship Dokdo large 145-ton landing ship, this ship in six months been transformed into a light aircraft carrier. In addition, Korea is also developing unmanned submarines to avoid the “day” ship incidents. According to Korea, “Central Daily” May 12 news, South Korea has developed an unmanned submarine, can be used to grasp as “day” ship the same sink to the bottom of the ship’s position and status. This submarine can avoid obstacles and carry out surveillance activities, but also the flexibility to use advanced weapons.