Chinese aircraft design expert Academician Tu Jida
Tu Jida (December 11, 1927 -), aircraft design expert, Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province people. 1951, graduated from Shanghai Jiaotong University. China Aviation Industry Corporation, Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Corporation, Senior Engineer, served as chief engineer, aircraft designer, is currently Senior Advisor, China Aviation Industry Corporation CST advisers.
Tu Jida long engaged in aircraft design in the first line of technical work, to do a series of groundbreaking and fill the gaps in engineering work. Original design in 1957, the success of China’s first aircraft under the wing on both sides of the intake structure of the force transmission of the body, then, well done CJ-6 aircraft aluminum alloy small domestic first semi-monocoque design. China successfully hosted the first aircraft mapping design. China hosted the first military cooperation with the West, the successful introduction of the British fighter aircraft avionics modifications and to our military aircraft to enter the international market.
Tu Jida won the National Science and Technology Progress Award. Elected in 1995, Chinese Academy of Engineering. (China Science and Technology Information Institute Web site)
1927, the Tu Quetta was born in Shaoxing City, a civilian family. 10 years old, Sino-Japanese War broke out, Japanese planes bombed the city of Shaoxing, fifth-grade students witnessed the slaughter without resistance Quetta bombing. “How do we no aircraft it? How no one back then?” Young mind was deeply hurt, resulting to learn aviation, aircraft manufacturing, rely on defense to save the nation’s thinking.
Hangzhou by the Japanese occupation, followed by her mother and brother Tu Jida by Ningbo fled to Shanghai concession. Entry to the aviation department of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Peking and Tsinghua University Department of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou. Results, three universities have admitted him, and eventually he did not hesitate to choose the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Aviation Department. National Chiao Tung University’s four-year study to determine the cause of life and Quetta Tu man.
Tu Quetta graduation design is a complete aircraft design, and design a body part, a chief engineer in full compliance with the goal to train students, and this aircraft Tu Jida for the future design and development achievements and lay on a solid foundation.
aircraft design start-up of new China were
1951, the Tu Jida graduated from college, just set up in Shenyang Aviation Industry Bureau, and he became the first founding of new China National Allocation Harbin Aircraft Factory Branch to the students, the honor has become the industry’s “old.”
start-up period of the aviation industry, the main task is to repair the damaged aircraft on the Korean battlefield. So that Tu Quetta lifetime, he made the design, has a twice waste. This fledgling Tu Jida formed tremendous pressure, he accepted the lessons of the heart to the next step to learn the old design, in actual practice, the body get rid of past complacency and impetuous, rapid progress on the business.
five years in Harbin, Tu flight from Quetta to participate in ad hoc, all repair instrument designed gradually to learn from books on the basis of knowledge into the experience with the realities. As a result of outstanding achievements in May 1954 he joined the Chinese Communist Party, was elected as the Harbin factory-recommended model of labor. Soon, 28-year-old Tu Jida has been appointed chief of plant design. The second half of 1955, IL-28 jet bombers began to test the repair, replication and hosted Tu Jida machine digest a full set of drawings, one year after the successful test repair.
1956 year, the CPC Central Committee issued a “march to the science,” the call of Aviation Industry Board decided to establish in the Shenyang Aircraft Factory aircraft design room, began to design aircraft, aircraft design began to emerge in the carcass at the end of 1956 Quetta transferred to aircraft design room named as head of the body.
originally drawn from all over to the Shenyang Aircraft Factory Aircraft Design Studio’s technical staff has more than 90 people, divided into 12 professional groups. In addition to director Xu Shunshou, Deputy Director Huang 1000 were very few outside of a few old engineer, the design collective average age of only 22 years old. The first is designed jet trainer aircraft FT-l, it is to just copy the success of J-5 aircraft (MiG-17) for the original standard machine, but the front air intake for the F-5, FT-1 into two the layout of the intake side; in the wing for the F-5, FT-1 to the structure under the wing, fuselage box is not the same as the main force, not reference. Tu Jida In addition to organizing and guiding the structural design of the entire body, the hands-on design with no reference to the nose compartment and ad hoc solutions proved these innovations are successful. FT-l aircraft began in October 1956, program design, to July 26, 1958 a successful maiden flight, only 1 year and 9 months. From repairs to imitation, to design their own, years of effort, and even cross-step, Tu Jida am born at the right.
thirties pride: to design CJ 6
when the FT-1 completed the proofing stage and enter the drawing design when the FAA decided to start CJ-6 aircraft the overall design. Spring of early 1958, leadership announced by Tu and Lin Jiahua Quetta as head designer CJ-6.
CJ-6′s body with front three-point metal thin skin semi-monocoque structure. The Nanchang Aircraft Factory production is beginning to teach 5, Jacques -18 imitation of the Soviet model, using the load-bearing steel frame structure and cover the bandage, but also after the three-point. Therefore, CJ-6 aircraft, tricycle landing gear and the machine are not the original quasi-machine, to ensure the strength of the aircraft under the premise of reducing the structural weight as the most outstanding design work conflicts. Tu Jida Design Studio led by comrades, proposed a “per gram to reduce the weight of the struggle,” the slogan, design work started on the careful planning done.
soon, Aviation Industry Board decided to change the Nanchang CJ-6 aircraft factory trial, Lin Yi Tu Quetta and led more than 20 people in the summer of 1958 to the Nanchang Aircraft Factory, together with the aircraft technicians FT-6 The design and development work. August 27, 1958, general puffing red paint, the middle of a lightning pattern of the first frame CJ-6 aircraft, flew up into the blue sky smoothly.
sometime. Aircraft in flight there have been some problems, most notably poor engine performance, its support of the propeller can not pitch, resulting in a lot of maneuvers can not be completed. Soviet-made dress after the engine, modify the design head, excluding the four major failure occur in flight, and finally meet the design requirements, in 1961, finalized by the State Committee for approval of military products into mass production, and continuous production of a total of 30 years, more than 2000 aircraft, pilots flying into China’s cradle. In 1980, the CJ-6 as the new China’s first successful self-designed aircraft, the State Gold Medal.
20 years later, as deputy director of the Chengdu Aircraft Development Center Tu Quetta, with visiting Thai Air Force Commander of a base for some dialogue –
“Mr. Tu, which you think you life are most proud thing to do? “
” … … I am most proud of is my thirties successfully presided over the design that is 30 years old, a junior trainer, the aircraft, not only now still in service, but also production. “
one successful trial quality: J-5 A
the early sixties, the Taiwan Strait tensions, often at night at low altitude enemy aircraft invading coastal provincial reconnaissance harassment, although some of China’s imports of MiG-17PF fighter, but not enough, after the Sino-Soviet split, can never again be imported, therefore, a national defense need J-5. This task, to the Chengdu Aircraft Factory. Transferred into the spring of 1960, Tu Jida fly plant was named director of J-5 A aircraft designer.
F-5 A no design drawings and production data, only two real F-5 aircraft and a full set of drawings and tooling. Shape and structure of aircraft according to strict mapping the physical plane, but the strength calculation, external load calculation, static test mission statement and technical conditions, it is according to design methods to develop their own.
structure after a comprehensive mapping, the analysis and comparison, found that 36 parts, including wings, aft fuselage and the J-5 is similar, there is no principled difference, after approval by the report to the higher, switch to F-5 drawings. Even so, their own design drawings are still accounted for machines 60%, l ten thousand parts, and F-5 different 50%. After 15 months of hard work, October 1962, finally issued a full set of F-5 design drawings and data, rolled out a comprehensive trial work.
1964 年 11 11, F-5 A first fly overhead. Three machines Minister Sun Zhiyuan pleased to praise: “J-5 is the Chengdu Aircraft Factory A fortune machine.”
difficult not lotus States: FT-5 was born
year, China aviation industry has faced such a situation: the Air Force requires advanced trainer aircraft maximum speed of 1,000 km/h, while the FT-1, the original target of 800 km/hour, unable to adapt to the Air Force requirements. Soviet-equipped air force trainer, after Sino-Soviet relations deteriorated, apparently not imported, the Air Force fighter-trainer and need not forthcoming.
Tu Jida thought to F-5 A, based on modified design for the fighter-trainer aircraft. Tu Jida that: trainer does not fight, not the engine afterburner, and IL-28 engine can be used to allocate space for the rear fuselage fuel; cannon to retain only one, to cover increases in staff cabin of the aircraft to reduce the amount of oil ; maximum speed can make a big 1000 km/hour. A night flight as the F-5 fighters, only 150 original production, the production quantity is limited, a large number of special technical equipment idle up a great pity, and trainer is a long-term stable production of models, the development and operation of the plant is extremely favorable, the production of F-5 can borrow a large number of dedicated process equipment.
through various efforts, in early 1965, FT-5 is assigned the mission to develop a formal, detailed design began. Tu Jida once again take a leading role, not only led the design team leader also serves as deputy head of the aircraft prototype. Tu Jida made a total design guiding ideology is the premise of the task to meet the coach, as far as the provinces, reduce costs and improve quality. In the design field, Tu Quetta stressed the most is: designer pen with gold, that are tied to first-line aircraft manufacturing cost, design information can not leave the seeds. Problem, the design change is good, and takes only a dollar; changing for the better when the trial might take hundred dollars, thousand dollars; change again when the batch may have to spend a million to several hundred thousand dollars, we can not Yeah count this account.
design drawings issued, Tu Jida leading designers in-depth workshops, and workers with hands-on test preparation, with the experiment, trial to resolve the problem, efforts to promote the aircraft from the drawings into a physical. Trial work there fast and provincial situation, the aircraft development costs only spent 100 million yuan.
first in the F-5 aircraft fly overhead, a year and a half later, May 8, 1966, China’s first trainer variant FT-5 in Chengdu, the first fly overhead. That year, the committee finalized the identification of aviation equipment documentation evaluation of the FT-5 is: ‘City are designed to retrofit aircraft factory, the FT-5 aircraft trial is successful, the aircraft’s maximum level flight speed, ceiling, range, etc., the basic made to the original technical requirements than the Soviet MiG-15 aircraft is good. Can provide the Air Force, Naval Air Forces, approved the setting and put into batch production. “
FT-5 final performance with its good and stable, continuous production of 20 years, produced a total of more than 1,000 aircraft, and has become an empty navy, aviation school’s main trainer; a special Air Force demonstration team eighty-one machine; become the main export opportunities in China, has exported 10 countries in foreign aid in 1984, FT-5 squadron flew over Tiananmen Square, to accept the motherland and the people reviewing the Soviet Union is no such model, in 1991, visited the Mikoyan Design Bureau Tu Quetta and saw the showroom to Lierumige -17 series, using a fleet of aircraft in Pakistan Air Force photos.
as to the cause of selfless from the MiG-21 F-7
after the birth of new China’s aviation industry, received strong government support for the Soviet Union. The first five-year plan of China’s successful imitation of the MiG -17 aircraft, the aviation industry from piston to jet aircraft era to promote the second Five-Year Plan beginning, China has successively signed with the Soviet MiG -19, MiG-21 aircraft and other technical assistance contract in July 1960, the Soviet government unilaterally tore up the contract, the withdrawal of all experts in China. February 1961 the Soviet Union informed the Chinese that it is willing to transfer the manufacture of MiG-21 aircraft, right, and hope China to send representatives to talks in Moscow the Chinese government to seize this opportunity, without any conditions attached to the premise of force, entered into negotiations with the Soviet Union the transfer of MiG-21F13 aircraft manufacturing license agreement.
sixties, the introduction of Soviet-made MiG-21 aircraft to the Chinese aviation industry has brought the development of two series: one is the generic production and modifications to improve the development of J-7 series aircraft, and the other is based on thorough understanding of its technology to the original quasi-J-7 machine, designed and developed by the development of J-8 series aircraft.
F-7 aircraft originally developed by the Shenyang Aircraft Factory imitation success, the aircraft’s stability, handling, landing and takeoff maneuvers performance, radio and other equipment are more advanced, but there are also close to visual range, short range, poor reliability of life-saving system and other outstanding problems, and sometimes difficult to replace when the troops of the J-6 aircraft. end of 1969, Tu Jida battle command again, to stir up a deal with the burden of modifications to improve the J-7. F 7I successful trial in 1973, designs have been finalized in April 1975 .
improved F-7 aircraft, to enhance the fire attack, improved hit probability, flight speed and efficiency were improved intake, increase the effective thrust To further tap the potential of the aircraft, tactical and technical improvements performance, the State Council, while the F-7I shape, made further improvement requirements.
F-7II-based improvement projects, improvement of ejection was undoubtedly the most at risk, the most pressure because , J-7 aircraft launching agency is too complex to 15 in 1.5 seconds, the lock to be done according to procedure 17 moves, prone to failure. J-7 Tu Quetta chaired the major changes in life-saving systems, the program is to open the lid ejection ejection ; hatch changed to a fixed windshield; after the bullet-proof glass to turn back the hatch, under the zero-altitude low-speed secure life-saving purposes. program the public to adopt the J-6, 5 strong director, but also save the F-7 seats features.
Tu Jida insist major changes in the program, consideration is to be responsible for the lives of pilots, he mind calm, always an unwavering conviction: that although the risk for major changes but the program is full of hope win the right to life, he bear the enormous pressure, and lead us to develop rigorous research program and repeated demonstration design, to determine test requirements, the joint efforts of comrades, started building up their own zero altitude zero speed ejection test equipment The whole process of development, test pieces of the light units with 17 seats, 3 and 9 cockpit windshield covered in 300 after several tests, and finally in 1979, together with the J-7II was approved aircraft shape. improved life-saving devices used at home and abroad several times during ejection were successful in 1985, won the national rocket ejection equipment gold medal.
of modifications to improve the J-7, shows Tu Jida aircraft design as an outstanding Division adhere to the scientific spirit of wisdom, courage is the courage to break the old, the risk of defying courage. History will always be the name of Tu Quetta and J-7 series aircraft modifications to improve together, written into the annals of China’s aviation industry development.
J-7 from the type I, II-type to the adoption of export development to M-type, before and after a total of 30 number of improvements, generic color fading, color innovation have become increasingly prominent. F-7M aircraft in 1985, won the National Science and Technology Progress Award; 1988 and won the state’s first gold medal of large and complex weapons as the best country in our hands, the light fighter. (According to “the aviation world,” Hou Shuping Zhong-liang)