Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps: farming than bitter counterinsurgency war to fight the KMT difficult than
Data for: under the command of General Wang Zhen, my troops across the 500 five times to enter the bandits in the Gobi General
years later, my grandfather returned after an absence of 20 years of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Since the onset of cerebral disease is not handy after his legs and feet into the tent, he prepared to open a special chair, the cane toss, lift the leg up on the kang, a cross-legged sitting down … … just as he on horseback to visit the mission field in the Kazakh nomads same. At that moment, back in time, move seat all scared, Corps veterans, youth still
my grandfather called Fengguang Long. He said he had not called Fengguang Long, his name and his fate, was changed in 1948.
year, Shanxi Lishi County Mu asked the government to mobilize young people to join the army liberated the village, just 22-year-old newly married young farmers Feng Jixi the army, became a People’s Liberation Army. Recruits report, the instrument his name wrong, Feng Jixi since become a Feng Guanglong. Wrong, wrong, he said the name thing, not a kind Jiaosha.
recruits over the Yellow River to Shanxi, was added to the Northwest Field Army, led by Wang Zhen, the second column. In the afternoon Guns, night attack together Yangcheng. The city took over, and go with a dozen from Dan Xinbing is dead. Since then, Grandpa finds that: “fear is useless war, bullets do not recognize. Fix the dead run fast, Pao Deman’s also dead, so I heard the command, so run run, let it lie down lie down . “
this way, lucky to be alive that he fought in Shaanxi, Qinghai, Gansu and other places.
1949 年 9 25, Xinjiang, garrison commander, General Tao Zhiyue power uprising. First Field Army Army PLA 2 (ie, the original two vertical) swept westward. Jun 18 Division 2 Group 3 battalion 6 7 8 squad leader with Fengguang Long – 60 years after the report was still able to own forces without hesitation designation of my grandfather, a nearly 90,000 troops into Xinjiang in one.
swords into plowshares
2 Army into Xinjiang, from Turpan to south, straight to the southern border.
2, the predecessor of the famous Army 359th Brigade, did not expect, “has come and guard the production, the 359th Brigade is the model” of history repeat itself.
1949 December, Mao Zedong issued instructions: “People’s Liberation Army is not only a defense force, but also a production army.” Publish large-scale production of Xinjiang Military Command, states: “All military personnel all participate in labor productivity … … shall not have any soldiers standing outside the front of production and construction work. “
under” summary of the Xinjiang Military District in 1950 production “, Xinjiang People’s Liberation Army in 1950, the actual participation of a total of 66,148 people in agricultural production, including two military 24302 people .
just smoke to immediately pick up the hoe out of the depths, some soldiers can not figure out. Has been said above: the difficulties are temporary, off small in Japan, defeated the Kuomintang, have a better life. But now more than Nanniwan still bitter, Shashi Hou is the head it?
forces in the spread of doggerel: “Armored not lay down their guns unloaded, astonishingly the first to carry the wasteland, the text does not force the text to the military, ashamed to wear a yellow uniform.” Joked that he is armored (crops) soldiers .
to encourage everyone can work, 6 Division of Zhang Zhonghan write poem: “army of one hundred thousand Tianshan, and keep the border and Mita. Frontier scenery is magnificent, why fight into the Pass.”
farming grandfather feel bitter than the fight. Each assigned to a large wasteland, from morning to night, ten hours to dry. When the morning to go with a few steamed bread, hungry place to eat. Grandpa often feel hungry stomach faster, break it twenty-three put the steamed bun, close walk to the front of the ground, and then go back and dig, dug in front, then eat. Under the hot sun in Korla, fresh steamed bun break apart dried up not long after, in order to eat you have to dig back a little faster.
farming using Hom Tuman. Hom Tuman Although weight was dug wide, are used to dig faster, so-called “mad cow Hom Tuman pioneers”, when more than a day to dig three acres of land. Grandpa also dug over three acres of land, together Mo has been reward a bag of smoke.
wasteland, the morning before dawn to go out, knock back at night, too dark, often even find a place to live. Because they live are winter pen, looks are the soil piles.
farming without water. Forces the spring and summer wasteland, autumn and winter and then dig trenches, not day break. Grandpa and his comrades a spade a spade to dig the well-known group of eighteen channels, this is a 42 km-long channel connecting Kongquehe water and drainage Yanqi South, to 20 acres can be irrigated. Grandpa said that when the most bitter, than farming but also tired. From dawn to dusk to dry in the winter to freeze does not stop. Each task every day, several cubic meters to be exhausted.
some people too tired to complain, “do not feed on the battlefield as a bullet in it,” but go complain complain, troops land reclamation performance striking.
1950, Xinjiang’s 96.2 million mu of wasteland troops, planting 83.5 million acres, 140% completed the program, more than 34.27 million kg harvested grain, cotton and 375,000 kg, 1.85 million kg of oil. Achieve food self-sufficiency when the army seven months.
in large-scale production at the same time, counter-insurgency troops are also engaged in counterinsurgency. At that time northern, southern Xinjiang are armed rebellion, insurgency-prone areas in northern Xinjiang.
into the Xinjiang People’s Liberation Army garrison arrangement has actually laid a preliminary layout of the future corps. Xinjiang into the early stages of the military stationed in the southern 2, 6 military stationed in the northern main forces deployed in strategic locations. Grandfather of six division headquarters is located in Yanqi, brief the southern and northern throat.
1951 June, has become deputy platoon leader’s grandfather was selected to Dihua (later renamed Urumqi) in the second infantry school. Original school is 3 years later because of bandits are not enough troops, infantry school of more than 1,000 students were temporarily transferred to the bandits.
Xinjiang was the largest gang leaders have been captured Ust full, public trial executed by the end of April. Goldman continues his son Sher Tianshan area in Tainan odd robbery, collecting weapons, killing the production of PLA.
grandfather was assigned guard the mountain passes. He said the bandits than to fight the KMT difficult. Bandits familiar with the terrain, well-informed, most of them riding, playing today, and tomorrow do not know where to go. They often break out at night riding, horse fast enough, aircraft machine guns Duzhe also beat to death a few.
until the spring and summer of 1952, rebel forces was only weakened. People’s Liberation Army’s policy change from the corresponding mainly to hunt down the main political fight. Soon, Rochelle Goldman surrender.
infantry school dissolved the same year, participants were assigned to the Mainland to learn a variety of techniques. Grandfather and two other men were sent to Tianjin Paper Factory learning paper. Study in Tianjin, the home of the grandmother’s grandfather hire in Tianjin, where her grandmother joined the army, and together they returned after the end of the study Xinjiang.
back to Xinjiang, the paper did not do it, because “there is no site, no money.” Grandpa said: “with the local government to sites, people do not want to Well, afraid to share the site are finished.”
Thus, grandparents do not stay in Dihua, together assigned to the eight directly under the Military a farm Dongshan Branch. From here, start their lives over 30 years of the mission field.
Corps major development
into Xinjiang forces in large-scale production campaign, created a lot of army farm, August is one of the first group of farms.
the time of production units to implement the supply system, state money, the officers and men farming, thanks to awareness, not for long. At this time, the state has also started to carry out economic development in this new situation, in order to Zhujiang forces settle down, take root, long-term Zhunkenshubian, October 1954, formally established the Military Production and Construction Corps in Xinjiang .
and Construction Corps in the end is what kind of organization? Corps do not know many people their say. Now the Corps wrote on regiment blog, this is a “party, government, military, enterprise one” “special organization.” Specializing in the production and construction corps, but also national defense reserve force.
Corps after the establishment of military self-sufficient production into national plans of enterprise production.
eighty-one farm is among the first to achieve a farm tractor in 1954, when the audience on the basic wheat planting and mechanized, the audience of more than 3,000 production workers 7.71 million mu of arable land. Winter wheat average yield of 127 kg, the highest yield of 304.5 kg, much higher than the local general farm production.
1958, China into the “Great Leap Forward” period. At this point the Corps, also entered a period of great development, and constantly develop new reclamation area. This March, my grandfather left the living conditions of the August maturity farm was transferred to Golgi more Western poorer farm (later Nongsishi 73 group).
to Gorky farm, began to starve the.
Gorky poor farm land, output is low. However, the regiment more than 1,000 people, a bad harvest and then, in fact, enough food to eat. The warehouse is full of food. But at that time to support the Mainland, there is someone to look after the warehouse, in front of the line, shall not be exceeded. Confinement are often full. Because hungry starved to death more than 20 individuals.
time, any dip “bad” words are sent to Xinjiang. I remember my grandfather, a county in Hunan food by the Secretary, to open the warehouse to put a few pounds of food people eat; Mianyang a farmer named Li Tianming, secretly sold 20 pounds of food, labeled “destruction purchase and sale” of hat sent to Xinjiang. About the population in Xinjiang has increased.
open doors to various people in Xinjiang. Youth support side, right, laborers as well as “gravity personnel” … whether young people with aspirations, or there is no way of personnel, the mission field where all welcome.
mission field in the official trade union at least a month to get 29.68 yuan, while the right only to the three month pocket money, laborers began to money, and later also to the two or three.
most of the laborers who have left after serving his sentence in the mission field, slowly and employee wages on the same. At that time few people in mainland China, a major reason is that, the Corps of life than most parts of mainland life better.
all the way west
grandfather did not think, just to stabilize farm in Gorky, he also entered the West. Because the Soviet Union took place on the border, “ITAR-event.”
1962 years ago, the long Sino-Soviet border in a basic non-defense side of the state. The early 1960s, Sino-Soviet relations continued to deteriorate, spring and summer of 1962, 60,000 people in border areas has finally happened to the Soviet Union illegal border crossings, “ITAR-event.”
grandfather said, Yili District siege of 5.29 before the incident, the division of agricultural Yining four divisions in the militia on the investigation into the situation. Security section chief is an old investigation, will Uighur, Dai Chengwei every morning wearing ethnic look to the mosque, early on mastered the specific situation.
day siege of the incident, the preservation of agricultural four division political commissar Jin personal command. At that time the government building was the impact of the wall are lift down, the crowd rushed to grab the file, the situation is critical. In this case, the militia was forced to open fire in self-defense. Grandpa said, which reflects the benefits of the Corps, the Corps is usually the people, war is not uniformed soldiers. In embroiled in international events, such a system is very beneficial, said it was “the people rebel, people opposed to” them.
“ITAR” incident, Yili Tacheng County population of the county’s population of illegal border crossing 68% ho border three communes of the original population of more than 16,000 people across the border only after 3000. In some places almost a no man’s land.
this end, the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, an emergency deployment of more than ten thousand cadres and workers to form a task force to ho, Tacheng, Yumin and Emin four counties, the implementation of the escrow, farming, on behalf of the animal husbandry and the “three generations” work. Grandpa’s red flag was sent to the Tacheng commune.
1966, 2019 kilometers of border line, 58 Corps, the formation of a deep farm 10-30 km of the border zone, have control of the nine regional territorial disputes, and planting of close to 300,000 hectares land.
this point, the Corps formed in the 1950s layout of the “two loop” (referring to the northern part Gurbantunggut Central Desert and the Taklimakan Desert in southern Xinjiang Corps to deploy farms), it had also along the tower City draw a line to Ili.
1970 March grandfather was transferred to this line, in the Sino-Soviet border in the four divisions of 77 groups of agricultural deputy chief of staff, arrived at the end of his way west: the western end of the border.
20 1960s and 1970s, Sino-Soviet relations have been strained. Grandpa I remember a time not even in stores Taosu dares to buy for fear that as the “escape Soviet” tendencies. Even the Soviet Union imports of Awn, a child has become a bad curse word.
both sides ran across to the people. I remember my grandfather, a minority of the deputy company commander, took the “Reference News” went to the Soviet Union. Then “Reference News” only above a certain level cadres to see, he thought it was very valuable thing. The results people are not interested in his sack to send back. He came back after the withdrawal of a job, but still able to be ordinary workers.
This is much better than the Soviets of the encounter. Who ran the Soviet Union, China does not shelter, and also packed in sacks, from the border roll down the slope, and then shouted a few voice notice to the other. Grandpa said that often send people to the Chinese side has not gone away, the other side of border guards saw the bag of their people, on the spot and shot.
the early Cultural Revolution, a soldier away from home 20 years later, the first time Grandpa finally return home to visit relatives. Gray-haired mother saw him, has become almost do not even know each other.
although far away in the border of Xinjiang, also suffered the severe impact of the Cultural Revolution. Corps into a national loss of large state-owned farms, become the country’s heavy burden, ideological confusion within the Corps, to lose morale.
1975 In March, the central decision to withdraw the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Military establishment, the establishment of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Bureau of Reclamation, the mission field owned by local (state) leaders. 77 This group is retained although the border mission field, but it is difficult to develop.
80 early, the southern border more than other places of unrest, seriously affected the stability and development in Xinjiang. In addition, management has also affected the Corps long production. In this case, December 3, 1981, the central issue “on the restoration of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps of the decision,” Corps formed to recover. 77 Bureau of Reclamation, Yili Group and from 77 groups, changed back to the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps four division 77 regiment.
up to 1983, before the founding of Xinjiang, a total of 49,694 people participated in the revolution of the veteran, except retirees, there are 34,489 people still in the workplace. Grandpa is a member of them. At that time, he is deputy political commissar of the 77 groups.
1984, my grandfather joined the ranks of retirees, and in the second year to return home.
came back to his village in the mountains Ximujia asked to see the original with fellow soldiers in the same village. Fellow and later as a deserter, painstakingly fled far away from Xinjiang, Shanxi, kind of a lifetime, the live “Minato improvise together.”
own life, my grandfather is very satisfied that there is no regret, “Zeyang live is not alive.” ★
(statement: Kanyong “China Newsweek” articles written authorization by the service)