Selection and use envisaged for expert interpretation of China’s carrier-based aircraft
Data Figure: China’s J-15 carrier-based aircraft
today nine countries around the world, a total of 21 aircraft carriers. Although the aircraft carrier is a unique equipment of the Navy, but now the situation is, if not affluent countries are also seeking to have aircraft capable of carrying ships. Of course, these countries can not afford the U.S. Navy as expensive, the cost of nuclear-powered aircraft carrier loaded more than 100 fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. Nevertheless, the above-mentioned countries can choose to buy second-hand aircraft carrier efficiency is not the best, can be equipped with dozens of aircraft the steam carrier or naval big country eliminated, it will give the least-cost. India, Brazil, Thailand and other countries, which has had its own aircraft carrier.
service life than carrier-based aircraft carrier captain. 30, 40 or even 50 years ago, the manufacture of the aircraft carrier still in use, and carrier-based aircraft in use for 10 years or 15 years, their life is exhausted. Easily modernize the aircraft carrier through the installation of new electronic equipment and state-of-the-art air defense facilities. This upgrade also includes adaptive modification to adapt to the new aircraft, the aircraft carrier and carrier-based fleet restructuring, which is the most important.
carrier aircraft as part of the carrier battle group, a modern carrier aviation conventional fighter aircraft (VTOL) air defense fighting set sail to combat the sea surface and underwater targets. In the United States, France and Russia have developed a variety of carrier-based fighter, they can be divided into two categories: The first category is a medium-sized carrier aircraft such as the Mikoyan MiG-29K, Boeing’s F/A-18 and Dassault “gust” M, their take-off weight of 15 to 25 tons; class heavy fighter Sukhoi the Su-33 and Su-27UB, Northrop Grumman’s F-14, which includes their take-off weight of 25 to 35 tons. Deck and under the deck of the aircraft carrier hangar for light aircraft to provide a larger space, but the combat load of light aircraft, combat radius and weapon system capabilities to be inferior in the heavy aircraft. Unless there are political interests to consider all of these factors lead to very difficult choices on carrier-based aircraft. Hawk Carrier
“large aircraft”, “small aircraft carrier contained small aircraft” concept is very popular today. The number of aircraft equipped is determined by the displacement of the aircraft carrier, this theory has been internationally recognized. Each aircraft occupied by a displacement of 900 tons to 1300 tons. Helicopter carriers or ships equipped with vertical takeoff and landing aircraft, the carrier aircraft standalone Share displacement smaller, these aircraft without the use of additional deck equipment such as ejection device, slip jump ramp and bias current board as well as arresting devices, such aircraft takeoff The light weight, small in size.
However, solely on the basis of given above each plane occupied by the displacement to determine the size of the aircraft carrier and the aircraft is not right. Only rely on the weight and size of characteristic parameters is impossible to determine the aircraft carrier battle group and carrier-based aircraft combat effectiveness. This in turn will lead to people based on operational effectiveness to determine the size of aircraft carriers and aircraft parameters. Any technical issues will be placed on an aircraft carrier deck of the aircraft and the aircraft carrier to generate some additional requirements.
carrier aircraft combat potential based on the more accurate assessment of the system of arms control (avionics), fighting load as well as weapons and the ability to wear the comprehensive analysis based on the choice of the carrier-based aircraft based on combat missions different operational needs, the aircraft should be different:
the 1 main tasks include attack air targets, to provide air defense support for friendly forces. Depends on the efficiency of the air defense war the number of aircraft (aircraft hangar can not be among the first to sail), the ratio of the number of aircraft is determined by the number of aircraft taking off from the flight deck of the aircraft is in patrol status. The proposed preference deck arrangement of the large number of aircraft.
surface targets attack depends on the number of aircraft on the flight deck and a large-scale attack capability, is recommended Select the the deck furnished a larger number of aircraft.
3. Attacking ground targets, the wave action, so all aircraft of the fleet should participate in this task. Recommended to choose to fight a larger load, advanced fire control system aircraft.the differences
Navy aircraft and Air Force aircraft
Navy aircraft combat use of the environment is more severe than the Air Force aircraft, Navy aircraft usually better than the requirements of the Air Force aircraft. Outstanding requirements: STOL, high-thrust engine, excellent dogfight performance, maximum flight speed, flight, engine fuel consumption is not to be asking too much. In order to meet the above requirements, the Navy aircraft generally have a good high-lift device, such as boundary layer control, circulation control wing leading edge processing and trailing edge chordwise or spanwise blowing. Because the need to bleed air or Blowing lift the naval aircraft power plant power usually better than Air Force aircraft more than 20%.
carrier-based aircraft in order to obtain light STOL capability consider lift devices is not enough, you must also have a high-thrust engine thrust to weight ratio greater the STOL easy to implement. As for the V/STOL aircraft, British Harrier “relatively successful, its engine is very advanced, the only drawback is the take off and land or hover engine fuel consumption, thus limiting the scope of the activities of the aircraft .
Overall, compared with the Air Force aircraft, the Navy aircraft have a large wing (lift), engine thrust (thrust-to-weight ratio), large structural strength (to withstand impact load when taking off and landing), and good acceleration and good handling trackability (to meet the takeoff climb and escape of the missed requirements), there is the arresting hook and catapult hook.
carrier aircraft selected three elements
a most simple
the case, without regard to the combat use only rely on a set of triples vector to determine similarity aircraft carrier aircraft can be equipped with a reasonable amount.
first combat load/occupied area ratio is used to evaluate the aircraft efficiency scale, where the fighting load refers to the weight of the guided weapons, the number of non-guided weapons; area occupied aircraft carrier the area occupied. During aircraft selection, this is the most important parameter, combat load/area occupied than the largest aircraft is the first choice.
aircraft occupied area is a parameter that three characteristics of the aircraft carrier hangar deck capacity, the number of aircraft carriers of the parking bays and takeoff bit successive landing aircraft quantity to affect the efficiency of the aircraft carrier fleet. Also need to consider the specific design features of the aircraft and the aircraft carrier combat load/number of aircraft equipped with the occupied area ratio is based on a specific carrier said.
second element is the unit time to take off in the number of aircraft that take off strength. Minimize this parameter requires an efficient use of the flight deck, through the use of the aircraft in the hangar, better play to the role of the fleet, the reaction time of reducing the fleet to increase the combat radius.
third element to consider is the combat radius. Do not have sufficient combat radius is not, because if so, the combat task will never be completed.
shipborne equipment cost by the cost of aircraft deployed on the aircraft carrier on more aircraft-to-cost ratio rather than the quantity ratio. Conducting carrier aircraft selection should be based cost than.
combat carrier aircraft selection
after the end of the Cold War, with the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, the threat environment faced by the U.S. Navy the change, based on the former Soviet Union to fight a large-scale war at sea becomes to deal with regional conflicts as the main target, “forward deployment” to “forward presence”; “in naval operations” to “from the sea attack “;” independent implementation of large-scale naval battle “becomes” land from the sea support, the Air Force’s joint operations “. Under the guidance of this idea, adjusted its strategy, its main features is summarized as follows:
to highlight the “forward presence”
from the United look at the Navy’s nearly 10 years of strategic reports, the U.S. Navy more attention to the “forward presence”, the so-called forward presence away from the United States, close to the enemy’s coastal waters and even the coastal waters of the “leading edge” means that the U.S. Navy’s operational space from their waters extending to the other side of the door, “from sea to land combat operations is becoming a major combat mission of the U.S. Navy.
2. Highlighted armies joint operations
U.S. Navy several strategy white paper attaches great importance to stress: battle space due to the tremendous changes, and more joint operations between the military services are more important than ever when. Recognize the importance of joint operations by the Gulf War, and many times the practice of modern high-tech local wars.
3. Informational warfare
U.S. Navy Strategy Report pointed out that the information war will run through the future of war always, the information will be the most important combat effectiveness; naval forward presence forces need to quickly provide the information warfare support, through the integrated command. Control and information systems, effective control of offshore operations space, so as to establish information superiority advantage at sea, air and space superiority, to provide effective offensive and defensive combat capability for maritime and land-depth combat troops.
U.S. military believes that the future U.S. Navy in joint operations, the need to seize command of the air by the F-22, F-35C carrier variant to perform accurate ground attack and opposite strike missions, taking into account the air war.
political and economic factors that impact on the selection of the carrier-based aircraft
A Navy aircraft changed with the Air Force aircraft in the United States, this technical aspects problems, there are also political reasons and the competition between the companies. The U.S. Navy and the Air Force do not want to use the same kind of aircraft is not willing to cooperate with the Air Force. Developed by the Grumman F-14 carrier-based aircraft shape is actually similar to the F-111B, but in order to show the F-111B, F-14 deliberately twin rear fuselage distance space, not only to The design brings difficulties is not good, but also from the aerodynamic point of view, which also reflects the contradictions between the empty navy of the United States and the company.
political economy will also affect the choice of the carrier-based aircraft, the typical case the selection of the next generation of carrier-based aircraft, after repeated conventional takeoff and landing, short take-off and landing, eventually to return to the Select STOL type.
British carrier-based aircraft to return to the key factors of the F-35B:
retrofitting catapult/arresting device cost; </p
2 Despite the procurement use and protection of the cost of the F-35B, but its lower training costs, plus the catapult/arresting device without having to install, lower overall cost;
the two carriers (“The Prince of Wales the different carrier aircraft “and” Princess Elizabeth “), can not guarantee continuous carrier strike capability in the United Kingdom;
4. F-35B F-35C the same types of weapons can be mounted, even though total combat load decreased, but can be buried in the British planning 500 pounds, 1000 pounds of bombs the “Meteor missile in the distance and short-range combat missiles;
the F-35C F-35B voyage large 150 sea miles, but through the air refueling solved;
6. Britain will restart vertical landing plan (SRVL), in view of the lack of back to the carrying capacity of the F-35B;
7. F-35B on land use (IOC) is expected to be achieved in 2018, the ship used in 2020;
the 8 interoperability with France is not really affected by the two between States to help defend ensure that at least one aircraft carrier is available. Real aircraft carrier landing (cross-decking) is very complex mutual fewer opportunities.
selection of China’s carrier-based aircraft envisaged
choose a carrier-based aircraft is not a simple problem, first look to solve any problem with the carrier aircraft , fighting, demonstrations, or to protect the aircraft carrier. In the United States, for example, in the late 1970s, the carrier-based air using F-14 (maximum takeoff weight of 33.7 tons) and F/A-18 (maximum takeoff weight of 15.7 tons: Air Combat attack 22.3 tons), the use of high and low . The air defense of the aircraft carrier battle group is mainly responsible for the F-14A fighter, it is a variable-geometry wing aircraft, that was the best in the world today air superiority fighter and interceptor, for control of the air carrier around. F-14A contains six of the most advanced radar-guided Phoenix air-to-air missile, with a range of 111 km or more. F-14A radar system can track 24 targets simultaneously and manipulate high-speed target of 6 missile volley high and low altitude flight. Airborne “Sparrow” is also a radar-guided air-to-air missiles, with a range of 46 kilometers, the missile itself has a resistance to electronic interference. F-14A aircraft also contains a high-speed anti-radiation missiles, AGM-88A, and the missiles used to destroy the enemy ship on the electronic system, in particular the destruction of enemy anti-aircraft artillery and ship to air missile radar cross-linking of electronic systems.
flexible multi-purpose combat attack aircraft F/A-18 either as attack aircraft to provide air support to sea attack, but also served as a fighter to strengthen air defense rapidly changing tasks. On which to mount the “Sidewinder infrared air-to-air missile has a range of approximately 22 km of fighting, can be used for short-range combat. F-14 aircraft are more expensive, and the role of both aircraft, F-14 is mainly used to protect the aircraft carrier, F/A-18 mainly used to attack.
into the 21st century, the United States Navy combat the pattern of high and low with the F-18E/F (maximum takeoff weight of 30 tons) and the F-35B (maximum takeoff weight of 27.2 tons), while the F-35B its characteristics of low-cost, multi-purpose, can be a lot of equipment, and perform a variety of tasks.
Russian carrier aircraft aviation equipment Su -33 the heavy carrier aircraft (take-off weight of 33 tons) and the MiG-29K (take-off weight of less than 20 tons). Including MiG-29K main executive fleet air defense and attack missions.
light carrier aircraft is also some western developed a medium-sized country of choice for Navy carrier-based soldiers models, such as the British aircraft carrier equipped with the Sea Harrier (maximum takeoff weight of 11.3 tons), future equipment F-35B . French carrier aircraft Rafale-M (take-off weight of 21 tons) to replace the Super Etendard fighter (maximum takeoff weight of 12 tons).
around the year 2020, China’s neighboring countries, such as Japan, Indonesia, India, and other countries will have state-of-the-art aircraft carrier and its carrier aircraft may be third-generation F-35C, MiG-29K fighter improved or fourth-generation fighter. Therefore, China’s naval air force in 2020 after the formation of the equipment should be able to fight against these hostile aircraft carrier aircraft. In other words, China’s need for a lot of equipment, a multi-purpose, combat effectiveness equivalent to the neighboring countries the main fighter combat aircraft. (Of the Department of the AVIC Shenyang, the researcher)
Russian media said China’s aviation industry to develop the F-20 F-15 is far more than Japan
British media: Varyag’s sea
British experts said Varyag carrier aircraft first contact with the J -15 F-15 No. 5 beginning with the word
real shot -15 F prototype takeoff