British exclaimed: Mongolia is really afraid of death in China
Kuwait in 1950, Abu Dhabi in 1970, Qatar in 1995, Mongolia in 2012? Mongolia has a lot of resources, economic growth up to 17% surge the gold rush atmosphere. Mining company bosses, bankers and lawyers of Ulan Bator in droves, it is under an ideal Eldorado. While others hope that this country is far more than that, but has become a well-managed, the Equalization of Opportunities for democratic countries.
management of the Bank of Mongolia high Le Wood Special super optimist John Finnigan. He thought of Qatar. Qatar in 1995, the total economic output of $ 8,000,000,000, but now, its gross domestic product (GDP) up to $ 174 billion, per capita income is $ 98,000, ranked second in the world. Finnigan asked, Mongolia Why not do the same? Top 10 mining reserves is enough to make every Mongolian — a total of 2.7 million people in this country — to become a millionaire.
Mongolia has coal, copper, gold, rare earth and uranium minerals. Mongolia had become Qatar’s ambition is admirable, but it turned into the possibility of Nigeria can not be ignored.
at least four things Mongolia must be corrected: national governance, social equity, economic management, geo-strategic. National governance is the key. In this respect, Mongolia has both advantages and obvious defects. Since the break free of Russian control in 1992, despite difficulties, Mongolia has always been quite well-functioning democratic state. It holds regular presidential and parliamentary elections, only the first election because of violence and stagnation. The Mongols literacy rate of 95%. Mongolia has a large number of technical experts educated abroad, and the sheer number of surprising. The current leaders often go overseas travel, reminiscent of Japan after the Meiji era wave of learning from the West.
there are a lot of negative factors. Place to spend approximately $ 200 million in the 76-member Parliament. Members of the monthly wage is only $ 800, which indicates that they are able to enter the parliament will see a lot of self-serving. With the funding large inflows (foreign investment last year, up to $ 5 billion), corruption will become rampant. Transparency International’s ranking, Mongolia has slipped to 120.
assume that politicians are not their own pockets, the money should be how to allocate it? First of all, Mongolia must decide the allocation of the “spoils of war” between themselves and foreigners with capital and technology. Foreign investment regulations volatile. Check Mejia Elbegdorj president said Mongolia is past the ugly bride, but now she is both beautiful and highly educated, foreigners flocked to her “courtship”. The challenge is how to raise the dowry does not become greedy.
politicians are talking about investment in education, infrastructure and training. They intend to put the money in a flat fund and a sovereign wealth fund. They need to do much more. In about 10 years, the population of Ulan Bator expansion to 1.2 million.
macroeconomic management difficult. Received education Mongol “Dutch disease”, knowing that this disease will kill the tertiary industry of the resource-rich countries. Even before the cash inflow, where the inflation rate has been as high as 20%. Some industries, such as farming, etc., will need support. Finally, the geopolitical issues. Mongolia is embedded between Russia and China. However, Mongolians do not like to doubt China’s improper attempt of the territory. These concerns has been hampered by the laying of railway engineering, coal must be an output and led to the introduction of an ill-considered foreign investment law.the
no doubt, Mongolia has a golden opportunity, but it’s a mountain. Must hold the greatest hope, but also to do the worst.
Secret: The Taiwan version of the map of China remains the reason of Outer Mongolia!
now the Taiwan issue, the same strain with the Mongolian problem, two equally split the challenges encountered by the Chinese nation in the last fifty years. Although Taiwan still do not recognize Mongolia’s independence, the Constitution of the Republic of China did not give up the sovereignty of foreign Mongolia so far also on the territory of Mongolia, including, but some people in Taiwan are seeking independence from China. In mainland China, grew up in the 1950s people only know that now only be cut off the back like wau, did not know the north there is then a vast grasslands of Mongolia once belonged to China. Mongolia independent only just over 50 years, this forgetfulness of our nation even to have been so strange, the Taiwan issue 50 years later, when? This can not but think that part of the vicissitudes of history in Mongolia and China.
Mongolia and China: historical links
BC 3rd century, in the desolate northern China active in a few pieces of nomads, in which the main one is the Huns. . Them cold in the desert north and south of the Yenisei River and Lake Baikal (called the North Sea), vast areas of rough grazing, work, thrive. Spring and Autumn Period, they were referred to as “barbarian” and had been north of Yan State to accept. To the Han Dynasty, the Huns split into two, North Hun drive far to the west of the Altai, the Caucasus Mountains into Europe (Turks Editor’s Note: the original error, the Huns moved westward, universal argument to settle in Hungary , the evolution of the Magyars, but there is still controversy); the South Hsiungnu down Han. 47 years AD, the Huns officially became a vassal of the Han Dynasty. South of the Altai Mountains, east of Lake Baikal, a large area west of the Argun to the land of China. The Emperor of China to allow the various nomads continue to thrive there. There have appeared many flourished in the nation, such as high car, Xianbei, Rouran, Turks, etc., this is the Mongolian ancestors. But by that time, Mongolia as a nation have not yet formed.
Tang Dynasty, China where the home government set up state, the implementation of the direct effective jurisdiction. To the end of the 12th century, the Song Dynasty in the early 13th century, the northern nomadic tribes of a beginning to emerge. By reason of the tribal name they called the Mongols, its birthplace in northeastern China.
1162, Temujin was born in a warrior, and often caught in the Mongolian tribes of the tribal vendetta. 1206 the age of 44, put down the majority of the Mongol tribes, established the Mongol Khanate in turn difficult to riverside, became the leader of Mongolia – “Genghis Khan”. Mongol tribes was the site of the parallel control of the north and northwest in some parts of the Jin Dynasty and Southern Song Dynasty. Mongolia was founded, had gold tribute, and Jin to recognize its Khanate position. Jin categorically denied the Mongolian independence requirements of Genghis Khan discontent, humiliation the Jin envoys and Jin Zhaohuang Empress, Xingbing crusade against.
Since then the half-century, the Mongol horsemen to become a powerhouse across Europe and Asia, invincible, constantly Civil war. Horseshoe everywhere, people ordered off city of the first change of flag, loss of life. Then civilization has not restricted the brute force approach, the “civilized” nation but looked pale.
from 1211, Genghis Khan massive southward invasion westward. Has destroyed the Liao (now part of Xinjiang), Hualazimo (now Russian territory), and Western Xia (Gansu). Right-hand military expedition led by Genghis Khan’s eldest son, Shuchi trees in people, will turn also the assassination of the Ministry (Ming Dynasty Wala), Lake Baikal, where teeth Ti (now Russia Buryat) and teeth suddenly Ti (now Russia dental library special) and other places belong to Mongolia.
Genghis Khan in 1227 died in the journey of aggression, his sons took over his banner to continue fighting north and south. 1234, MENG Song tie off gold, then stepped up the expansion of the east, west and south in three directions. Break in Moscow in 1238, 1240 trap Poland, in 1241 off Korea in 1258 and accounted for a black food capital of Baghdad. MENG Wherever he went, and everywhere burning and looting, all panic-stricken world of all ethnic groups. Khan has been provided, the Mongol armies everywhere, the Kaesong Qingjiang from death, if resistance to all the massacre after the broken city. Mongolia continues to march to Central Asia, West Asia and Europe, swept through the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea, the Baltic, occupied large tracts of land, the establishment of the great achievements of the unprecedented.
after 70 years of the South into the expedition, in 1271, Mongolia established the Yuan Dynasty. 1279 defeated the Southern Song Dynasty, unified the whole of China, a superpower across Eurasia.
the Yuan Dynasty established, cultural exchange and integration between various ethnic groups in China, rich soil. The Mongols began in the political, economic, cultural and other aspects of further integration with the Mainland, and became an important member of the Chinese nation. Later, the Mongols lost the heavenly regime, but since the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Mongols as one of the Chinese nation never isolate China off.
history of the Yuan Dynasty, the Han Chinese peasant uprising army led by the leader of the emperor Ming army, the Mongols expelled from the Central Plains, but Mongolian strength Jew, non-stop Kou side. Yongle Emperor Zhu Di to the capital moved from Nanjing to Beijing, not only because he is Yan Wang, to return home to seize the throne, on the other hand to consolidate the northern border defense. Because Mongolian constantly guilty side, the Ming Dynasty rebuilt the Great Wall. To the late Ming, the Mongolian internal split into a few pieces of each other warfare has begun that part of the Mongols to get the next government to allow to live in harmony with the Han in the north of the Great Wall, nomadic door. Another part had been driven into the land of Mobei bitter cold, from beginning to Inner and Outer Mongolia.
late Ming, when Li Zicheng’s peasant uprising army to destroy the Ming Dynasty, another minority entrenched in the northeastern part of China – Jurchen already eyeing the Central Plains, while the peasant uprising Army on weak footing, the collusion Wu Sangui reached inside Shanhaiguan Pass, the establishment of the Qing Dynasty. Began from the early Qing Dynasty, first Nurhachu, then Taiji, gradually conquered the Mongolian tribes, the Taiji off “after” obtained “$ pass Yuxi based nation. After the Qing Dynasty, the Inner and Outer Mongolia are formally incorporated into the Chinese territory, subject to the jurisdiction of the Central Government.
clear late rise of the West, the decadent Manchu court gradually declined, and foreign powers invaded China. North of tsarist Russia has accounted for to go to the north of Heilongjiang, the vast territory west of Xinjiang, the cumulative annexation of more than 150 million square kilometers of land, then extending its tentacles to this sparsely populated prairie in the Central Asian continent.
Opium War, the Western civilization, more leaps and bounds, and the Qing Empire is still closed within a corrupt and incompetent the vat, a closed-door policy, diehard refuse opening, then began to decline depressed , in decline. The late Qing, the advanced Western democracy and science to the closed, bring strong shock of the impact of ignorance conservative Manchu-court, in addition to engage in some hollow in the form, still stubbornly refused to real reform, finally driven to the people, causing destructive violent revolution. ”
1911, Wuchang armed uprising broke out, causing a “domino” effect. Chinese provinces have responded to the declaration of independence, to get rid of the rule of the Qing government. Like other provinces in China, Mongolia declared independence under the leadership of the nobility. Through violent revolution built up from the chaos and the ruins of the Republic of China, soon to enter the chaotic warlord era. Mongolia’s independence movement during this period.
Chinese provinces declare independence
after the Wuchang Uprising began reunification, the establishment of the “Republic of China” and to carry out a variety of political activities, Outer Mongolia out of this process, was first mooted as an independent nation. Outer Mongolia and other provinces in northern China that deliberately attempts to partition China’s tsarist Russia, after years of operation, differentiation, and the collapse of the political, economic and military completely controlled Outer Mongolia. In fact, Mongolia has become a protectorate of tsarist Russia. Republic of statistics: the entire Mongolian nearly 240 flag, including Mongolia accounted for 108 flag. Independent Outer Mongolia will pull closer half of the flag, and over 150 million square kilometers of vast land, the formation of one of the world’s largest landlocked “countries”. Due to special geographical location, it split just like the Chinese sliced.
regime of the Republic of China by Sun Yat-sen go to the hands of Yuan Shikai, and began the arduous negotiations with Russia. As the saying goes: the weak country has no diplomatic. Just the founding of the Republic of China, near the national strength of the weak can be imagined. But Chinese diplomats have made a tremendous effort, and finally forced the tsarist Russia to make concessions, recognition of Outer Mongolia is China’s territory, on condition that the implementation of “autonomy” in Outer Mongolia. Means that Outer Mongolia in the nominally still Chinese, in fact, the domestic and foreign policy in Outer Mongolia or to grasp the hands of the Tsarist Russia. In any case, this result was not easy in the circumstances. The traitorous restoration known to the world Yuan finally lost Outer Mongolia.
1918, Russia broke out in the October Revolution, Tsarist Russia was the Soviet Union to overthrow. When the “autonomy of Mongolia” will lose the master. The Soviet Red Army continued to advance Siberia, autonomy Mongolia feel threatens approaching, restless. They began with the Chinese to cancel the “autonomy of Mongolia” and return to the embrace of China’s negotiations, but the slow and difficult process of negotiations.
1919, in charge of China’s political Duan government sent a skeleton staff Xu Shuzheng, shuaibing enter Outer Mongolia to succeed was with foreign Mongolia to hold peace negotiations with General Chen Yi (then nearly successful) peace negotiations immediately with the iron fist policy forced Mongolia to give up autonomy, Outer Mongolia to return to China. However, this ruthless iron hand while filling China lost the hearts and minds of the upper princes in Mongolia, and planted the seeds of separation of Mongolia.
to 1920, the Anhui clique warlord Duan step down, Outer Mongolia into chaos. Shae En piano White bandits collusion by the Soviet Red Army rushed to Outer Mongolia Outer Mongolia upper Princes, to launch an attack on the Chinese garrison. The Chinese garrison was outnumbered and forced to evacuate the Coulomb (now Ulan Bator), part of the return to the Mainland, in part transferred to the trading city, ready to fight another day.
October Revolution in Russia, is also transmitted to the Mongolia Prairie. In the Soviet Union’s support of herders born So black Bartol and Choibalsan formation of the Mongolian People’s Party. 1921, the troops of the Mongolian People’s Party in the Soviet Union a large number of weapons and equipment assistance to the trading city of the Chinese army offensive. Chinese army in the downturn, uninterested, steadily defeated, forced to withdraw from the sale of the city. From the Chinese army did not enter Mongolia.
1921, the Mongolian People’s Party led by Mongolia, the Provisional People’s Government announced the establishment. This formed the opposition in the Coulomb Mongolia upper kings and grace piano Russia’s “White bandits”, and start fighting. Significant differences between the strength of the Mongolian People’s Party invited the Soviet Red Army into Mongolia war. In May 1921, the Soviet Red Army entered Outer Mongolia, defeated the army of grace piano in trading outside the city, saved the stake of the Mongolian People’s Army. Then occupied in July Coulomb. July 10, the upper kings of Mongolia and the Mongolian People’s Party co-founded the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Government.
Soviet manipulation of Outer Mongolia, the use of force to obstruct China’s reunification
in the instigation of Russia, Mongolia once again declared “independence” and the establishment of Mongolia . The news spread to mainland China, a time of public outcry, the domestic civil society, the democratic parties have issued a declaration against the Mongolian nobility to split the motherland perverse acts, condemning the Soviet military occupation of the Chinese Mongolia.
the Beijing government’s powerful figure Cao Kun and Wu Pei-fu, forced by the pressure of the people, on behalf of the Chinese government to release worded statement condemning the Outer Mongolia to attempt to split the acts of the Republic of China, does not recognize Outer Mongolia independence. ” Northeast of Chang Tso-lin power to condemn Russia, foreign Mongolia “independent” exception indignation.
He ignored the danger of annexation by other warlords, hair alone soldiers Mongolia and Outer Mongolia and the Russian military combat, trying to force to resolve Mongolia disputes. However, due to the civil war reasons, afraid of Chang Tso-lin Cao Kun, Wu Pei-fu took the opportunity to send troops to the northeast, to regain some lost ground (these landless are still in the area of ??China), will not dare the temerity to act. Cao in Beijing, Wu in the north to deal with Chang Tso-lin, south of the other provinces to deal with warlords, for fear that sent troops to Outer Mongolia would lose their real powers in the Beijing government, so the only standing on the sidelines, in addition to verbal reprimand Mongolia alone, helpless.
Since then, the Soviet Red Army has been in Outer Mongolia. During this period, those in the control of the Soviet Union, was deprived of the power Mongolia upper princes began to wake up to regret splitting China, have fled to China to send troops to withdraw to the sovereignty of Mongolia, to drive away the Russians. But the Soviet Union continue to increase the size of the army stationed in Mongolia, and obstruct China’s resumption of the action of the Mongolia’s sovereignty.
1921 Outer Mongolia Sukhbaatar Russian help, set up a constitutional monarchy in 1924 and the abolition of the constitutional monarchy, the establishment of the Mongolian People’s Republic. The Sukhbaatar such as Lenin, to build the country “soon after died. Mongolia, the Soviet Union as the sovereign, regardless of the Soviet Union to do what, Mongolia comes along. In the Sukhbaatar after a similar mad with the Stalin personality cult figure – Choibalsan.
Sukhbaatar and Choibalsan’s name used to name the city in Mongolia map can be found (later Choibalsan’s death is the same as Stalin was full of criticism ).
the twenties and thirties to the forties, the Chinese civil strife melee is the Sino-Japanese War. The protracted civil strife in China, one lost opportunity to recover the sovereignty of Mongolia, Mongolia, independent of uncooked rice gradually become mature rice.
Russia, Lenin was alive, I should Czar plunder of Asia land back to the people of Asia, Mongolia will naturally become part of China when the Chinese revolution after the success of his commitment. But in after the death of Lenin, Stalin completely reneged on the promise of Lenin, he killed once Lenin’s speech had recorded a deputy defense minister, and then refused to recognize the Lenin said. Since then, in the Soviet Union no longer hear the return of the voice of Mongolia. Soviet troops also been hanging around Mongolia
the United States and Britain Soviet Union “Yalta Conference” betrayal of China and Mongolia
on the end of World War II Yalta Conference in February 1945, foreign powers to manipulate the the Mongolia fate of an important meeting. At that time, on the battlefields of Europe, Germany has already defeated and surrendered. In Asia, the U.S. score one victory in the Pacific theater, but the battle played very hard; the Chinese battlefield, the two sides in the strategy of confrontation, no one able to launch a massive offensive. Overall, Japan’s defeat is a foregone conclusion. The United States estimated that, to achieve the strategic goal of forcing Japan’s unconditional surrender, the United States even more at the expense of hundreds of thousands of troops. To this end, at the Yalta Conference, an important issue in the United States, Britain is fighting for the Soviet war against Japan, thereby reducing their losses. To achieve this at the expense of the interests of China, agreed to the unreasonable demands of the Soviet Union, to accept the status quo in Outer Mongolia, to recognize and to ask the Chinese Government recognition of the Mongolian People’s Republic.
the deal is actually between Roosevelt and Stalin’s. Chiang Kai-shek not Roosevelt’s support, in desperation into the face of the weight of Stalin, on January 5, 1946, with the Soviet Union signed the “Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance,” in the treaty formally recognized the People’s Republic of Mongolia “the right to referendum on independence. Such a huge price, and finally in exchange for Soviet troops in northeast China, Japan quickly announced its unconditional surrender, the Soviet troops in northeast China’s actions become meaningless. The United States and later to make too many concessions to the Soviet Union as the original expense of too many interests and then repent, but it was too late (or He does not regret the contrary, they act in collusion, succeeded in weakening China coursing endless it).
1949 10, Chinese Communist Party in the Civil War, to a miraculous victory shocked the world, the KMT army was driven out of mainland China, People’s Republic of China under Mao Zedong declared was established. Chiang Kai-shek retreated to Taiwan, Stalin did not comply with the terms of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, “the outrage, and the Soviet Union for breach of contract lawsuit against the Soviet Union at the United Nations, which is the so-called” control Su case. Although the continent has changed hands, but the United Nations, the Republic of China still has a legitimate representative of the right and the Council’s permanent members. Republic of China announced the “Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and failure, which does not recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia, the United Nations to be recognized. (February 1, 1952, the United Nations General Assembly adopted “to determine whether the Soviet Union since the Japanese surrender, in its China relations, the failure to perform August 14, 1945 into the Soviet Union and Friendship Treaty.” Control of the Soviet Union was approved, the United Nations has not yet action sanctions against the Soviet Union, but the Taiwan authorities is automatically revoked the treaty) to include Mongolia’s legal basis in the territory of the Republic of China “is so far in Taiwan.
Mao Zedong was forced to recognize Outer Mongolia, to establish diplomatic relations
the Chinese Communist Party in charge of China’s political, with the Soviet Union belong to the socialist camp in Mongolia on the issue of consciousness The form has tied the hands of the Chinese leaders. Stalin’s outrageous hard-line stance, so that the leaders of new China in the national unity of the socialist family dilemma. The new China, a hundred things to be undertaken, but also need substantial assistance in the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong’s first trip to the Soviet Union, intended to discuss the land north of Heilongjiang, east of Lake Balkhash and Outer Mongolia, has suffered from Stalin’s cold and Stalin. The final signing of the Sino-Soviet friendship and mutual assistance treaty of alliance with the Soviet Union, is also forced to admit that the Mongolian People’s Republic. If the Chinese leaders are not so quick success, and the forward-looking, long-term perspective, with Russia and the United States to maintain a “balanced strategy” would not be swallowed Stalin’s sinking consequences of China’s territory and in Mongolian history may be completely another one looks like.
1953, Stalin died, Khrushchev came to power, Mao Zedong began negotiations with the Soviet Union, trying to solve some historical issues, including Mongolia. Through negotiations, the Soviet Union to return to Luda naval port, the return of the management rights of the Northeast Railway. But when Zhou Enlai raised Mongolia, was Khrushchev flatly refused. Mainland China once again lost the opportunity to recover the sovereignty of Mongolia. This action, and soon reached the ears of the Mongols. They take immediate action, under the supervision of the Soviet Union and China exchange maps, demarcation of the border. Subsequently, China and Mongolia established formal diplomatic relations.
Sino-Soviet split, Mongolia also picked up the pace with denunciations of China with the Soviet Union’s baton. To the 1990s, Mongolia has diplomatic relations with more than 130 countries. Mongolia is shaped like a 16 “Soviet republics” in silence over the past few decades, the Sino-Mongolian relations is almost exactly the same as the Sino-Soviet relations. Deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations since the 1960s, the Soviet Union on the Sino-Mongolian border the Tuen under heavily to the formation of a great threat to China. To 1986, when Deng Xiaoping to negotiate with the Soviet Union relations normalization, proposed a “three barriers” Sino-Soviet relations, which is one of the Soviet troops in Mongolia border. Promote new thinking, under the leadership of Gorbachev, the Soviet Union announced the start of troop withdrawal from Mongolia, the Soviet Red Army in 1992 the full withdrawal of Mongolia.30 tons of super ship in
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