The Shenfei expert interpretation of the carrier-based aircraft and land-based fighter differences (Figure)
the information Figure: F-15 carrier-based fighter
as the carrier’s means of attack, carrier-based fighter is an important part of the aircraft carrier battle groups, the development of modern carrier-based aviation forces that ship conventional fighter aircraft (VTOL) can provide air defense battle sail, crack down on the sea surface and underwater targets. United States, France and the former Soviet Union has developed a variety of carrier-based aircraft, they can be divided into two categories: The first category is the medium-sized carrier aircraft such as the Mikoyan MiG-29K, Boeing’s F/A-18 and Dassault Rafale M, the take-off weight of 15 to 25 tons; The second category is the heavy fighters, including the Sukhoi Su-33 and Su-27UB, Northrop Grumman’s F-14 their take-off weight of 25 to 35 tons. For medium-sized aircraft, the aircraft carrier deck and hangar deck provides more space, the combat load of medium-sized aircraft, combat radius and weapons systems, the ability to be inferior to the heavy carrier-based aircraft. The unique nature of the
aircraft carrier is a limited size of the floating platform, which makes the ship taking off and landing on the platform and deposited The carrier aircraft with land-based aircraft specific design requirements and maintenance characteristics – the so-called machine-to-ship, ship-based adaptation “.
the carrier-based fighter aircraft and land-based fighter of the difference stems from differences in the suitability of design requirements and operational use of planes and ships. Carrier-based fighter in addition to bear the combat mission of the Fleet defense, but also has the ability to confront and land-based aircraft, which determines the many differences with the design constraints of the land-based fighter.
carrier-based fighters, including inside the system, the use of geometric, structural, aerodynamic and catapult and arresting devices must be coordinated to achieve the roll off and landing of the ship tens of meters distance. The actual combat aircraft to carry the load performance characteristics, speed range must be able to the mothership conventional operating capacity allows transmitting and blocking. The aircraft must be compact, but should be able to fold more small, must be compatible with the sports deck landing gear, equipment, supplies and maintenance must be able to basically projected area of ??the aircraft itself, and require external protection devices at least. Due to the presence of water, steam, chimney flue and aircraft fluids, aircraft should avoid the use of certain materials and design techniques. In addition, the aircraft must also consider the impact of natural wind and exhaust jet.a different
taking off and landing site – a floating airport
When it comes to carrier-based fighter may wish to talk briefly about the aircraft carrier. The aircraft carrier attendance is six degrees of freedom of movement of an offshore platform, it not only at sea level, the planar motion, and vertical and horizontal shake and heave movement, atmospheric turbulence on the aircraft carrier will be under the action of the waves more complicated. In addition to the land the airport is usually the atmospheric turbulence, due to the huge aircraft carrier’s hull and its own movement but also on the bow to produce downwash and aft at the wake of the formation of a strong rooster tail like. There also needs to be noted is that although the huge aircraft carrier, but available for aircraft carrier take-off and landing runway length is very limited, the world’s large aircraft carrier deck, the total length of over 300 m, requiring pilots in all weather turbulence, deck games and other environmental conditions, structural design load of the aircraft and the block device the aircraft landed at a distance of 100 meters. When the plane landed, the lateral deviation from the centerline of over 3 m vertical error of more than 2 m may lead to the wingtip of the aircraft encountered objects on the deck and damage. In addition, the harsh maritime weather conditions, fluctuating carrier, as well as high-density electromagnetic environment have increased the difficulty of the approach and landing ship.
carrier aviation wing of dozens of aircraft to the airport runway on land area of ??one tenth on the aircraft carrier launch, recovery, supply, maintenance, and re-deployed or tactical situation and other reasons, these The work had to be done in a very short period of time, which requires more work than land-based aircraft carrier-based aircraft.
taking off and landing way different – no flat floating ship
length limitations of the aircraft carrier landing and the aircraft carrier landing on the Falling decline in tracking angle and the decline of the strict control of the track, the aircraft carrier approach uses a steady glide path/steady angle of attack (AOA) driving skills. In this way of landing aircraft landing sink speed is much greater than the land-based aircraft, easily lead to a the percussive landing (also called hard landing). Force aircraft in the 50 to 100 meters from the rapid deceleration of the brake, you need by installing a specially designed block below the body tail hook, pulled the cross placed on the deck of aircraft carrier runway arresting cable, using the blocking force to force brake. The larger landing instant impact load, the blocking force braking load characteristics and land-based aircraft landing loading differences makes the carrier aircraft landing gear and body structure, especially with the landing gear installation is closely related to the structure of these objective The conditions for the re-design. Through the above description is not difficult to see the aircraft carrier fell flare, landing and ship-braking and land-based aircraft fell landing and braking is very different from relying on the drag chute and brakes.
aircraft sink rate than land-based large 2.5 to 3 times the level float to landing by the landing gear to withstand more than onshore 6-fold or greater vertical load; arresting hook engagement with the block device, the aircraft turn by arresting hook under a lot of the axial block overload. The axial load is reversed, and imposed at different points of the structure; vertical load is different from the axial load, the need for a separate structure to bear. The impact load, and the aircraft grounded in the body reverse the inertial load, and motor overload when the flight of combat aircraft is different.
carrier aircraft cockpit must try to front, close to the nose than land-based aircraft cockpit higher. This is to isometric fell on the landing, the pilot can see the landing of the waterline of the aircraft carrier.
geometric features – ship transporting storage
the whole length of the aircraft, as well as the folded wing Exhibition and long tail Exhibition combination by the constraints of deck space and aircraft on the lifting platform mobility. Aircraft plug point must be within the wings folded parts. The height of a certain distance through the hangar door, the height of the folding process should be higher than the hangar height in aircraft folding. The fighter does not collapse when the wing show, should allow the two machines side by side at the bow a few catapults. Taking into account the thermal/acoustic environment of the aircraft exhaust and the distance of the aircraft and jet baffle, to cope with the length of the fuselage and landing gear position to make appropriate adjustments. Taking into account the carrier catapult near the edge of the deck, the main tread of the aircraft should be limited. As for the relationship between the length of the location of the main landing gear and after the fuselage/tail/plug-in objects, you must ensure that the landing timing of head and forcing up or roll attitude, aircraft body with a sufficient spacing in the deck and the arresting cable . The main turn to the position relationship of the front wheel, as well as the aircraft’s center of gravity, must ensure that the aircraft movement on the deck down or roll.
the integrated landing gear arrangement, the tail hook length and location of the configuration of the fuselage and tail, to avoid sudden damage from the arresting cable dynamic response, and should avoid the nose down landing or flying hook block rope, resulting in further deterioration of the structural loads. Horizon of the head must ensure that the aircraft fell when the pilot can see the waterline of the ship stern, must ensure the safe operation of aircraft on the deck.
the use of the environment – the marine environment
aircraft carrier mobility, in many cases, it may encounter almost all weather and environmental conditions. For example, in the North Atlantic experienced Celsius ° C ambient temperature, 35 (about 64 km/h) of the sea breeze; experience in Tokyo Bay, 32 ° C, no wind, the situation is not uncommon. In addition, the sea conditions will cause the carrier to produce pitch, tilt, and 1.5 m heave, occasionally encountered 60 meters of the cloud base, visibility 0.5 nautical miles (0.92 km) adverse weather conditions.
high sea conditions, low temperatures, strong winds and corrosive salt spray, maritime activities and machinery manufacturing extremely harsh environments. Request the aircraft approach to the low-speed, precise control of the decline trajectory is very necessary. Usually aircraft grounding, the pilot 20 to 30 seconds to face a vertical glide path direction from 1.8 to 2.7-meter-high window, the aircraft must be the right speed and attitude to cater to this with the mother ship for vertical and horizontal shaking “box”. To do this, the aircraft attitude and flight speed adjustment with precise rapid control response; engine must respond quickly to small throttle changes on the glidepath; engine must also be a missed approach or escape quickly accelerated to full power state.
sea severe corrosive environments such as magnesium and beryllium materials is no longer applicable; and the rise MiG-23 series to cope with the harsh marine environment, the Soviet-designed carrier-based m extensive use of grid-23A on the structure selection of light weight, high strength aluminum – lithium alloy, some places even a titanium alloy. The moisture of the sea to invade the body’s cellular structure, limiting the cellular structure in non-critical components and allows for a simple check parts of the application. Dense distribution of high-power electronic devices on the carrier will have a complex electromagnetic environment, unshielded aircraft electronic equipment, including the crucial point in the flight control system components, power systems, controls, weapons are very dangerous.
aircraft subsystem must also consider the catapult/arresting movements imposed on the body of the axial and vertical overload. Weapons and avionics components should take into account the damping. The fuel system should move to avoid oil or engine during the ejection short of oil. The cockpit layout should be considered to prevent the throttle and steering column damaged or inadvertent movement. In order to improve the ability to use of the subsystem, you should minimize the dedicated support equipment and spare parts, because of the limited storage space available on the mothership.
if not the carrier’s wake and near the impact to the aircraft carrier into a brief discussion, a description of the aircraft carrier environment is incomplete. When aircraft approach to the aircraft carrier, the horizontal and vertical components of the disturbance airflow will lead to changes in angle of attack and airspeed, the pilot difficult to accurately control the AOA and the glide path. Aircraft to adjust the airflow after the aircraft carrier tail fall immediately need to focus on. The location and severity of the “whirlpool” aircraft carrier design and use factors, such as the trim pitch angle of the aircraft carrier, speed, wind direction and amplitude of sea conditions.
identification procedures – planes and ships adaptation sea trials
carrier-based fighter aircraft and land-based fighter is also reflected in the different development programs, In addition to the completion of the necessary land-based identification procedures, the carrier-based fighter, but also for long-term, complex sea trials – that is, planes and ships suitability sea trials, the assessment of aircraft airborne systems and aircraft structures to adapt in the real aircraft carrier environment sex.
to foreign countries, for example, fit testing of U.S. Navy planes and ships are generally from the Naval Air Test Center (NATC) to organize, to determine the suitability of aircraft carrier takeoff and recovery. Carrier suitability testing includes the integration of most of the contents of the pilot/aircraft combination with the unique environment of the aircraft carrier, special equipment. The aircraft carrier suitability trials generally divided into land-based test (shorebased test) and ship-based test (shipbased test). The land-based test is a preliminary test of the adjustment, the final aircraft can meet the requirements of carrier-based environment requires ship-based test conclusion is given. The test is generally divided into: the structure and function of the test, the ejection test and approach and landing test. All tests based on in-depth understanding of the aircraft carrier and carrier-based work environment, including the layout and use of the facilities of the surface ship, the airflow aft of the aircraft impact, wind deck (WOD), and the temperature of the engine work.
carrier-based aircraft development process, in addition to the conventional static test and fatigue test, usually needs to be done with their aircraft landing sink rate equivalent drop test.
In short, the difference of the carrier-based fighter aircraft and land-based fighter reflected in the take-off and landing of the flight terminal stage, the generation of the difference is different from the physical environment, a floating aircraft carrier catapult, or slip jump take-off block landing caused by the uniqueness of the carrier aircraft. Although the flight phase of land-based and carrier-based aircraft design requirements are the same. But even so, not simply the carrier-based fighter aircraft and land-based fighter as a “cousin” or “cousins” there are many essential differences between the Relative to land-based aircraft carrier-based fighter has a unique air compression effect, the carrier-based aircraft from the glide path intercept optical only about 40 seconds to touch the ship, landing length only land-based runway length 1/10 aircraft carrier landing, which are more stringent requirements on the design and use of the aircraft carrier. (Of the Department of AVIC Shenyang Aircraft Design Institute researcher)
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