Scholars said the rise of the Chinese memorable historical humiliation is bound to the United States expelled from Asia
data for: the fifth-generation fighter of the Chinese R & D demonstrator F -20.
In today’s world, the rise of China and India can be described as extremely compelling. But the international community’s attitude to the rise of China and India has a great deal of difference: the rise of China has repeatedly subjected to “hostile”, and the rise of India is little more than “what the people want”. World Why talk about the “China threat” not to mention “Indian threat”? Overall
and India contrast to the situation
from an economic point of view, the level of economic development in the two countries are constantly, but whether it is Indian or Western countries have recognized China’s economic reform and opening makes clear in this regard ahead of India.
from a political point of view, China is the leadership of the Communist Party of China’s socialist system, India is a parliamentary democracy. But the West tend to be classified as a centralized country has a strong central government, India is classified as a democracy, a multiparty system and the rule of law in countries. The West in the system identify more with India, and classified as one of the democratic camp, while wary of China.
from the diplomatic point of view, Asia after the Cold War, China’s own position in the international community to rebuild is successful, China is also increasingly active to assume more international responsibility, and gradually became a leading country in regional affairs. India’s foreign policy after the Cold War has also made a great success from the beginning of the 1990s, India began to expand the global relationships, to rely on Russia, but also succeeded in improving relations with China, and is positioning itself as a strategic partner in the United States. India has created a good geopolitical environment.
from a military point of view, China’s military spending in 2010 was 532.1 billion yuan, or $ 84.9 billion. Questioned China’s official data, the 2010 world military expenditures, the foreign media do an analysis, “Wall Street Journal estimated expenditure of military spending of $ 119 billion in 2010, ranking second at $ 41.3 billion in India, ranked nine. While India ranked Asia’s second largest military force, but the West only the armed forces of China as a potential future, the biggest, the traditional military threat, but frequently an olive branch to India, such as France, Germany, 2006 expressed willingness to cooperate in the field of civilian nuclear technology to India, the United States and India reached a nuclear deal, India enjoys a privilege.
the United States, why talk about the “China threat” but not “Indian threat”
may wish to start with the perspective of international relations theory, the specific analysis of the “China threat theory” a leading proponent of the United States, why will China as their number one potential opponent.
the Realists believe that countries have their own interests as a basic principle, between countries, the potential threat is absolute, so the competition between countries is inevitable. Realist scholars believe that the conflict between China and the United States also will be increased with the increase in the strength of China,. Gradually become the core countries, China will also not satisfied with the status quo, thus waging war to obtain greater benefits to the territory. From this perspective, China’s rising power is essentially the global interests of the United States a threat to the United States must curb on the political, economic and military rise of China, internal military strength, external building a strong alliance, in order to maintain the international balance of power and maintain its dominant position.
in accordance with the offensive realism theory, a country once powerful will try in their own region to establish hegemony, while ensuring that no other powerful forces in control of other areas. The ultimate goal of each might make it to maximize the share of some share of world power and eventually dominate the system. Therefore, Mearsheimer scholars pointed out that China’s future sustainable development, China and the United States is very likely to fall into a fierce competition in the defense, and could escalate into war. In addition, China still can not forget the humiliation of the past, if there is sufficient strength is bound to the U.S. expulsion of Asia, Asia as its backyard. Milosevic also pointed out that the Taiwan issue is a ticking time bomb in the Sino-US relations, China is now taken by the moderate strategy, but can not guarantee that China will not take tough measures. Impossible for China to achieve peaceful rise, a not peaceful rise of China is bound to threaten U.S. hegemony.
analyzed according to the theory of the British School Although Western is no longer regarded China as “uncivilized” countries or “resist Western” countries, but China as a “he.” one different from Western concepts of “self”, the Chinese being marginalized or description of problem members or potential problems national in the Western-led international community. Some contemporary English School scholars are concerned that the rise of China and not in full compliance with the Western-led international community’s core values ??and rules of conduct “new civilized standards” are accustomed to analyze China’s rise from the consciousness of the “Middle Kingdom” and “century of national humiliation” psychological behavior, that the rise of China is bound to a tremendous impact on the Western-dominated international system.
sum can draw a general conclusion, it is this: The United States believes that today’s international system advocated by the United States has established the forces of territorial division and the Standard Rules, and China, as one can not be included in the countries of the Western world, increasing its strength will seek to expand its share of world power, which makes the inevitable way to challenge and even break the US-led the original pattern, and thus a threat to the hegemony of the United States.
this conclusion on the body of India, can be found in most of the conditions are the same amount of substitution, the only critical point, that is, India is not a can not be included in the Western world “otherness”. Well-known, India during the Cold War with the Soviet Union also maintained close contact, then why in the post-Cold War no grudges and was able to accept India do?
a long time, the United States in politics, as India is the world’s largest democratic country, this is also mentioned in the preceding. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, South Asia, political obvious vacuum. If you want the maximum benefit, we must get the support of India in South Asia. So the United States at this time in contact with India, on the one hand, you can achieve the balance of power in Asia, to build the geopolitical situation in the United States under the leadership of Asia; the other hand, India is a huge emerging market, bringing many opportunities in the United States.
Thus, the United States not only to India as a key part of its South Asian geo-strategic, it is a key bargaining chip in the Asia-Pacific strategy. United States wishing to Asia has always been stable in the control, you must firmly grasp India, to build long-term strategic partnership with India. So close to the United States and India, the addition of another weight factors, but also the common aspiration of both sides, that is, to deal with China’s rapid rise. Blackwill, former U.S. ambassador to India, and researcher at the Carnegie Foundation Treece said that the U.S. strategic goal is to support India to become a superpower of Asia, and in order to counterbalance China.
why the international community worried about the rise of China and not worry about the rise of India
the world have no choice, because that challenge in all aspects of the existing framework.
Chinese economic model makes a world-wide panic. In the eyes of Westerners, China first adopted a competitive economic model of “state capitalism” to challenge the Western tradition of economic thought, at the same time showed an almost mercantilist attitude regardless of the life and death of others; In addition, believe that China’s currency control makes its exports alone can defeat the other countries, and wantonly grab resources. However, if the challenge is only economic model, it is no disaster, most Westerners worry about is, in their view, the political ideology behind China’s economic growth with the West, democracy and human rights are diametrically the opposite, which made them can not help but believe that China on the world market competition with the United States is not China’s most wanted, while the establishment of a completely different economic and political system is the ultimate aim.
the Western world for the speculation of course there are other basis. In 2010, China’s defense spending ranked second in the world after the United States. Some Western scholars had said that China’s GDP growth of 10%, the Chinese government will spend more money on the armed forces, so it can not help but let them started to worry that China will not satisfied with only play the role of economic power, while Similarly to the military power embarked on. , The West also believe that China’s current efforts in Africa and Latin America to expand their political influence, and supports those hostile to the interests of the United States act of the State, which is clearly in the further expansion of its forces in the territory.
thus the rise of China after the fight for world hegemony in the US-led Western world view is both motive and action.
world, led the international pattern of an oriental country China is full of great uncertainty, this uncertainty stems from the lack of understanding of the world ideology and core concepts or inherent understanding. So this along with a lot of uncertainty, the rise of an unknown country, for them, which is quite scary.
Western concept of the rise of India and the Chinese completely different. The rise of India is to build in cooperation with the United States under the “democratic camp” within ideologically in line with the Western world, but also in line with many countries to counterbalance China, therefore, the rise of , need not cause too much panic.
In my opinion, the United States and other Western countries on the rise of India does not panic, there is another factor, that is, in India there are many social contradictions such as the caste system, a serious divide between rich and poor, lack of infrastructure , and so on, these will at some stage, constraints to the further development of India. India trying to challenge the hegemony of the United States, at least it seems from now on, the road still is a very distant.
So as China, should be how to deal with the current situation? The top priority of course is to coordinate relations with the United States.
Sino-US conflict between growing, we are concerned about is how to resolve contradictions, because the mutual development is clearly the best results. In my opinion, because China’s economic, military and other aspects of development is an established fact, can not change or bad change, so I prefer to solve this problem through some of the soft factors, namely, with the constructivist ideas, emphasizing the increase consensus and mutual trust between China and the United States.
First, the United States understand that China’s current development and output of ideology has nothing, and China has no intention to compete for U.S. hegemony. China’s current grand strategy by the four core concepts: the Chinese have every reason to one of the big country club, the “security dilemma” is there, do not compete for global affairs, the leadership of and barely bear can not bear the responsibility of self-restraint “, into the the world and do a “responsible big country. From this level, China’s goal is to actively integrate into the international community, but has not got the idea for the so-called hegemony. In fact, precisely because clearly recognize the role of the United States to China’s security environment is essential, as well as the United States for the importance of economic development in China, only to pay more attention to maintain good relations with the United States, this basic policy even in the 1995 Taiwan Strait crisis, the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia was bombed and a series of face enormous pressure of public opinion continues.
Second, China will stick to the peaceful rise of China’s peaceful rise is a long process. China is still a developing country, is a huge gap and the strength of the United States in all respects, this did not happen overnight will be able to catch up, so the U.S. can reduce that worry too much.
always maintain an “independent”, not to become one of the league. History has proved that the “splendid isolation” of the United Kingdom and India in the early days of “non-aligned policy have made a huge effective, especially in India, during the Cold War, the Cold War both sides of the rope. Therefore, China should strive for such a position, a United States assured that China would not join anti-US; two United States, clearly, the United States wants China to become “responsible stakeholders” line of thinking contrary to China’s independent peaceful diplomatic principle, China is a responsible country and play a constructive role in international issues, but in North Korea, Iran, “a mess”, China will not help the United States to pack.
In short, China’s purpose is not to compete with the United States, but the common prosperity and common development. The process along with the United States, it should minimize the mutual estrangement and friction, relations between the two sides to the long-term stable and mutually beneficial direction of development. If China and the United States to establish enough trust to obtain a relatively good environment for the development, in the world. (Author: Ouyang Xiao Meng)