European experts: the development of China’s conventional submarines of both Russia and Europe technology
The Data: German U-214 submarine interior.
, fire control performance improvements lead to manipulation of Westernization.
with the August 13, 2000, the Russian Navy “Kursk” nuclear submarine and sank it in the Oscar-class nuclear submarines have been gradually disclosed. During the Cold War as a top secret photos of the submarine command module, even if the Russian-made top cruise missile submarines still use the original black and white and anode display, a large number of traditional mechanical instruments flooding the console. This seems to be explained from another point of view, various Russian-made submarines in the volume beyond the reason of the Western submarines. In contrast, as early as September 1968, began building the first boat, the German-made U-209 submarine, its equipment 4 dual-screen multi-function LCD display include the submarine may be involved in all operational information. This U-209 submarine in the displacement compared to the “Kilo” class submarines nearly 1000 tons of small case, with the latter combat capability. Through its wide range of export performance, even without large-scale conversion of similar cut off the hull, the installation of the AIP cabin, but also in the original boat in vivo to various degrees of technology upgrades. In contrast, the advantages of Western conventional submarine fire control system, no doubt contributing to this advantage.
the beginning of this century, envisaged in the West, 039 submarine combat compartment (the idea of ??Figure in the national media, including China, widely reproduced, high credibility), China has The submarine is equipped with three sets of integrated battle command system, 3-surface multi-function LCD display operational information. Although compared to contemporary German-made U-209 submarines, and the rule of law, the Agosta class submarines, 039 submarine submarine operations and combat management systems are still separate, and on the presence of a considerable number of traditional mechanical instrument, but by the “Kilo” class submarine obtained with the same period of comparison is easy to see, China has 039 submarine, the submarine fire control system integrated try. 039 submarine after a large number of construction and success is not difficult to see that the attempt is successful. In view of this, “Yuan” class submarines as a third-generation conventional submarines, there is no evidence to suggest that more Western technology injection, in the development of the submarine, will no doubt continue its fire control system The inheritance upgrade. This improvement continued to advance not only makes the submarine fire control system has improved significantly and, more importantly, make the submarine hull volume does not significantly expand the circumstances, effectively reducing the staff to enhance the degree of automation, transfer equipment, more weapons and improve the overall combat capability. Really get the healthy development of the model of Western submarines built entirely on the technological advancement.
, weapons performance improvements lead to combat Westernization.
is well known that many of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and equipment are in a competitive environment, alternately generated. This not only causes the rapid upgrading of equipment and technical level, a country long dominated the highest level in a field rarely appear. But there is one exception, that the United States has been dominated by the overall technical advantage of the submarine-launched weapons. This advantage is reflected not only in the ammunition itself outstanding operational performance is also reflected in the establishment of multi-purpose ammunition on the basis of the miniaturization. As an example to the submarine wide range of equipment to the west of US-made MK-48 heavyweight torpedo, the torpedo not only in power for a single hair sinking of the Spruance-class destroyers (the target ship) record at the same time, the uses are very wide. During the limited technical upgrade, you can adapt to a variety of surface and underwater targets of attack. And attack range covers the full range of enemy naval targets may be waved. Weapon system performance, the full impact of the submarine is the diversification of combat methods. It has also become the representative of the Western submarine performance.
multi-purpose performance of the weapons in China has come to the Russian front. China’s newly developed “fish” -6 heavyweight torpedo, for example, its compared to the US-made MK-48 torpedoes, in addition to slightly less than the range (MK-48 torpedoes, a maximum range of 50 km, -6 “fish” torpedo the maximum range of 45 km) away, in almost all other performance mountain, at the same levels. Which to make homemade submarines for the first time with a flexible and crack down on the ability of the process of underwater targets. Most new era submarine necessary weapons, the development of submarine-launched missiles also commendable. Chinese C-802 missile, successfully developed and integrated into the ships and aircraft in the beginning of this century, the successful launch of its submarine-launched models. Its overall performance has reached the level of US-made Harpoon “missile submarine. It is worth noting that the 324mm diameter torpedo, instead of the C-802 missile warhead, R & D mode and performance of domestic equipment are similar to the American ASROC anti-submarine missile. And the latter as early as 1961, had the troops, but it represents the most high-end anti-submarine missile mode. Thus, China has two kinds of submarines, the most important equipment, torpedoes and missiles to achieve multi-purpose, to create the conditions for submarine combat capability in the multi-purpose aspects of promotion, as well as equipment-style Westernization.
China’s conventional submarines will continue to both Russia and Europe Technical Features
in many Western military expert opinion, “meta” level will be the final of a band Russian-made conventional submarine style Chinese submarines, conventional submarines to the fourth generation of the independent R & D will be completely independent. Gradually formed independent style of a different world on any of the existing submarine mode. But the problem is, just get rid of the Russian-made submarine technology, its conventional submarine style will have what characteristics? Before answer this question, first of all be emphasized that China rid itself completely Russian-made submarine style, by no means in the process of independent research and development of conventional submarines, on the basis of Russian-made submarines with absolutely inconsistent with attitude. But take the available part, play a role in the appropriate fields, self-oriented R & D model, instead, focus too much on Russian technology. Therefore, the so-called Chinese-made conventional submarine style, is under the framework of domestic technology, both Russia and Europe technology.
1, the hull design limitations of the Chinese submarine Russia and Europe both.
article discusses the limitations of “Kilo” class submarine technology, also referred to such a phenomenon that, despite the “Kilo” class submarine was born in the mid-1970s, but Today, it remains by good operational capability. The root cause of this result, Russian-made submarines, fixed techniques, namely a long period of time, no large-scale technological innovation technology leadership. The most representative is the “Kilo” class submarines during the hearing of the overall design selection.
“Kilo” class began the development of the era, including nuclear submarines, including various types of submarines in the world has yet to determine an optimal hull type. Although the water drop hull has long proved its excellent performance, individual countries holding tightly to the surface of the water properties of the submarine, eventually leading to this excellent boat type is difficult to quickly widely available. Decisive in “Kilo” class submarines, the Soviet Union in the T-class conventional submarines “Kilo” class before poor performance of the whale boat type, a drop-type hull. Even so, the Soviet Union carried out a large number of computational and experimental, in order to determine whether it should be what percentage of water drop hull. In the end, the Soviet Union chose 7.45:1 this proportion of the hull. Although the boat type at the expense of certain underwater speed (“Kilo” class maximum underwater speed of 17.5, while before a Russian-built conventional submarines, underwater speed of the T-class 19), but has earned it the title of “Ocean black hole”.
contrast, Although China has the capacity of independent R & D of core equipment of conventional submarines, but in the hull selection is still inexperienced. The selection of three generations of submarines hull has been fitted out from the existing program, not yet fully independent research. As for the new R & D projects an excessive number of hull selection “minor technical” totally can use an existing design. Focus on the degree of integration and miniaturization of the submarine fire control, Wubei not yet fully meet the European level, Therefore, the large Russian boat type in the internal space is undoubtedly more suitable for China. At this point, the value of new technologies in Europe is the European technology in the hull of the Russian-made style, in order to achieve the domestic submarine to enhance performance in a variety of operational environments.
addition needs to be emphasized that for this technology in emerging countries, new technology blind dependence and conflict are not desirable. In the performance of the submarine key technologies, even though China has surpassed Russia, but after all, there is a certain gap with European countries, However, the technology of domestic submarines than the European submarine higher security requirements. Therefore, in the selection of the boat, the odd and even hybrid hull in the absorption of the West a little, not to its Oita cabin layout, to continue to use Russian-made small subdivision layout. Thus independent of the early development of conventional submarines, the formation of two-hybrid hull of the small sub-manifest with Chinese characteristics.
the limitations of the power system to the Chinese submarines to Russia and Europe both.
in power systems, the AIP system of China, surviving some technical difficulty, but as a widespread diffusion of technology in the field of international conventional submarines, the new conventional submarines must have . Therefore, in the power system, worth only a submarine propulsion. That the next generation of Chinese-made submarines, what should be the traditional low speed high angle blade propeller? Or update the pump jet propulsion technology? The answer is the former.
well known, although in the long Cold War period, the Russian-made weapons have been equally matched with the US-made weapons in the performance, but even the Russians themselves acknowledge, their own level of technology compared with the United States have significant gaps . Therefore, in the areas of equipment research and development, generally concentrate on a single technology breakthrough, with integrated means to achieve after the equipment, the overall level of development. People all understand that this equipment R & D model is too utilitarian, its significance is limited to a single weapon, the enhancement of the overall technological level is not large. But in the entire Soviet weapons development system, submarines is an exception. Perhaps very clearly the reliability of the significance of the submarine, the Soviet Union in the one on the choice of a relatively secure way. This also enables the submarine to a Russian-made turn in the next few bits in the performance of similar equipment in front of the US-made flush, or even beyond the field. One of the most representative of the time, even if Russia “Jassen” class attack submarine propulsion plant selection. Although the Soviet Union in the weapons development process, errors (in fact, the United States is the same) ever made a quick profit, but not “Yasen” class the Shique performance of the propulsion system selection for very sensible. “Kilo” class Б-871 (Alrosa No. “), the first equipped with a pump spray system. But in the final interview, “Yasen” class boat “Severodvinsk” is still used in traditional low speed high angle blade propeller. This shows that Russia’s caution in this event.
compared to Russia, the relatively limited Chinese submarine technology in the development of new technology, the more cautious attitude. More feasible method is to open R & D, using a conservative “, that is incorporated extensively in the development process especially in the advanced technology from Europe and cost effective control of the premise, promising technology for various types of appropriate R & D , but choose which technology to eventually be used to practice, the attitude must be attributed to the Russian conservative.
weapons development are confined to Russia and Europe both the Chinese submarine.
recently Russian media stir-fried Chinese bulk procurement of Su-35 fighters, the beginning of this century so far, another first message from the Russian media is also worth noting that China ordered to Russia 8 ship date “Kilo-636 submarines and a large number of ancillary weapons and equipment. China’s rapid Su-35 rumors rumor different, the Chinese government has not denied the rumors for the procurement of “Kilo” class submarine. It is not difficult to finds that there are still some problems at least in the independent research boat contained weapons. For China, the lessons of the Russian experience, combined with European technology, missile advantage to compensate for the disadvantage of the torpedo performance.
review during the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union two the submarine Wubei will find this a strange phenomenon that the same level of torpedo, the Russian-made torpedo range is significantly lower than US-made torpedo (Russian-made 71 torpedoes, a maximum range of 20 km, while the US-made MK-48 torpedoes, a maximum range of 50 km). The Russian-made tactical boat set out a range of submarine-launched missiles are far higher than the US-made equipment (the latest Russian-made “club” 3M54E1 submarine-launched missile with a range of 300 km, the US-made submarine-launched Harpoon missiles with a range of 100 km) . The reason why this happens, it comes to the one before who had been long-standing misunderstanding of the concept, and to enhance the difficulty of torpedo range is much larger than enhance the submarine-launched missile with a range of difficulty. The reason is simple, throughout the voyage of the torpedo attack process is completed in the water, to overcome the density of the water resistance of the air 800 times to achieve a distant voyage, is clearly better than in the air flying missiles more difficult. At the same time, subject to the restrictions of the torpedo tubes, torpedo volume has been developed to limit its functions to a higher technical difficulty, improve engine performance to enhance the range of the missile to enhance the range is much simpler. World mainstream torpedo tube 533mm x 5000mm of space, and for most of the submarine-launched missiles, it is quite loose.
Therefore, even though China -6 torpedoes through the development of “fish”, has the same level with the United States torpedo technology. Equipment of the successful R & D and the armed forces and the effective use of, after all, are two different things. China does not deny that the introduction of the actions of the Russian-made submarines and boats contained weapons, torpedo equipment limitations evident. Therefore, in the treatment of R & D submarine Wubei China should adopt similar practices and processing power unit in the Russian emphasis on submarine-launched missiles, missile advantage to make up for the development of the torpedo performance limitations of ideology to absorb the advanced anti-ship missiles in Europe to do more rapid improvement in the way of Russia, the technical level of the submarine-launched missiles, and thus enhance the overall combat capability of domestic submarines.
long-term gives the smaller, weak European combat capability of conventional submarines, submarines and updating projects in Australia U-216 submarine by Germany successfully bid completely changed the image of their own not very masculine, but also for China in urgent need of their own development of high-performance large-scale conventional submarines to provide a technical reference. At this point, the rapid progress in naval equipment and technology as China is concerned, idolatry and discard any technology is not rational. Through a combination of their own existing technology, and integration of traditional Russian and the new European submarine technology, will make China’s conventional submarine force to get more reliable and solid combat capability upgrade.the
(This article Source: LONDON)
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