People’s Liberation Army base in China’s seven military exercises and finally exposed
After the Vietnam war, the PLA active military training base to the model of Western countries to move closer, has been improved and the formation of the seven military training base, which the Beijing Military Region in Inner Mongolia Zhu and training base of the largest, most feature-complete. In addition to the seven military bases, outside but also speculated that China in the South China Sea also has a submarine base, more mysterious, is a military base in the newly formed network.
10 years ago, as the first batch of Chinese military tactical Ph.D., 31-year-old People’s Liberation Army Captain Tang Zhiwen into the southeast coast of a mechanized infantry division, the People’s Liberation Army, like many of his junior officers, do not understand The Chinese military’s tactical ASTRI Ph.D. is exactly what the specialty stuff.
Tang Zhiwen before and after graduation, mechanic comes to the amphibious mechanized infantry Zhezhi difficult transition. Withstood the Sino-Vietnam border war of “war” baptism, high-level military clearly aware that China must establish a position compatible with the power of a strong national defense force.
West combined arms tactical combat is considered to be able to quickly enhance the combat effectiveness of units in training mode, while the senior staff officer for the Chinese armed forces to easily copy, with this training method to match the implementation of the PLA military base in Nanjing of training, followed by seven military, Navy, Air Force, Second Artillery have set up their own training bases, training bases against the wave of surging, irresistible.
This model has been imported in the event of the exercise transition, the PLA’s main force of the major crack, in recent years has been to break the original program from a single theater of combat training base, up to participate in various armed services, cross-soldiers delivery of the motor drill. General Staff officials this year with special emphasis on the military to quickly form a system of combat capability, in order to “generate the adapt to the implementation of diverse military tasks.”
theater organization in the General Staff or the various PLA military exercise a lot to the theater of military exercises code-named exercise as a base, such as “Queshan -2008″, “Queshan-2009″, “Taonan -2008″ exercises, etc., due to strong military training needs, more and more frequent military exercises, makes a lot of exercise base was deep concern, gradually put aside the veil of mystery, displayed in front of everyone.
brand new autumn range
2010, Tang Zhiwen already Intermediate People’s Liberation Army amphibious mechanized infantry division commander in the past 10 years, he participated in a variety of large-scale tactical exercise no less than ten times, where he force officers and soldiers of the structural components has changed dramatically, with about 400 doctoral and master’s degrees officers to be absorbed in.
a topography in Anhui realms mimicking a defense of the island of Taiwan to the hills, the soup is often served in a secret zipper mechanized infantry division now, and as a fierce adversary of an armored combat, these highly educated military staff , political staff, becoming a frequent visitor here every year.
training base in Anhui realms of large-scale training are Nanjing Military Region, drill ground, is the first People’s Liberation Army tactical training base. Three Realms training base built in the mid-1980s, was also Asia’s largest tactical training base.
tactical military combat training in the year training program in China has not yet become a complete system, but also in Asia, with the crack of the Vietnamese army in the grips of years, the PLA traditional “bloody assault” human wave tactics in the vegetation and abundant tropical rain forest lost effectiveness. PLA senior conscious of the need gradually from the former Soviet military training, learning Western base training and other advanced methods of training.
the early 1980s, the U.S. military in the southern California desert to build a training base, which is later the world-famous Fort Irwin National Training Center. The center is equipped with 177 armored brigade dedicated analog enemy forces. Zhezhi imaginary enemy forces completely simulate the former Soviet weaponry, the military rank system and operational thinking, the U.S. military’s regional war in the later lamented: we face opponents in combat training and experience is no different.
PLA keen to capture this high level of training within the reform of the world, in the “Million disarmament” in the context of the PLA against the base of the first tactical – training base located in Nanjing Military Region Three Realms Anhui start building next year troops stationed in the start of training. The completion of this training base, marking the modernization of the PLA training has started and the big screen.
Chuzhou located near the training base to start building at the beginning, there is no ready-made experience to follow, but a military training range, then gradually improved to the contract-based military combat training course. Then transferred to the theater from the front border of Yunnan combat troops before the launching, in the closed nature of this secret war strengthening exercises.
“We look after the Three Realms, we stupid, the whole a barren wilderness, the mountain valley does have a number of houses, stone walls puzzle, thatched roof, where like the seclusion of an expert connoisseur, one asked, The barracks that we had. “PLA a Vietnam War veteran recalled that, when the Three Realms base has been built to imitate the preliminary front-line battlefield trenches, fortifications, bunkers, each fighting forces need to come here for up to six months of combat of exercise.
1998 In March, the base for the first time open to the world, received a delegation of U.S. Army training. Randomly watched a real military confrontation exercises, these PLA’s training base, U.S. military officers have a strong curiosity, said: “This is a fight to the Chinese people learn the ideal laboratory of war.”
location of special meaning
In fact, the PLA units above the division has a need for their combat mission training ground or a fixed range, but over the division and brigade tactical training base, seven have only one theater, base for the division-level multi-unit, responsible for foreign armies to observe, the annual examination and testing and other tasks.
According to public information, after ten years of construction, the PLA Army has built a relatively complete system of base training, both infantry, armor, artillery, antiaircraft artillery, engineering, chemical and other individual technical training base, also have a comprehensive tactical training base.
such as the Lanzhou Military Region of Ningxia Qingtongxia training base, Chengdu Military Region, Sichuan Liangshan training base, Jinan Military Training Base in Henan Queshan, Beijing Military Region of Inner Mongolia Zhu and training base. Nanjing Military Region, who have three realms of Asia’s largest base, has been who was home on the Beijing Military Region Zhu and bases replaced.
According to the combat missions, the military training base construction is slightly different, such as the Beijing Military Region, as a guard of Gyeonggi Zhu and base was built in the Gobi Desert, the base of anti-nuclear, air defense, electronic warfare and other combat means readily available; Qingtongxia training base located at the foot of Helan Mountain; Lanzhou Military Region based simulation ETIM hiding mountains, special emphasis on anti-terrorism training courses; Chengdu Military Region, set a suitable base in Tibet, Xinjiang and other high altitude cold areas and combat training content.
Taiwan’s military “Youth Daily” has revealed that the Taiwan Ministry of Defense found that the Chinese communists are equipped with tactical training base in the military regions, and the military training base for the island of Taiwan to Nanjing Military staggering. Taiwan intelligence department information, the Three Realms in Anhui tactical training base, was found to be important to Taiwan’s offshore islands named the target area, such as Taiwu Mountain Kinmen, Matsu Yuntaishan, Nanjing Theater shows are targeted to units outside the island, in the actual combat training and ideological, and strengthen the soldiers captured the island of Taiwan military exercise outside.
Taiwan intelligence department also showed that a large wok Island in Guangdong, People’s Liberation Army also simulated hangar, F16 drone and oil depots and other facilities, the county took the lead in Gansu Province, the military full-size reproduction of an airport and Taichung the same training objectives, to Taiwan as the hypothetical target the airport. Taiwan’s military intelligence department was tracking that these facilities have been attacked supposedly destroyed, and even clouds crater 20 meters in diameter, the PLA may be caused by attacks with precision weapons.
the early 1990s, in response to tensions in the Taiwan Strait, the General Staff for Training Department, also in Anhui realms region into a base for mountain warfare, a tri-service joint landing operations base in three-dimensional, simulated mountain terrain in central Taiwan for the Armed Forces Special Forces familiar and development of “vertical siege”, “three-dimensional shock” and other new synthetic combat.
exercise in addition to the base of the topography of the battlefield to consider the shape of the enemy, the People’s Liberation Army base located in major theater special meaning otherwise, Jinan Military Region, based in Mountain Zhumadian indeed the southernmost county used. Queshan can be said that a Chinese geographical watershed. Since the correct and began, begun to turn red soil, vegetation, rocks are also different with the North, beginning with the mountain gardenia, pine and rice.
Queshan unlike the common Plains Central Plains, there are no high hills and lakes, so the ideal base for military exercises. In Queshan base near the Chinese anti-Japanese hero General Yang Jingyu’s Memorial on the road, each of the participating military vehicles have to go through here.
to 1066 square kilometers and ranks among the largest in Asia and the Beijing Military Region, Zhu base is located in the heart of the plains of Inner Mongolia, Genghis Khan’s troops on bases located originally drawn by the ancient battlefield, the PLA overnight here, it seems also Getting former Gujiao contention, worn historical time and space, blowing.
secret base outside of the seven base
In addition to bulk procurement of weapons, military exercises bases may be China’s military spending in recent years, most large original capital construction projects. According to the military, “People’s Liberation Army life,” the disclosure of this year, the Beijing Military Region, and the base in recent years, Zhu has dispatch to protect the real soldiers, and 78 large-scale field maneuvers, and army major online exercises, thousands of army, division and 98 brigade commanders divisions (brigades) hundreds of thousands of soldiers, training in command and strategy here, to withstand the “war” baptism, to the “battlefield”, hundreds of senior cadres in the army tour to see where science instruction; 60 countries of the Secretary of Defense, Army Brigadier operations division chief of staff and many times went to the base to observe the exercise.
information as a benchmark for military training drill ground, the Central Military Commission vice chairman of the evaluation of the complex electromagnetic environment, is “the best current level of troops, at the forefront of the army,” the military have called for China’s people more Fort Irwin, its level is comparable to the U.S. military exercises, to pay the cost of up to several billion yuan in total military spending.
the PLA Army training system as the backbone of the seven bases in theater exercises, has almost become an open secret, as the annual examination and testing, foreign armed forces to observe the drill ground, these exercises are the most busy base of each fall period. To exercise the season, the military base near the village would be cleared, around the strict military to defend against enemy agents, or scout troops against the make-up Hunchong detection message.
But no matter how confidential the PLA, can not be concealed eyes and ears of the people near the base, each time the troops stationed in Queshan, Queshan city vegetable market on the price rose strongly, between the exercise villages and county of “Mount” prices have gone up – for local small businesses, they just want to point to rub the oil and water exercises.
high-tech branches of the PLA Navy and Air Force and Second Artillery, responsible for its firepower against the characteristics of mobility, large-scale exercises its base, usually at or near the forefront of operational goals, foreign strictly confidential and rarely made public.
recent foreign media reports, found in the South China Sea, the Navy built a new submarine base, without making an official response. But you can support this report is that the already Beijing nod of the Hainan Provincial Government of the Paracel Islands Eco-tourism development, because the Navy refused, long-awaited development plan almost aborted. Navy may worry that the influx of a large number of unidentified visitors on the Navy’s exercises in the region has brought leaks deep threat.
another secret military training base, China’s military network is still in the military training base in the military may be exceptions under strict protection measures. People’s Liberation Army in the middle of this year announced the formation of the General Staff information support base, CMC member and Chief of General Staff Chen Bingde announced the formation of the base command and leadership as a member, delegate to the information support base flag.
overseas media that the PLA is built the first “cyber warfare base,” is to strengthen its armed forces in the era of information warfare, digital security organization efforts. Network is the Army training base, military base after a new play area, but its invisible, its even more mysterious, since China Network Army personnel, establishment size, training base case are not generally publicly reported.
breaking the old theater closed in major training evaluation, cross-training has become the People’s Liberation Army base, a new form of training designed to break through zoning, military services and institutional constraints limit the source of endogenous bottlenecks caused by comprehensive exercise to improve mobility and global forces remote operational capability in accordance with the characteristics of modern wars.
In “Beyond 2009″, the General Staff in the Lanzhou Military Region to observe Comments Qingtongxia base. There are indications that the next few years, the military training base will be set up cross-normalization mechanism – in the annual assessment of the acceptance of the theater exercises, based on the organization Armed Forces armies side by side for one or several kinds of large-scale cross- integrated exercises, which has almost become a routine training the Chinese military thinking.
live ammunition maneuvers to avoid injuries?
ordinary people, including many fans of military exercises the most blurred, it is this live ammunition against the exercise, how to avoid injuries, how to determine the outcome?
In fact, both the location, orientation and direction are shooting dislocation, dislocation, or space, or time of dislocation, if you use live ammunition, it would take each other to the ground assault was launched. Soldiers of the empty bomb the use of firearms, primarily for creating a real atmosphere and environment. Long-range artillery and other weapons of attack and fire coverage, too, in a real live fire point of impact area is absolutely no one. For live-fire attacks and other fortifications to the front, defending all personnel leave within the stipulated time. Intermediate coordination time notice is that the Ministry of the exercise director. And if the offensive side effect to reach a raid, you need to live the way real soldiers do not carry out.
In the course of the exercise, each important step is completed, the exercise director, according to offensive side of the fire density, attack range, defensive side of the defensive posture against the means, the level of protection and many other factors to calculate the composite index of both combat , then consider the battlefield combination of factors, the corresponding derived quantitative losses determine the defender lost a number of percentage of a combat unit, the corresponding proportion of the personnel, equipment out of the exercise. Of course, exercise is the corresponding antagonistic, defensive side of the fire and appropriate measures and also allows the offensive suffered losses.
However, this calculation, SLG-type model can not adapt the traditional confrontation of modern war together and multi-channel, non-linear characteristics. To this end, in the 1980s, the PLA has developed a laser-simulated war equipment, the maneuvers are more real-time simulation. To exercise a step further to combat another.
In layman’s terms, the laser engagement simulation equipment so that they can be realistic to aim for the other gun muzzle, pulled the trigger, if the aim was accurate, “enemy soldiers” who go into the received laser signal receiving device, helmet smoke will emerge, said it has “wounded” “death”; tanks were “hit”, will be automatically cut off the oil and circuit, hors de combat; guns laser equipment deadlock, are required to withdraw from battle on the sidelines .
If one of the repair units damaged tank simulation completed a “repair”, to be agreed by the dispatch personnel evaluation, repair equipment with decoded, before we can make this car restored tanks, into battle. In this case, soldiers and tanks and armored vehicles must standardize their tactical actions, as in really look like to set up operations on the battlefield, or other analog equipment will be “killed”, “destroyed.”
According to reports, the PLA maneuvers over the years in exploring the process of gradually forming a laser combat, re-set review, live testing of the “three-step training method”, is considered effective to let troops learn to master the skills of war .
first step, “red” and “blue” in the provision of training both within the region, the use of laser simulation equipment at war against the exercise. Second step, the Ministry directed the “red” and “blue” plate between the two sides re-review, that the two sides of the deduction in the form of reduction against the trend, the success or failure against the review. The third step, the “Blue Army” withdrawal position, the “Red Army” under review the revised operational plan for the “enemy” positions in the live ammunition tactical exercises, the outside world can observe
Chart: List of People’s Liberation Army training base in the seven major military exercises
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