Chinese military reform: reducing military institutions to increase military academy
Data Figure: China military exchanges organized by the army of international student week of military skills and experience of foreign military students picture PLA 95-type rifle.
since the founding of New China, 60 years, the Chinese military has been exploring in line with China’s national conditions, military intelligence development. Military academies each meeting is a major reform of the Chinese Military Academy logo. It is this strong push again and again, the Chinese military was gradually from immature, non-standard and incomplete, mature, standardized, and complete.
2011, the four PLA military academies jointly convened its 16th meeting, this time in our military academies is a milestone in the history of the meeting, it raises a number of reform measures.
constructed by adjusting the structure of the new military system
structure determines function. Architecture is the development of institutions, military education and training to ensure high-quality military personnel of the organization. Since the founding of New China, divided into long-term military command colleges and engineering colleges two categories, direct institutions to implement the early, middle and high level training, professional and technical institutions to implement secondary, higher two training systems.
held in 2003, the fifteenth meeting of military academies, breaking the 50 years that has been practiced in military architecture, erected in the new military architecture. The new system and institutions of the past, the most significant difference is that the two types of command and engineering education and academic institutions to adjust for the two types of professional education institutions. Implementation of academic education cadres, cadre education by academic institutions, educational institutions and commitment to professional education, academic education and professional education to establish completely separate system, there are two types of institutions conducive to play their respective advantages and unique, a high standard .
but made in 2003 to build new schools system only a basic framework, is facing some prominent contradictions and problems, from the “perfect” there is a large gap between the target system. The institutions for meeting the existing contradictions and problems, and further optimization of the military architecture.
First, the number of military integration. Overall optimization of resources in accordance with the principles of this adjustment, the absolute number from the military point of view than the fifteenth institutions adjustment reduced 4. Meanwhile, in order to maximize the effectiveness of college training, a small number of duplicate construction, small-scale professional education institutions, for the integration of resources. If some of the infantry, artillery, communications, military communications, such as the Air Force flying ones, scattered resources, integration and consolidation of institutions. Integration of the Air Force formed six Air Force Flying College, Harbin, Shijiazhuang, Xi’an, three Flying School. Artillery Command College and Nanjing Artillery Academy Nanjing Branch merged into Artillery College, Naval Flying College and the Navy’s two merged to form the Naval Air Training Base Institute. Converted part of the non-commissioned officers in the schools, based on the number of schools from the four non-commissioned officers to eight, the actual number of officers institutions reduced 5.
second is to adjust the degree of education institutions and the proportion of professional education institutions. This adjustment, in accordance with academic education institutions “highly concentrated”, post office education institutions “highly refined” principle to reduce the six academic education institutions, an increase of two professional education institutions. By an increase of this, academic institutions, educational institutions from the past accounted for 32.9% to total 25.4%, 67.1% of professional education institutions to upgrade from the 74.6%, and further highlights the professional education in military architecture in the dominant position.
Third, the redrawing of the type of professional education institutions. New combat military force to solve construction and completion of the training of qualified personnel needed for diverse tasks inadequate, the training of joint operational command system is not reasonable and other issues, the institutions to adjust to professional education institutions into joint command institutions, military services Command (System) institutions, arms (professional) institutions and non-commissioned officers school four institutions. The new type of professional education institutions, is this a major breakthrough in the reform of the institutions to adjust.
four is to reconstruct the hierarchy of professional education institutions. Hierarchical institutions, the military institution in the vertical composition of different grades of the relationship between the institutions. To meet the commanding officer personnel training system reform and the joint operations command personnel training requirements, the institutions to adjust the level of training, the commanding officers of the past to develop the early, middle, and high level of training, adjusted for the primary conductor, arm (Professional ) command, the contract operational command, four training levels of joint operations command.
improved by optimizing the model training academy system
optimize the training model, to further improve the training system is the key to military reform, but also the entire sixteenth adjustment and reform of military institutions meeting important and difficult.
this reform first, relying on improved national education system. Implementation of the military cadres by the military college training and supported by national education of both our military cadres training system, a major innovation. Founding of New China to the 20th century 50 years, military personnel training has been borne by the military independent. In 2000 the State Council and Central Military Commission issued “on the establishment of relying on the general system of higher education to train military cadres decided to” pull the backing of national education and training military cadres of the regiment. In 2003 the Central Military Commission “to implement the military strategic project plan” put forward the progressive realization of universal military training personnel mainly rely on local institutions, to train military cadres in 2010 relying on the proportion of 60%. By 2006, China had 112 colleges and universities take the national defense training mission.
rely on training to further improve the system, the conference focused on the actual construction of the armed forces, in general, an appropriate reduction of the proportion of relying on local colleges and training; in order to maintain the military features, enhanced operational command, the meeting also emphasized the military main combat arms officers and commanding officers are still based on other specific professional military training; to strengthen national defense management, improve the quality of training, appropriate reduction in the commitment to national defense training tasks the number of local colleges and universities, to further improve the system; focus where students join the army and gradually increased The actual adjustment relying on training policies, the local college to sponsor dry into battle relying on education and training of cadres of national scope.
second is clearly a joint operational command training system. Strengthen joint operations command personnel training, is currently an urgent need to study and solve a major issue. The joint operations command personnel training requirements throughout the entire process of training commanding officer, gradually establish a clear division of labor, close convergence of the training system, is the important outcome of adjustment and reform institutions.
meeting made it clear that commanding officers worked to gradually implement training entrance examination, qualification, and the difference between the admission system; secondary professional education institutions, to focus on the basic theory of joint operations and branches of the military use of teaching and training students command of the branches of the military forces to participate in joint operations; advanced professional education institutions, to focus on national security strategy, military strategy and joint operations under the condition of information theory and practice of teaching and training students strategic logistics capabilities and joint operations command.
third is to improve the cadres’ training co-segregation “method of training. Fourteenth session of military academies, “co-training streaming”, ten years of exploration shows that this new way of training, science and culture will help students lay a solid foundation and develop job competencies. To address the current “co-training streaming” mode of training, “co-enough”, “share incomplete”, “with the poor”, the adjustment and reform in accordance with the scale, the idea of ??intensive personnel training, further reducing the academic education number of institutions, increased the number of professional education institutions. Such as the Institute of International Relations, Foreign Languages, School of Electronic Engineering, Military School of Economics, College of adjustment to military traffic and other professional education institutions. Overall design of the training, focused command personnel for four years, “combined training” and “streaming” the interface between two phases. Optimization, “co-training streaming” teaching tasks, the first three years, “co-training” phase, further broaden the professional caliber, and lay a solid foundation of science and culture, while students complete all military training courses together, increase the proportion of military and political training, strengthen the military base quality and the quality of leadership and management training; one year after the “triage” stage to be close to the trainees job position, focusing on military professional training to enhance capacity-building first served.
by optimizing the layout of the reform of the Military Academy graduate education
from the early 1980s to restore the military system and the development of post-graduate degree in education has been primarily for institutions and research institutions to develop academic talent. As the situation develops, this type of a single academic training model based graduate education has been difficult to adapt to army building needs urgent need to develop high-level application-oriented talents. Degree Committee of the army in 2001, the army training post-graduate education from the academic talent to develop application-oriented talents based strategic shift. In 2002 the General Staff, General Political Department jointly issued a “master’s degree in education to carry out military pilot,” which approved the National Defense University and other educational institutions, military pilot, marking the military embarked on a high-level application-oriented training of the road.
sixteenth meeting of military academies in the summary of our military based on the experience of graduate education, postgraduate training model proposed innovation. Worked for high-intermediate training and military education master’s degree enrollment the main target of the same, the main courses are similar, the same practical training objectives, the directing class of graduate education and training serve fusion-style training system. The meeting also proposed to reasonably determine the proportion of science degree and professional degree, graduate degree in 2020, accounting for the proportion of the total number of military training of graduate students 50%. To adjust the degree hierarchy, so that doctors, masters ratio, the number of degrees awarded and the laws of military personnel training.
by adjusting the task of reconstruction of a number of new institutions
At present, information technology-driven revolution in military affairs of the world’s new wave, driven by military technology, weapons, combat, warfare has been a fundamental change. Many countries have to develop information warfare commander command capabilities, information warfare experts and information technology professionals as a response to the challenges of new military changes in the basic task.
to better adapt to the new revolution in military affairs the situation, the institutions to adjust in the use of existing educational resources, based on the reconstruction of the strategic adjustment of early warning, special operations, defense information, marine, airborne, border arms and other professional institutions. Such as the Communications Command Academy converted to the Defense Information School, the Air Force into an Air Force early warning radar College University, Xi’an Institute of the Army into a border colleges. Conversion of these institutions can better adapt to the modern military system of military personnel training needs and new demands.
In addition, the military reform will be part of the military school were adjusted. Such as the Logistics Command College, School of Equipment Command and Technology College were renamed as logistics, equipment colleges; the air defense Command College, Corps of Engineers Command College, Institute of Chemical Defense Command air defense forces were renamed colleges, engineering colleges, Institute of Chemical Defense. Renamed by the Chinese military architecture, more mature, more standardized. (Qiu Lin Shu Military Academy)