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BEIJING, March 30 News: March 25, 2009 U.S. Department of Defense released the “China military power report,” Chinese Defense Ministry spokesman Hu Changming said that China unswervingly follow the road of peaceful development, pursues a defensive national defense policy. We do not participate in any form of arms race, and do not threaten any country. U.S. report regardless of the fact, rendering the so-called “China military threat theory” is completely untenable.
the “Chinese Military Power Report”, the reform on China’s military resources as part of the original, on China’s military content is full of speculation and other false statements. Hu Changming said in a statement, we urge the U.S. side stop making so-called “China military power report,” immediately take effective measures to eliminate the adverse impact of the report, so as to avoid the development of Sino-US military relations and cause further damage.
Chapter IV: Military Reform Resources
“construction of civil-military integration, integrating the armed forces of national defense science and technology innovation system, strengthening the integration of military and civilian scientific and technological resources, from a basic research, applied research and development, product design and manufacturing to technology and product sourcing combine to form a shared military and civilian high-tech and mutual transfer of a good pattern. “
– Chinese President Hu Jintao
resources PLA modernization include domestic defense spending, national defense industry, dual-use technology and the introduction of foreign technology – all of which are driven by China’s economic development together. With the development of China’s defense industry, the PLA mainly through procurement of foreign weapons systems and the introduction of foreign technology – mainly from Russia – the ability to fill the gap between short-term. Beijing’s long-term goal is to establish a fully autonomous national defense industry to meet the needs of the PLA modernization and the global arms trade to become a leading manufacturer. China has in some areas of defense and world-class company competes, such as communications.
military spending trends
2008 年 3 4, Beijing announced that its 2008 defense budget grew by 17.6 percent, or about $ 60 billion. From 1989 to 1994, China’s military budget doubled from 1994 to 1999, its defense budget to double again. 2005 military budget is nearly ten times the military budget in 1989. If this trend continues, then the Chinese military budget in 2009 will be close to double the military budget in 2005.
China’s defense budget has been for the past 22 years to double-digit rate increases. The rate of increase than China’s overall economic growth. For the 1996-2008 defense budget figure analysis shows that China’s official defense budget in this period the average annual rate of 12.9% growth, while the average GDP growth of only 9.6%.
present, it is unclear whether China’s military budget will increase the budget to make up for its action in 2008, snowstorm, earthquake relief and reconstruction work in the summer of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games security operation during the loss. Similarly, in the context of international economic recession will be, the face of China’s economy and government tax revenue to reduce the possibility of Chinese leaders will be given relative priority of the military budget is still unknown.
assessment of China’s actual military spending
U.S. Defense Department assessment that in 2008 China’s total defense-related spending 105 billion to 150 billion U.S. dollars of period (based on 2007 prices and exchange rates).
lack of transparency, but China has not completely divorced from the central control of the economy, so China’s actual military expenditure in the budget is a very difficult process. Moreover, China’s public military budget does not include the main important categories of expenditure. China’s legislature has not developed procedures for monitoring the PLA budget. Although the academic experts and foreign analysts may have the exact value of China’s military spending there are objections, but almost everyone reached the same conclusion: Beijing underreporting its military spending.
years, the United States and other countries have urged China to increase military spending transparency. September 2008, China to the UN Secretary-General submitted its annual report on military spending. Although China’s resumption of military expenditure data reported to the UN’s decision shows its interest in improving the transparency, but the Chinese are using the simplified reporting form, rather than the UN standard reporting form, which shows that China’s leaders have not yet seen as a completely military transparency kind of confidence-building measures.
on domestic military production and procurement of foreign military systems increased investment to accelerate China’s modernization process of the various military services, the evidence is as follows:
* new generation of nuclear ballistic missiles, land and sea base type;
* domestic short-and medium-range conventional ballistic missiles, advanced;
* advanced attack and ballistic missile submarines, as well as related weapons and equipment;
* Air Force Air Force and Navy to obtain advanced Russian aircraft and precision weapons systems;
* China-made F-10 multi-mission aircraft;
* advanced Russian-made version of a modern guided missile destroyers, frigates and amphibious landing craft;
* modern, long-range, mobile air defense system;
* improve military professionalism and quality of life of the plan.
China to promote the defense industry
since the late 1990s, China’s state-owned defense and defense-related companies through a series of reforms. Beijing is improving business practices, streamline the bureaucracy, shorten development cycles, enhance quality control, and increase military production capacity. It also stressed the combination of defense and non-defense, even the most advanced dual-use technology with China continues to expand the technology base of results. China’s direct purchase of foreign weapons and the introduction of foreign technology had increased, which enabled China to develop and produce such as missiles, fighter planes and warships and other advanced weapons production system.
● to improve the effectiveness and capability. China’s 2006 Defense White Paper noted that in 2005, defense industry industry-wide military and civilian industrial output value, industrial added value, total revenue, an increase over the previous year were 24.3%, 20.7%, 21.6%. However, the 2008 Defense White Paper did not include a similar analysis.
at least in the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2006-2010), China’s defense-related industries will continue to benefit through the following channels:
* Sino-foreign joint ventures from the technology and skills transfer;
* government research, development and procurement funds to increase;
* manned space program, including its tracking spacecraft and space stations;
* legal and illegal procurement of foreign military and dual-use technology
* strengthen partnerships with academic institutions and relationships that will improve the recruitment of new staff and existing staff technical training situation;
* Gulf partial training and returned from a growing number of scientists, engineers and managers get experience.
● civil-military integration. The development of innovative dual-use technology and industrial base to meet military and civilian needs, this is the Chinese leaders one of the highest priorities. Chinese President Hu Jintao stressed in his report 17: We must establish and improve civil-military integration, integrating the armed forces weapons and equipment research and production systems, military personnel training system and the military security system, adhere to the thrift army, out of a Chinese characteristics. integration of military and civilian-style development path. In-depth study of the new historical conditions, characteristics and laws of running the army and the army people’s war strategy and tactics, prosperity and development of military science.
China’s defense industry to benefit from China’s rapidly expanding private economy and technology sector, especially those who have access to advanced foreign technology department. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, said since 1995, China’s annual growth rate of research and development costs are about 19% by 2005, when reached $ 30 billion, ranked sixth in the world. Assessment for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) said that although China’s research and development, human resources and R & D infrastructure, huge investments, but from a mature national innovation system as well as “a long way to go.” Individual defense progress – through the private economy in China – seems the global production and R & D chain links together. For example, the field of shipbuilding and defense electronics business to benefit from China in shipping and information technology leadership in the past decade has made tremendous progress. Information technology companies, including Huawei, Datang, ZTE, and the People’s Liberation Army is closely related to cooperation and development projects. Readily available commercial technology (Commercialoff-the-shelftechnologies), such as computer network switches and routers, for the People’s Liberation Army to provide more and more advanced information equipment.
contrast, production of high-performance computers, advanced applications, special high-end semiconductor/microprocessor – is crucial to the defense microelectronics, but private industry in China, there is limited or almost No – businesses are growing more slowly. Although the field of aviation and the arms industry with foreign multinational companies and domestic partnerships exist, but some of its key areas with a lack of interest (spin-onbenefits).
by sector-by-analysis. China’s defense industry is not balanced development of all sectors. Production trends and the allocation of resources seems to favor the missile and space systems, followed by marine assets (including surface and underwater), aircraft and ground forces of the material. However, in all areas in which the Chinese are enhancing their product quality and volume (surgeproduction) capability.
● missile and space industry: China has developed a large number of sophisticated ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, air to air missiles and anti-aircraft missiles. In the past few years, China’s most short-and medium-range ballistic missile final assembly facilities, and the rocket engine production facilities have been upgraded, making its production capacity has been improved. In addition to providing services for the Chinese military, these complete systems and missile technology can also be used for export. Mass production of these systems may lead to substantial increase in production of short-range ballistic missiles, but also may cause double the annual production of medium-range ballistic missiles. Currently, China is expanding its aerospace industry, to support its satellite launch services and the manned space program.
● shipbuilding industry: China runs a vibrant and globally competitive shipbuilding industry. In 2008, China surpassed Japan, was promoted to the world’s second largest shipbuilding country. Chinese shipyard expansion and modernization and China’s shipbuilding capacity is enhanced, so for all types of military projects have brought benefits. These projects include submarines, surface ships, naval aviation (which includes a proposal to build aircraft carriers), amphibious/sea – air assets. China continues to rely on foreign suppliers, to provide some advance parts, and to a lesser extent, to provide fire control systems, cruise missiles, ship-to-air missiles, torpedo systems, sensors and other advanced electronic devices. Use the module shipbuilding technology, China can put production activities spread across several locations, so not only can improve efficiency but also increase production. China has proven to the outside world, its been with the submarines and amphibious ships of mass production capability.
● arms industry: the modernization of Chinese ground forces, including the development of new tanks, armored personnel carriers and artillery. Chinese People’s Liberation Army troops on the ground in almost every field have made progress, and new production capacity to meet volume demands. China will continue to rely on foreign partners, to fill in important technical capacity (which may limit the volume of actual production) gap.
● aviation industry: China’s commercial and military aviation industry has promoted the direct imitation from the early Soviet model aircraft to the development of domestic aircraft-related work. These include an improved version of the old and modern aircraft, the fourth-generation fighter. China’s commercial aircraft industry has introduced a highly sophisticated and technologically advanced machine tools, electronic equipment, and can be used in military aircraft and other components. However, the dependence on foreign providers of aircraft engines and avionics, coupled with the lack of skilled personnel and facilities, therefore, China’s aircraft industry in the mass production capacity will be limited.1 2 Next
Related Topics: U.S. report on Chinese military power released in 2009