Weapons 60 years of New China Review: Army Type 80 Medium Tank
data for: second-generation main battle tanks made 80 medium-sized tanks
80 main battle tanks in China following the Type 59, Type 69 tanks, after the second generation of new main battle tank, the fire, mobility, protection performance than the first generation of tanks have increased significantly.
the tank’s main features is the use of high-power turbocharged engine, the new 105mm rifled gun, points of light into the fire control system, night vision, friction dampers, torsion bar stiffness ranging from suspension, large stroke and small diameter road wheels wrapped in composite armor.
the tank parts from 1974 started the development of new, 1980 vehicle development, from 1981 to 1987 were developed prototype 12, the cumulative mileage nearly 100000km, including national approval test accumulated more than 50000km , experienced a cold, damp, high altitude, desert and other environmental conditions of strict examination. Tests show that the tank has firepower, mobility and flexible force solid protection, fully able to adapt to the requirements of modern warfare.
an overall layout
overall layout of the tank is still used in the traditional arrangement of the tanks to the front cockpit, central fighting compartment, rear compartment for the power transmission.
left side of the cockpit of the vehicle, the driver blind spots small, easy to observe.
installed in the cockpit for the driver driving with manipulation devices, observation devices, detection devices, indicating devices and the driving seat.
control device equipped with a throttle control, oil pump start button, start button to start the motor, air cylinder switch, fuel system deflated switch, hand diesel pumps. These devices and switches according to ergonomic requirements of a reasonable layout, making operation easy and comfortable.
observation device in the driver’s front, decorated with mirrors. In the right climate march or training during the day, you can open the driver’s seat driver’s window will be transferred to cover the higher driving position on the window. When there is sand or cold rain, the wind shield can be installed on the file. When the battle to be close the window when driving during the day can be mounted on the front of the driver 84 tanks of two observation microscope, dim light at night can be replaced by autopilot.
detection device with the engine oil temperature meter, water temperature, oil pressure gauge, exhaust temperature gauge, hydraulic oil pressure gauge, ammeter, voltmeter, motorcycle hour meter, clock, heading meter, engine tachometer and odometer, etc.
light indicating device has emplacements, air filter resistance indicator, fuel indicator, anti-atomic alarm dosimeters, etc.
driving seat for the front and rear, high and low-level adjustable backrest can be adjusted according to the driver’s needs before and after, so to meet the window, the driver closed the window and different body needs.
addition to the above device, the cockpit was placed at the three anti-protection masks, drinking water bottles, circuit protection devices.
installed in the cockpit before the right group of tanks, aircraft fuel tank shells, battery room and ammunition.
battle space in the middle of the tank, which includes a middle body and the turret body composition all the space. Installed in the main battle tank weapon systems (including major weapons, ammunition, fire control system, auxiliary weapons), communications equipment and fire explosion suppression systems.
turret lathe at the left side of the tower can be rotated 360 ° below the gunner in the vehicle long before the bottom, filling the right hand in the turret.
powertrain space in the rear of the tank, cabin main propulsion system is installed, the main components are the engine, flexible coupling, gearbox, main clutch, gearbox, planetary steering, brake and transmission side . These components are arranged in the power transmission and lower the front cabin, gear power unit is above the cooling system.
major components are installed, respectively, constituted by one connected device, this form is conducive to maintenance of assembly. Under normal circumstances can be set off by the oil and water radiators, the crew can be close to the major components for inspection and maintenance. For replacement parts, power transmission module can be removed on the top deck.
power plant intake of the engine air filter is located on the right side of the elm fender. Room temperature or high temperature air through the mouth while on the roof into the air, cold weather, you can power the cabin air intake. Simply open the top cover of air filter can be easily maintained.
Second, the weapons systems
1. Main weapon
main weapon is a 105mm rifled gun, 83-style, tilt range -5 ° ~ +18 °, and 360 ° rotation, the barrel is equipped with a thermal jacket that protects the body due to uneven heating and the lack of bending deformation, help to improve shooting accuracy. The gun barrel with a forward by the defense shield out of the mouth structure, which is important for the repair of war.
the gun the whole weight of 1950kg, the barrel using a self-tightening process, capable of firing ammunition manufactured in China, but also capable of firing NATO-standard 105mm tank shells.
the gun is equipped with a fin-stabilized APDS ammunition (APFSDS), HEAT (HEAT) and crushed a bomb (HESH), muzzle velocity was 1455 , 1173.5, and 731.5m/s, maximum range of 6000,8200 and 9500m, one thousand meters up the target accuracy was 0.2m × 0.2m, 0.23m × 0.23m and 0.2m × 0.2m. Rate of fire of 7 rounds/min.
tank shells placed bomb rack for the first group of 19 made, the group sent 18 bomb rack, right side of the deck 4 hair, hair on the left deck, the turret 2 made a total of 44 rounds.
3. Supporting arms
in the loader installed on a door 12.7mm machine gun, 500 rounds of ammunition, firing rate 70 hair/min, a muzzle velocity of 825m/s, the effective range 1600m, rear sight range of 3300m.
in the coaxial gun on the right side by side install a 7.62mm machine gun, ammunition, base for the 2250 issue, points 9 boxes inside and outside the tank configuration, rate of fire 350 rounds/min, a muzzle velocity of 865m/s, the effective range of 1000m .
4. Fire control system
fire control system consists of the gunner with points of light into sight, laser range finder, fire control computer and control panel, points of light power, spot drive, target and gun trunnion angular velocity sensor tilt sensor and bi-directional control and stability control and other complex components.
and observation equipment including night gunner sight dim, drivers command mirrors, a fixed periscope on the gun, loading the one hand with the periscope. In addition, vehicles equipped with long weekends, as observed for the four fixed mirrors.
the fire control system of the work program is: When the gunner after finding the target, use console to spot injection gunner sight of the partition of large arrow at the target center (the first target ). Suppress the target center when the big arrow, press the button and the target track distance, distance of about tracking 2s release button so that the transmitter laser ranging, gunner sight field of view will appear from the figures indicate the target and represent the amount of light points in advance; At the same time increase the amount of gun is automatically given. Stable until the artillery, field of view, the use of console points of light pressure to the center of the target (ie, fine aim), once at the target center, the gunner will be shooting.
the system as the computer fixes the various factors that affect shooting accuracy, so you can get a higher hit rate of fire. In combat conditions, in the 1750m distance (the target area of ??2.3m × 2.3m) at rest and on movement in the 1850m distance of the target (the target area of ??2.3m × 2.3m) for a fixed stationary target shooting, first-hit rate of not less than 50 %. System response time is not greater than the static of static 7s, quiet on the move less than 10s.
spot injection sight is a monocular telescope type, there are two 7 × and 3.5 × magnification, field of view were 9 ° and 18 °, ranging range from 200 ~ 8000m, measured distance accuracy ± 10m. From the laser rangefinder, high and low angular velocity sensor, speed sensor and azimuth gun trunnion tilt sensor data automatically entered into the computer, the temperature, propellant temperature, horizontal wind, the early downhill and comprehensive correction parameters such as input into the computer by hand, but also by the firing range manual input. Computer solver distance 200 ~ 3000m, solver accuracy of ± 0.1 mils.
gun control system with manual or motorized operating modes, the level of the horizontal stabilizer and the composite control are used. Therefore, high stability and accuracy, low speed performance. Stable level of accuracy to ± 2.5 mil, the level of accuracy to the stability of ± 1 mil. To aim high and low speed of 0.05 ° ~ 4.5 °/s, the level of the target rate of 0.7 ° ~ 20 °/s, drivers exceed the speed of adjustment gun 0.09 ° ~ 20 °/s.
Third, the propulsion system
12150ZL type V-engine 12-cylinder water-cooled exhaust gas turbo diesel engine, rated power 537kW (730 hp), rated speed 2000r/min, fuel consumption To 238g/kW · h (175g/hp h).
gear in the gearbox for the straight gear, fixed-axis mechanical transmission, 5 forward gears and one reverse gear. Steering mechanism for the two planetary side transmission gear reducer for the one-on-straight, brake for the belt. The main clutch and the manipulation of mechanical steering with hydraulic assistance, organizations can ensure that we fail to immediately once the hydraulic system into mechanical manipulation.
use of mobile devices ranging from rigid composite torsion bar plus friction damper suspension, each side has six negative Da wheel, 3 wheel edge care. Single-pin metal track can also be equipped with rubber crawler hanging.
Fourth, the protection system
body by rolling steel plate welded on the deck and the horizontal angle between the first designed as 22 °, increases the level of the deck thickness. Can go into the first composite armor on the deck, to strengthen the positive protection. Increased shielding apron on both sides of the body, can effectively and shaped charge anti-armor piercing attacks.
turret for the casting, low profile, streamlined good, strong positive force armor protection, an increase of four weeks in the turret shield fence, increasing the ability of anti-HEAT.
external turret with 76mm smoke grenade launchers 2 × 4 tools, projectile a distance of 100m, firing arc is formed when 120 °, positive total length of 120 ~ 150m of the smoke screen, smoke duration of up to 2min.
tank surface is coated with anti-IR camouflage paint, interior is also equipped with three anti-explosion devices and fire suppression systems, all of which regard the tank’s protective ability to a new height.
five other devices
vehicle equipped with 6kW three-phase AC power rectifier generator and four 6-TKA-180 low-temperature start-up battery. In transition with a full set of potential devices, including sealing the intake and exhaust windows covered with cloth, into the pump, exhaust valve, meter course, drainage pump and breathing life-saving devices and so on. Preparation time before cycling diving 20 ~ 30min, diving deep 5m, diving from the 600m, the potential immediately after crossing into battle.
model evolution and variants
the tank is China’s second-generation main battle tank of the base car, designed with full consideration to the Geng With the development of new technologies the possibilities of development, so the design shape after he developed a series of new models, such as main battle tanks 80-1, 80 – Ⅱ main battle tanks, 80 main battle tanks to a car race.
1.80-1 main battle tanks
the tank to retain the 80 main battle tanks of the propulsion system and protection system, primarily to improve the fire control system and observation devices, and three defense equipment .
in 80 type fire control system will be points of light injection into a simple fire control system fire control system simple periscope decline disturbance. Its main feature is the day and night targeting and ranging of the three into one, making the tanks in the day and night are able to use the system for stationary or moving target shooting; have a more complete self-test capability, timely display system failures; line of sight with the gun axis simultaneous use of electricity, transmission and high precision.
observation system in the night sight night vision mirror to the second generation by generation shimmer shimmer.
-three units, while retaining the 80 main battle tanks, personal protective equipment, but also increased the booster fan, canisters and other collective-three devices.
2.80-Ⅱ main battle tanks
the 80 main battle tank tank inherited the basic structure of the major improvements of the observation system, the addition of more special equipment, changes section includes:
(1) the air compressor installed on the gearbox, to achieve a continuous high-pressure inflatable air system, engine air starting system to ensure reliable operation.
(2) increase the purging device. Under field conditions, the driver’s viewers tend to be dust, mud covered, resulting in loss of ability to observe. Therefore, the driver observed the addition of the mirror at the purge unit to ensure the clarity of the mirror and maintenance more convenient.
(3) increase the thermal smoke device, making the car has 2 sets of smoke systems. Effective length of hot smoke 200m, smoke duration of 2 ~ 4min, release the system to work long hours 10min, fuel consumption 10L/min.
(4)-three devices into a type of collective protection, automatic shut down by the machine, anti-atomic alarm dosimeters, chemical gas automatic alarm, pressure fan, canister, relay control boxes and other components. The device received γ-ray or agents, it can automatically, quickly and alarm, and automatically close to seal all holes, the input air is the formation of filtration and overpressure in the fighting compartment, effectively protect the vehicle occupant from the atomic, chemical and poison gas attacks.
5) and observation system, night vision night sights are used second-generation low-light lens tube, greatly improved and observation capabilities.
(6) confidentiality of communications equipment used with machine VRC-83 radio and supporting the vehicle intercom.
(7) at the addition of a fan in the crew, improved occupant comfort.
successful development of the tank, so that the performance 80 series tanks, more complete, by domestic and international attention.
3.85-Ⅱ main battle tanks
in the 80 – Ⅱ main battle tank based on the replacement of a new transmission, equipped with a new type of image stabilization and a new fire control system The longer 105mm gun barrel, thus forming a 85 – Ⅱ type. New gear for the hydraulic gear planetary gearbox, steering wheel-style change.
the tanks and artillery in the power of the engine power are strengthened, the engine auxiliary systems also change accordingly. Fire control system for the stabilization type, enabling the road between the moving target shooting.
successful development of the tank, and comprehensively improve the performance of the 80 series tanks, the level of the Chinese main battle tanks to a new height.
significantly tilt the body armor on the front, central anti-surfers installed. Turret in the middle of the body above the rear engine compartment in the body. And Type 59, Type 69 is different from the last 80 tanks left the road wheel without the engine exhaust pipe. Additional fuel tank installed behind the body and self-help often wood.
turret near dome, hand-filled turret in the turret at the top right side of the exterior a 12.7mm machine gun. 105mm gun with thermal jacket and exhaust devices. Turret sides and rear of the installed storage baskets. Turret on each side of four smoke grenade launchers.
body has six road wheels on each side. First and second load between the wheel and the second and third large gap between the load wheel. Inducer front, rear driving wheel, a pulley care. Mobile devices have the upper skirt fenders