U.S. Plan to Sell 214 consecutive underwater submarines can sail 3 weeks
data for: Germany 214 AIP submarine submarine
中广网 Beijing December 22 messages (Lee Sun reporter) 9 According to a Reuters report, the U.S. State Department officials have said the Obama administration is promoting a The new arms sales programs, including diesel-electric submarine design work and the “Black Hawk” helicopters. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu said Monday that China firmly opposes U.S. arms sales to Taiwan, urging the United States abide by the three joint communiques and take concrete action to support the peaceful development of cross-strait relations and safeguarding the overall situation of Sino-US relations. So, to urge the United States to sell Taiwan diesel-electric submarines are what type? It’s tactical performance? Wide interest in the military correspondent Sun “cutting-edge military technology,” interview with the Second Artillery Command College Professor Professor Shao Yongling.
Shao Ling said the list of U.S. arms sales to Taiwan, the most striking is equipped with a conventional submarine AIP system. Since conventional submarines equipped with AIP power plant, the air can be normal without the need to promote the cruise, to extend the incubation time, significantly enhance combat capability of the submarine. The Chinese side should pay close attention. Currently, South Korea, Japan and other countries around China have bought or are developing equipment for diesel-electric submarine AIP system, looking forward to China’s AIP submarines into the water as soon as possible.
For the United States sold to Taiwan four German 214 submarines
a recent U.S. arms sales to Taiwan on inaccurate information, from 12 11 of Taiwan’s ETTV. Content that the United States prepared to Germany to sell four 214 submarines in Greece, from Greece hands over to buy, resell Taiwan, Taiwan over the years to meet the desire of the submarine. The news that 214 submarines in the time emphasized that it is fitted with AIP system. Many people on this abbreviation is not familiar with AIP, in recent years, China’s neighboring countries have to build or buy these submarines.
2009 年 12 January, the third South Korean navy ship 214 AIP submarine “An important root” was held in Busan on the labor base of operations launching ceremony, October 16, 2009, Japan’s third ship black dragon level Bailong AIP submarine launched in Kobe number, but it’s the first one, No. AIP submarine black dragon has been in service in March this year. AIP in the end mean? Why such States Navy submarine soft spot? What are the current world Navy AIP submarine?
AIP submarine three characteristics: long life, subtle and strong, high safety factor
AIP original English text is air independent propulsion, is not dependent Air independent propulsion, means not dependent on outside the submarine underwater air can provide propulsion power and other power energy systems. Why in the conventionally powered submarines to install such a device? This is from talking about the characteristics of conventional submarines. Conventional diesel-powered submarines use diesel in the water sailing, underwater navigation, the use of batteries, and battery capacity installed on the boat is limited, submerged for some time after the ventilator had to go up to the state, the use of diesel engines for battery charging. Since the Second World War anti-submarine technology, the rapid development of anti-submarine forces using high-sensitivity detection equipment at a considerable distance on the rise out of the water to detect submarines, the ventilator, and then quickly locate the submarine to launch an effective long-range attack submarine.
In this sense, as long as the submarine rose out of the water through the tube device was discovered by the enemy just a matter of time. As we all know, good performance is subtle relative to the submarine surface ships of the great tactical advantage, and frequently lead to the submarine to float charge just greatly increase the exposure rate, whether it is still sudden attack of their own survival are greatly affected. Therefore, a limited underwater endurance of conventional submarines is an important defect. Although the use of nuclear power to solve this problem, so that the submarine got almost unlimited underwater endurance, but for many countries, the manufacture of nuclear-powered submarines, there is an insurmountable obstacle. The first is technology, independently developed the world’s nuclear-powered submarines can really only five countries: Britain and France in the United States and Russia; Second, capital, a staggering cost of modern nuclear submarine, the average unit price of 13-23 billion U.S. dollars, fighting the use and maintenance costs very high, this is not the general state can bear. And in combat, the conventionally powered submarines than the nuclear submarine has its unique advantages, it is more suitable for coastal, shallow water operations, which is most of the country’s main submarine combat missions.
how can the premise of not using nuclear power to address the shortage of submarine life problem? To this end, countries have done a long-term exploration and efforts from the mid-1990s, the development of AIP power plant have to be successful, and entered the practical stage. As the AIP power plant does not require oxygen to function properly, so fitted can significantly improve after the submarine submarines underwater life, it’s time lurking in the water increased to 2-3 weeks, significantly reducing the exposure of a submarine cruise rate.
This has affected operational effectiveness of conventionally powered submarines, the bottleneck was finally resolved. It was equipped with the image of the submarine AIP system compared to conventional “green nuclear submarine”, meaning it has both the big cruise power comparable to nuclear submarines, nuclear submarines and no potentially dangerous and costly.
Currently, foreign conventional submarine AIP system is divided into two categories: thermal systems and electrochemical systems. Heat AIP system which includes closed cycle diesel engines, Stirling engines, closed cycle steam turbine; AIP system is mainly electrochemical polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. These four technologies are mature into a practical stage.
“Gotland” class submarines – AIP first boat
first breakthrough in the field of AIP is Sweden’s “Gotland” class submarine . In February 1995, the world’s first one equipped with Stirling AIP submarine engines, “Gotland” was underwater. Although it is less than the full load displacement of 1,500 tons, but it marks a new era of conventionally powered submarines, beginning with a milestone. “Gotland” was unique in that the boat is equipped with 2 power of 75 kW, the air in the underwater environment can not work in V4-275R Stirling engines, two engines issued power in addition to the normal lighting supply boats, electronic equipment and living facilities require, the remaining energy can be used to promote the submarine to get about 6 or so underwater speed, and can maintain the speed sailing 15 days continuous , if you want 15 to 20 high-speed underwater navigation, it is necessary to use the battery on the boat together to promote the submarine. Of course, not only equipped Gotland-class AIP system is also simple, by any standards, it is the world’s most advanced conventional submarines one. For example, the equipment on the boat highly automated, so that the entire boat crew, only 25 people; good stealth; carry not only the variety of weapons, and the performance is good, the whole boat can carry 18 torpedoes, mines 22.
German 214 submarines – the darling of the international arms market
German submarine has always been a large producer and exporter, since the since the late 1960s Germany is the world’s 14 countries, in different configurations Navy built more than 50 ships 209 submarines, conventional submarines is the highest sales record. Similarly, in AIP research it a leading position in Sweden after it launched its own AIP submarine: 212 and 214. And Sweden the use of the Stirling engine is different from Germany uses fuel cells, the basic working principle relies on the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and work. Fuel cell has the highest energy to weight ratio, high efficiency (up to 50 ~ 60%), and almost no emissions, can sail silent, hidden than the AIP system is much better. Tests show that use fuel cells as power, can 212 submarine underwater maximum speed of 8 knots, and sustainable sailing more than 7 days. Another boat on the power system to diesel generator sets, propulsion motors, batteries and power distribution equipment and other components conventional propulsion systems. The two systems can work independently, also can be a joint work. Two sets simultaneously, the maximum range of underwater continued over 1683 sea miles, is 209 more than four times the submarine. And 214 due to improved fuel cell submarines in 2-6 knots underwater patrol, the fuel cell system to continuously submerged more than three weeks. Currently, Greece and South Korea has purchased 214 submarine, believed to have 209 and 212 class submarines of the successful experience of 214 will also become the darling of the international arms market. In addition, Germany is also preparing to purchase 209-class submarines with the countries for further cooperation for the installation of submarine fuel cell AIP system cabin modules, the ability to become a submarine AIP.
background: Back in 2001, the United States had claimed to sell Taiwan eight diesel-electric submarines, but because the United States has long been discontinued conventional submarines, France and Germany have the ability to produce diesel-electric submarines, the country refuses to exports to Taiwan, Taiwan is concerned, eight diesel-electric submarines purchased the project seems to have long, “stillborn.” However, U.S. officials recently said the U.S. is pushing for new arms sales plan, including design and construction to help Taiwan diesel submarines, air defense missile sale to Taiwan, and Black Hawk helicopters. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu said Monday that China firmly opposes U.S. arms sales to Taiwan, urging the United States abide by the three joint communiques and take concrete action to support the peaceful development of cross-strait relations and safeguarding the overall situation of Sino-US relations.
Japan will soon have five AIP system operational capability of the formation of submarine
addition to Sweden and Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, France, Australia, Italy, South Korea other countries have also joined the development, installation of the ranks of AIP submarine propulsion. Dutch AIP system using closed cycle diesel engine, it “sea eel” class submarines 1400H and 1800H model type to install the 7-8 meters of closed cycle diesel cabin, which has closed two SPEC-TRE -cycle diesel engine, so the submarine’s underwater life time to reach 477 hours, the sea-eel class submarines, four times more than other models. Japan, although he did not develop AIP system, but signed with Sweden in 2005 the introduction of the Stirling engine contract. The first one to install a submarine AIP system of “black dragon” was already in service, the second vessel “Cloud” was launched in October 2008, plans service in March 2010, the third ship “White Dragon” was launched in October this year planned service in March 2011, the fourth ship program was launched in October 2010, commissioned in March 2012; fifth ship program launched in 2011, 2013. From the exterior, new and active Japanese submarine Oyashio-class submarines are not very different, but it’s a secret compartment installed in the power of concentration, “Stirling” AIP engine, with the Stirling engine as an auxiliary power system can ensure that the submarine in the water to 4 to 5 low-speed, continuous submerged 15 days; if less than four continuous submerged, then the sailing time can be further extended to 3 weeks. Therefore, a large number of AIP submarines entering service will greatly enhance the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force submarine warfare capability.
French AIP system using a closed-cycle steam turbine system, it sold to Pakistan in the third ship, “Agosta” 90B class submarine closed cycle steam turbine is installed on the AIP system, when the submarine to 4 knots when sailing, underwater life can increase 3-5 times the maximum endurance increased to 2000 nautical miles. Australian navy vessels in the sixth, “Collins’ class submarines from Sweden is installed on the import of the Stirling engine. Italian AIP submarines using German technology, construction in Italy, for the 212A model, a total of four, two have been delivered. South Korean Defense Ministry announced in November 2000 decided to spend $ 1.1 billion to buy three equipment from the German 214 class submarines AIP system. According to Han contractual arrangements between the two countries, South Korea ordered three 214 AIP submarines by the German company HDW provide some components and technology transfer, all in the assembly of Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan shipyard and construction of three submarines have been in service. In December 2008, South Korea and Germany have signed a 214-type submarines ordered six of the contract. Daewoo shipyard to build the second batch of the first submarine boat.
expect China to AIP submarines into the water as soon as possible
AIP submarines come out, but only a dozen years, but won the favor of many countries, much In the near future dominance in the field of conventional submarines momentum. Of course, with today’s technology is concerned, either AIP system, power output is still small, can not meet the maximum speed of conventional underwater navigation needs, only the current submarine AIP system and the “diesel” power plant together to form hybrid propulsion only have practical value. But no matter what, AIP system allows conventional submarines in the case of a serious enemy threat to cancel the state through the trachea, reducing the risk of exposure to improve the concealment, equipped submarines, the modern conventional submarines will undoubtedly offensive and defensive combat capability has increased significantly. Even for those countries able to build nuclear submarines, AIP submarines would be a tempting choice: It costs less, can be a lot of equipment, is more suitable than nuclear submarines patrolling in shallow waters, warning, intelligence gathering, security and more good. Currently, conventionally powered submarine AIP system is only as an auxiliary power system, “diesel” power plant is still the main propulsion system. But there is reason to believe that with further development of technology, AIP, AIP system’s energy output will be substantially increased, not only submarine underwater speed and endurance will no doubt be greatly improved, and the whole AIP submarine would become a reality.
last Shao Ling Chinese military experts say, let us look forward to China’s AIP submarines into the water as soon as possible.